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RES2843 f� CITY OF RENTON, WASHINGTON RESOLUTION NO. 2843 A RESOLUTION OF THE CITY OF RENTON, WASHINGTON, ADOPTING A WATER CONSERVATION PLAN. WHEREAS, the City of Renton is a member of the East King County Coordinated Water System Plan; and WHEREAS, that plan, as approved by the state of Washington, requires that the City of Renton reduce its five year per capita water demand by 6-1/2%; and WHEREAS, a conservation plan has been developed as one element of the City of Renton's Comprehensive Water System Plan ( 1990) . NOW, THEREFORE, THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF RENTON, WASHINGTON, DO RESOLVE AS FOLLOWS : SECTION I. The above recitals are found to be true and correct in all respects . SECTION II. The City of Renton Water Conservation Plan, Supplement 2 to the Comprehensive Water System Plan ( 1990) , is hereby adopted by the City of Renton as its water conservation plan. PASSED BY THE CITY COUNCIL this 6th day of May , 1991 . cK/ Marilynetersen, City Clerk APPROVED BY THE MAYOR this 6th day of May , 1991 . Eara, 1�"�x l Clymer, Ma 1 RESOLUTION NO. 2843 Approved as to form: Lawrence J. War , City Attorney RES. 132 :4/16/91 2 i 1 1 CITY OF RENT®N 1 WATER CONSERVATION 1 PLAN SUPPLEMENT 2 TO THE COMPREHENSIVE WATER SYSTEM PLAN (1990) 1 0 A A1 y 1 1 1 1 RH2 ENGINEERING, P.S. 1990 1 WATER CONSERVATION PLAN Table Of Contents 1 1 1 1 i 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OBJECTIVE OF CONSERVATION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' REGIONAL IMPACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE 2 CHAPTER TWO WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SERVICE AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' SUPPLY SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SYSTEMDEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WATER USE PATTERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PROJECTED DEMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ' TABLE 3-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 TABLE3-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 TABLE3-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 TABLE3-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 TABLE3-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CHAPTER THREE EXISTING & PROPOSED WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' EXISTING PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RELATIONSHIP WITH WATER SHORTAGE RESPONSE PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BUDGET AND STAFFING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ' PROPOSED WATER CONSERVATION PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INTRODUCTION 2 CONSERVATION ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ' PUBLIC EDUCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 School Outreach 4 Speakers Bureau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ProgramPromotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Theme Shows and Fairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE . . . . . . 8 Single-Family/Multi-Family Kits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ' Purveyor Assistance/Customer Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Technical Studies 11 Unaccounted Water/Leak Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Nurseries/Agriculture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ' Bill Showing Consumption History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 High Technology Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 POLICY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ' Require Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Plumbing Code 17 Landscape Management/Playfields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 ' i ' Seasonal Pricing/Inverted Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Irrigation/Private Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Utility Financed Retrofit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Master Source Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CHAPTER FOUR ' PROGRAM EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' PROGRAM EVALUATION OF PHASED PROJECTS 2 TABLE 5-1 . 4 CHAPTER FIVE ' PROGRAM COSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PROGRAMCOSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RATE IMPACTS . . . . . . . . . . 3 TABLE4-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ' APPENDIX A Chapter One INTRODUCTION ' The conservation plan resented in this document is one element of the Cit of Renton's Comprehensive Water P P Y P System Plan, 1990,a revised and updated version of the plan developed in 1987. The purpose of this conservation plan is to present a list of recommended procedures and projects to reduce per capita water consumption by 6 1/2 percent over a five year period. ' BACKGROUND The concept for the City of Renton's Water Conservation Program was developed after State approval of the East King County Coordinated Water System Plan(EKCCWSP). That plan requires that each water supply municipality within the study area reduce its five (5) year per capita demand by 6 1/2 percent. Prior to the adoption of the EKCCWSP, Renton's Water Conservation Plan consisted of a series of steps to be taken in the event of a water ' shortage. However, long term conservation effects were indirectly realized as a result of Seattle's Water Conservation Program. As the primary purveyor,Seattle's conservation plan was directed regionally and positively effected Renton,producing substantial water savings at a minimal cost. Renton's water supply is unique among the members of the Regional Water Association (RWA)--the group of municipalities that completed the EKCCWSP--in that it originates in wells located entirely within the city limits. The aquifers supporting these wells are believed to have sufficient capacity to supply the current and short-term ' saturation needs of the city,but an additional source is needed for long-term needs. This situation creates a paradox for responsible, system supply planning. ' Renton must develop and implement a conservation program to comply with the Department of Health requirements following adoption of the EKCCWSP. Renton supports water conservation as a wise and efficient use of natural resources;however,at this time,water conservation works against Renton's simultaneous need to acquire additional ' water rights to secure its future water supply. To obtain those rights, Renton must demonstrate an increasing demand for water, a requirement in opposition to a water conservation program. In the interests of responsible water-supply management, Renton will comply with the Department of Health ' procedures outlined in the EKCCWSP. A long-term water conservation program will be a new direction for Renton. Consequently, the program presented in this report will include projects that reduce water consumption as well as projects that help define the need, rationale and cost effectiveness of a water conservation program. ' OBJECTIVE OF CONSERVATION PROGRAM The objective of the conservation program outlined in this plan is to reduce per capita water use by 6 1/2 percent by 1995, and to compile and evaluate the effects and costs of various water conservation programs. Yearly demand for 1987 will W used as the basis for determining per capita water demand, since this is the year that Seattle began conservation efforts. Because the plan will be completed before the end of the 1990 demand season,it will use the ' demands in 1989 as a basis for the analytical and technical work and projections. The conclusions in the plan can be modified in later years by using actual data from 1990. ' 1 ' REGIONAL IMPACT The approved conservation plan will be implemented in a phased program throughout the City of Renton's water service area. The water service area is shown in the Comprehensive Plan in Figure 1. The improvements and program outlined in this plan are consistent with the program recommended by the EKCCWSP and with the plan ' currently adopted by the City of Seattle. This will result in complementary efforts by Renton, Seattle and adjacent water users. ' IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE Although this plan recommends immediate adoption and commencement of conservation efforts, it must be recognized that this program has not been funded for the 1991 fiscal year. Full scale employment of the plan, therefore, may not begin until fiscal 1992. ISI 2 Chapter Two WATER SUPPLY AND DEMAND INTRODUCTION This chapter describes the city's water service area,the existing supply system,and historical and projected system demand. This information will be used to establish base-line demands in the water system and to predict future demands without water conservation. The water conservation reduction estimates can then be used to estimate future ' demands that would result from the various water conservation projects. SERVICE AREA The study area for this conservation plan is the area currently served by the Renton Water System and the additional areas shown in the Skyway and EKCCWSP Plans. The water service area is shown on FIGURE 3 of the Comprehensive Plan and includes the Maple and Green River Valley north of the City of Kent,portions of West Hill, ' Talbot Hill, Rolling Hills, and the Renton Highlands, and Lakeridge-Bryn Mawr Water and Sewer District. Lakeridge-Bryn Mawr Water and Sewer District is served as a wholesale water customer and operates a separate distribution system to deliver water to its customers. For this plan,this District is treated as a single demand on the water system and no attempt will be made to develop a conservation plan for the District's system. ' The future service area of the water system has been established through agreements with all of the adjacent water systems,in conjunction with the EKCCWSP Plan and Skyway Coordinated Water System Plans. In most areas,the existing service area and future service area coincide. Some boundary adjustments will be made, however, in the northeast and West Hill areas of the city: and both the existing and future boundaries are shown in FIGURE 3 of the Comprehensive Plan. For all planning purposes, the future service area boundary was used. ' The term study area used in this plan refers to those areas identified as the city's future service area through agreements with adjacent water systems and the members of the EKCCWSP. The term "service area" used in this plan refers to the area served by the existing water system within the corporate city limits and established franchise areas. It should be noted that the "study area" included in the 1983 Comprehensive Plan was much larger than the study area in this plan. Several factors have occurred since the adoption of the 1983 Plan to reduce the expected saturation limits of the Renton Water System and service area. The most significant of these is the conclusions of the Skyway Coordinated Water System Plan and the EKCCWSP which identified ultimate service area boundaries for the utilities involved. Renton has agreed to the water system boundaries presented in each plan, although the existing boundaries will need to be adjusted to accomplish the revised boundaries. Development in the service area is in accordance with the city's Comprehensive Land Use Plan and policies that represent a long-range plan for growth and physical development of the city. The current character of the city is reflective of the original Comprehensive Land Use Plan which was adopted in 1965 and revised in 1968 Under this plan,industrial and commercial development was directed toward the Central and Green River Valley areas to ' allow for further expansion of the city's business center. Residential growth under the plan was primarily directed toward the eastern areas such as the Highlands and Talbot Hill areas of the city, since the West Hill was already developed primarily with residences. A summary of the land use that resulted from this plan is presented in FIGURE 4 in the Comprehensive Plan. 1 i Business and manufacturing, mining, and recreation all influence portions of the study area. The business and manufacturing community, located primarily in the valley floor, has a large, transient population which commutes through the service area from the north and south. The business and manufacturing areas are large enough to influence water demand. Several industrial users have the capability to make large impacts on Renton's water demand patterns. Boeing Commercial Airplane Company and PACCAR are both currently served by the City of Seattle and Renton,although Renton has planned and constructed facilities to accommodate all supply to these users. ' In addition, several large tracts of undeveloped land in the Valley could be occupied in the future by large water users. ' The area has a mild climate,excellent transportation access,an airport and many recreational opportunities,including miles of lakefront and river access, factors that will contribute to the growth of the area. The area economy has experienced steady growth. Water use projections developed for this report assume that commercial and industrial water use will keep pace with population growth forecasts for the area. In other words, we have assumed that commercial and industrial growth will be proportional to population growth. SUPPLY SYSTEM The City of Renton's Water System provides service to an area of approximately 16 square miles and more than 11,000 customers. In addition,the city supplies water on a wholesale basis to Lakeridge Bryn-Mawr Water District through a single-metered connection. The water service area is shown in FIGURE 1 of the Comprehensive Plan. ' Water supply sources include 6 wells and one artesian spring that are used for normal supply, and 5 metered connections to Seattle's Cedar River and Bow Lake supply pipelines that are used for emergency back-up supply ' only. All of the wells are located in the area of Cedar River Park and Liberty Park and are pumped from a relatively shallow aquifer. These wells provide 96 precent of the city's supply capacity. The water distribution system serves the valley floors and parts of three surrounding hills: the West Hill, the Highlands,and Rolling Hills. All of the water from the wells and the artesian spring is fust pumped into the lowest pressure zone in the valley floor and then pumped up the three hills for consumption. As a result of this topography , the city has 12 hydraulically distinct,pressure zones. Pumping is accomplished by seven, booster pump stations that are located throughout the city.Two additional pump stations supply water to the Rolling Hills service area from the Seattle Cedar River transmission pipeline. Currently there are six reservoirs in the system and a seventh reservoir under construction. The reservoirs are strategically located throughout the system to provide adequate equalizing and fire flow reserves. The City of Renton is a unique member of the Regional Water Association--the group that completed the ' EKCCWSP--in that it has a sufficient water supply consisting entirely of groundwater sources. The EKCCWSP was developed for the majority of the water users within the EKCCWSP boundaries that are experiencing pending,critical water shortages. Renton's aquifers are believed to have sufficient capacity to supply the saturation needs of the city. However, Renton must deal with its long-term, rather than short-tern, needs by acquiring additional water rights. This situation presents a paradox for responsible system supply planning and conservation program implementation. To avoid future water shortages and to maintain control over water rates and water quality,Renton must continue to develop its autonomous water supply. The ability to obtain additional groundwater rights decreases every year, in fact,it is widely believed that water rights will be severely restricted, or unavailable in the near future. Renton ' is, therefore, anxious to obtain as much groundwater now as is possible. Water rights cannot be obtained without a demonstrated need for the resource; consequently,Renton would prefer to show increasing demands for the next several years. Developing and implementing a water conservation program at this time is, therefore, unfortunate. 2 ' In order to comply with RCW 90.03 and 90.54,Renton will design and implement a water conservation plan with targets that are consistent with Department of Health requirements. Renton will also continue to pursue development of additional water supply sources, and water rights, as these are also in the best interests of the city's water customers. SYSTEM DEMAND The City of Renton's water users are divided into five customer classifications. 1. Single-Family Residential 2. Multi-family 3. Commercial 4. Public 5. Wholesale Single-family residential customers and multifamily customers are the largest,water-using group in Renton and will account for approximately 69 percent of all water use at saturation. Water delivered to these customers is used for domestic purposes and irrigation. The irrigation component during the summer months increases and is responsible for a majority of the equalizing storage volume necessary in the reservoirs. Irrigation demands are the easiest to ' reduce with conservation practices. Each single-family residential meter is equal to one equivalent residential unit (ERU). For saturation planning purposes, each undeveloped acre is assumed to equal 6 ERU's ' Multi-family customers consist of low-and high-density apartment and condominium complexes. These customers typically use(per unit) approximately 60 percent of the water used by a single-family residence,primarily because of reduced irrigation requirements. Each multi-family apartment or condo unit is equal to 0.6 ERU's. For saturation planning, each undeveloped acre is assumed to equal 13 ERU's. Commercial customers consist of retail and wholesale businesses, light and heavy manufacturing and warehouse operation, schools and businesses. The water demand from these customers is more uniform all year, without significant peaks during the summer. These users were identified as one ERU, unless their meter size was larger than V. The larger, metered customers were individually evaluated; their specific water use habits were assigned an appropriate number of ERU's corresponding to an equal number of single-family residences that would have been required to produce the same demand. For saturation planning, each undeveloped acre was assigned 5.3 ERU's. Demands from commercial customers are difficult to reduce since it is assumed that they operate,out of necessity, at an optimum level of efficiency. Public customers include parks and recreation areas whose demand results largely from irrigation-type uses. They were assigned a demand equivalent of one ERU per acre. This value was identified by evaluating the irrigation requirements of Cedar River and Liberty Park during the summer of 1987. For saturation planning,greenbelt areas were also assigned demands of 1 ERU/acre. WATER USE PATTERNS Water use data is obtained by analyzing well, pump station and reservoir level records that are recorded by the Telemetry system. Reservoir level records were differentiated on an hourly basis to synthesize flowrate values both ' into and out of each reservoir. These flowrates were appropriately added to or subtracted from the supply flowrates to develop true water demand on an hourly basis. Accurate records have been available only since 1978: making it impossible to compile system demands for earlier years. Table 3-1 shows an average daily demand for the past 12-year period. 3 Two factors have a large impact on water system demands: population and weather. Table 3-1 shows the combined effect of both of these factors. The effects of population can be eliminated by plotting the demand per water system connection, as shown in Table 3-2. It should be noted that although the average daily demand increased between 1988 and 1989 (Table 3-1), the demand per customer was actually reduced (Table 3-2). It is the purpose of this plan to introduce a third factor to water use patterns: conservation. Since Seattle began its conservation program in 1987,demand per connection per day has reduced from 211 gallons per connection to 196 gallons per connection. ' Total system demand can be divided into three major components: • Residential Demands (Single- and Multi-Family Services) • Commercial-Industrial,Public Facilities and Other Use Demands • System Losses (unaccounted for water) ' The three factors(growth,weather,conservation)that affect demand are comprised of both peaking and non-peaking demand elements. Peaking demands are those demands that vary with time (seasonally, weekly,daily,or hourly), such as irrigation demands. Peaking demands are the major contributors to the difference between average annual and maximum daily demand,and they are also the most difficult and costly to meet. Non-peaking demands are those demands which do not vary seasonally such as normal household (inside the house) or commercial demands. Residential demand is a major component of the city's total system demand. This can be concluded from the large areas of predominantly residential neighborhoods served by the system and from actual demand records. In 1987 the ratio between maximum to average daily demands was 2.56:1. A conclusion reached here is that a major portion of this difference between maximum daily demand and average daily demand represents the water used for irrigation and other hot weather related uses. Commercial and industrial demand also represents a major component of the total system demand. Major industrial users such as the Boeing Company and PACCAR use significant volumes of water although their variations in daily demands are minimal. Commercial and other industrial users, such as retail stores, businesses,and manufacturing parks, typically have steady-flow, non-peaking demands, which are fairly constant in aggregate. System loss or unaccounted for water, the remaining demand component, is predominantly caused by leakage. Comparison of the 1987 supply data with demand data from actual customer billing records indicates that a significant percent of the water supplied to the system was unaccounted for. Older areas of the system generally exhibit greater per service demand due to increased losses from broken pipes,bad joints,and other exfiltration loss. ' Losses between 10-15 percent of the total system supply are generally considered acceptable for a system the size of the City of Renton's. The percentage of unaccounted for water during 1987 varied from a high of 33 percent for the period of January through June 1987, to a low of 12 percent during the peak two-month period of July and ' August 1987. Explanations for the wide variation in these values can be attributed to either actual system losses (leaks, under registration of meters,etc.) or pump station meter errors. ' PROJECTED DEMAND The basis for water demand in the city's service area is the use of it in population of single- family homes, multi- family homes,businesses,industries,schools,and parks within the service area. The necessary capacity of the water system facilities is determined by the water demand from those uses. Facility sizes are,therefore,dependent on the number and distribution of homes,businesses, industries, schools,and parks. Maximum demand will occur when saturation development is served, saturation development is dependent on land use policy adopted by the City ' Council. Saturation demand is determined in this report by evaluating the maximum historical demands which occurred in 4 1 1 g � p r d O w W Z O w ti F- Vw 00 r 00 ' 00 0 Z a 0 ZO W — _— er co w Z W I In � Q i \ OC } " 4 Q o m W 0 } O a ¢ Cl) 0 0 Q w O W Q _ N co � II co O r 1 1 1 r h CO 10 eF Cl) N r 0 ' MON) UNWOO W318AS I 1 o T 1 0 Elf ¢ > co w N Z Will U N T 1 m T 1 - LO 00 Z T O o 1 oz OD W F" Z O OU Q Q LL crJ O Wa } d W� CIDO } O O Q Ir U Q p ¢ I N co O coT i 1 co n O aTT co @7 CV ni T O O ' (NO1103NNOO/GOVY) ONVPN30 83Noisn0 1 1987,normalizing these demands with respect to the existing population, and expressing them in terms of demand per equivalent residential unit(ERU). This factor is then applied to the projected population to arrive at a projected demand. An EQUIVALENT RESIDENTIAL UNIT is defined as a service connection that consumes the same amount of water as the average,single-family residence within the service area A single-family residence by definition equals ' 1 ERU. Multi-family dwellings equal 0.6 ERU's per unit. Large and industrial users are converted to ERU's by individually examining water use history. The number of ERU's attributed to large or non-residential demand within the service area is calculated by the ratio of actual or assumed demand to the demand per ERU. ' The population within the service area was evaluated in quarter-quarter (sixteenth) sections to determine the distribution of demand when saturation development within the service area occurs. In comparison, existing development was evaluated. The existing population and land development was determined by using meter records, ' field counts,and maps to identify the current number and type of water services. The current land use policies were then applied to the undeveloped land to project the saturation levels of development. It should be noted that the existing land use plan does not extend past the year 1995. We have used this, however, as a basis for saturation ' planning since an alternative and more accurate basis is not available. It is anticipated that this plan will be updated several times before saturation development occurs,and subsequent studies can use more accurate information,when available. After the existing and saturation population projections were developed,a detailed,demand analysis was performed. An evaluation of historical demand in the Rolling Hills and Talbot Hill area was used and extrapolated on a city-wide basis,for determining typical water use habits. Historical demand was then expressed in demand per ERU and used ' to predict future demand. The calculated demand per ERU is actually the water supplied to the service area by the supply sources. Actual customer demand is less than supply, due to unaccounted for water such as leakage and hydrant flushing. This is acceptable since it introduces some conservatism into the demand estimates. Future demand is calculated by combining historical demand per ERU in 1987 with population projections. Table 3-3 is an estimate of system growth,using a combination of Gomportz and logistic curves,and observed growth for the Renton area. Table 3-3 shows both system growth without the conservation target and with the conservation ' target of 6 1/2 percent by 1995. Table 3-4 is a comparison of projected system demand and the supply source development necessary to meet system demands. The phasing of the supply sources is consistent with the capital improvement program shown in the Comprehensive Plan. Table 3-5 shows the affects of a successful conservation program on the phasing of the supply sources. As can be seen, it delays the development of a total supply capacity of 21,000 gpm from 1995 to 1998. ' In accordance with previous discussions of water rights availability,and the possibility that the conservation program is less effective than planned,Renton will pursue the development of supply sources on the schedule shown in the Comprehensive Plan. Successful conservation efforts can be used to introduce conservatism or safety factors into the supply system. It should be noted that a 6 1/2 percent reduction of 1987 demands results in a 1995 average daily demand per connection of 197 gallons. Actual demand in 1989 was 196.6 gallons per connection per day,which indicates that the 6 1/2 percent target has already been achieved. In order to comply with Department of Health requirements,the conservation plan must prevent an increase in consumption,but need not reduce it further. Renton will,however, continue to promote water conservation and attempt to reduce the per connection consumption. 7 1 0 : N 1 u) N M N i N O N LO G Q W N 1 � V V N � O O N 1 a� z � 1 ,L J W O �- Ic w Clf o 1 W U W cr1O Z ry T� (CgNVSnCHI) ■ MdO) a3aln03a 31V8MOId AVG XVW 1 h 1 � Z 0 `) O N F- > Of W Ln N Z O U O N U V) a o U) N Z t[] N O o N � Z Q � > W O w7-, O Z O Q O N W U N 2 z o F, U Z QW W' 2_ 1 2 2 0 N LL, O w W 0 CC ¢ } Z r O I- Z o > U o w N to a o 0 W 3 I W w W 0 0 � U w cic O z CD CD 0 C. 0 0 141 0 F- CD U 1W O cr � a rn co �il N O cD N h7 N N N N (saNesnoHl) (WdJ) 31VaMOl-A i ' Chapter Three EXISTING & PROPOSED WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAMS ' This chapter describes the City of Renton's conservation efforts to date, its relationship to the Water Shortage Response Plan, and its budget and staffing. The second half of the chapter presents a general description of the ' proposed Water Conservation Program and then presents a detailed description of each of its conservation elements. EXISTING PROGRAM Renton approved and implemented a Water Conservation Plan in March 1987. Its purpose was to identify procedures to reduce water consumption within the city in the event of a water shortage. This plan did not identify an on-going, long-term conservation program because it was believed that the Seattle Water Department's Conservation Plan had already had a positive effect on the water conservation practices of Renton's customers. Although the city does not have a long term Water Conservation Program,it has participated in various conservation efforts. When requested to do so by water customers, Renton has participated in public outreach programs that distributed water conservation devices and informational materials. When requested,water conservation presentations have been given to a variety of service, community and other groups, including the Renton Rotary, Chamber of Commerce,senior groups,professional organizations,and some schools. In addition various water conservation kits have been available to customers and lawn watering gauges have been distributed to them since 1981. ' In addition to these conservation measures, the city is pursuing an aggressive leak detection and repair program. In 1989 the city purchased a sophisticated leak detection device and has located and repaired a significant number of water system leaks. A leak detection survey will be performed in the winter of 1991, when demands are low, to identify the leakage rate of the existing system. ' The effects of participating in Seattle's Water Conservation Program have been significant as shown in Table 3-1, Demand per Connection. The Table shows that although the number of water accounts have increased steadily, overall demand per connection in the system was reduced consistently in 1988 and 1989. Further details of this table are discussed in Chapter 3. RELATIONSHIP WITH WATER SHORTAGE RESPONSE PLAN ' Renton's Water Shortage Response Plan,adopted in 1990,will remain in effect as a separate document and will be used to react to a short-term water shortage caused by planning inaccuracies or system failures. Some of the ' procedures and tasks,outlined in the Water Shortage Response Plan,for reacting to a long-term water shortage are the same as the conservation elements proposed in this plan. Since the development of the Water Shortage Response Plan did not anticipate a long-term Water Conservation Plan,these program elements are redundant. They will be put into effect as a result of this Water Conservation Program, and will therefore, no longer be effective during a water shortage. The Conservation Plan will therefore be used on an on-going basis to reduce long-term consumption during normal, non-emergency conditions, and the Water Shortage Response Plan will be used during short-term emergencies. The Water Shortage Response Plan should be revised to reflect this situation when it is updated in ' 1995. 2 BUDGET AND STAFFING ' Since Renton does not currently have a separate Water Conservation Program, it does not have a separate budget allocation for water conservation procedures. The current work is funded by the general fund and performed by existing staff when time permits. This new conservation plan will require additional staff time for preparing plan ' elements, as well as administering and monitoring the program. PROPOSED WATER CONSERVATION PLAN INTRODUCTION The recommended program identifies four program elements that are to be used to meet the conservation target of ' a 6 1/2 percent reduction. Each element is composed of tasks that are implemented in whole or part depending upon the size of the water utility. This chapter describes the following conservation program elements and tasks that Renton will implement in order to comply with the Department of Health requirements and be consistent with the EKCCWSP Plan: 1. PUBLIC EDUCATION • speakers bureau • program promotion ' trade shows and fairs 2. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE • single family/multi-family kits ' customer assistance • technical studies • leak detection and repair • nurseries/agriculture • bill showing consumption summary • high technology meters 3. POLICY • require meters • landscape management ' seasonal pricing/inverted rates • irrigation/private wells • utility financed retrofit The EKCCWSP also includes a fourth conservation element that is recommended for further consideration by each municipality on an optional case by case basis. These optional tasks include: 4. MERITING CONSIDERATION • mandatory seasonal restrictions • recycling/reuse • no water for golf courses • reduce pressure to 45 psi 3 ' Within the next five year planning period it will not be necessary for Renton to implement this fourth, optional conservation task, since the city has already achieved the 6 1/2 percent reduction target,an accomplished achieved without full implementation of its own mandatory, three-element, conservation program. In the future,if it becomes necessary to increase the conservation savings,these optional tasks may not be the most efficient or cost effective for Renton. Our research with other West Coast water suppliers indicates alternative procedures may provide greater water savings. We recommend that these alternative procedures be studied if the conservation target is not met by implementing the first three tasks. In order to evaluate the proposed Water Conservation Plan while it is being implemented, its different program elements should be implemented in different parts of the city. At the end of allotted time periods,the reduction of water consumption in the different areas should be compared. This evaluation process is described in greater detail in Chapter Four. 4 I ' CONSERVATION ELEMENTS PUBLIC EDUCATION School Outreach Description: A water resources awareness and conservation program would be integrated into the science curriculum of local elementary schools for all children in grades 4 through 6. This educational program will teach students in a general way about systems for acquiring, containing and distributing water. They will learn the fundamental reasons for the components of the water utility system. ' Field tours of each component--wells,pumping stations and reservoirs--will acquaint the student with the facilities that serve their community. Films and exercises that demonstrate the problems caused by a diminished water supply will explain the reasons behind the water conservation program. Standard conservation techniques should be discussed to teach the students how to participate in their communities during the summer dry months. Educational programs for children will extend into the summer months by integrating water conservation programs into the park system's programs. They will learn about the water conservation practices necessary to maintain the ' public pool and green grassy fields that they use, and how they themselves can help sustain them. Administration of this program will be performed by the city's water department staff. Outside consultants will be used to develop the program materials. Senior citizen volunteers will be asked to participate in the programs. Costs: _ $5,000/year The greatest portion of the costs associated with this program will result from the preparation of curriculum material and the field tours coordinated by the water utilities and school districts. Schedule: Start - 1992(spring of school year) Completion - Ongoing ' The educational program should begin in the spring of each year in order to prepare children for the conservation activities that will occur in the summer months. An effort to begin the program in 1992 will help us reach our water conservation goals set for 1995. Extending the program into the twenty-first century will help us in developing a water-resource minded community. 1 ' PUBLIC EDUCATION Speakers Bureau Description: A program will be initiated of public speaking engagements by local politicians,water utility officials and volunteers ' to a wide cross-section of community, service, business, private and other groups. This water conservation awareness program will teach the public about the limits of the water resources available ' to them and neighboring communities. Audio and visual aids showing the relationships between seasonal water usage and actual water supply will emphasize the necessity for water conservation. Statistical data will acquaint the public with the size of the water resources and the impacts of seasonal water usage. Results of past conservation programs in the region, if available, will show the significant effects conservation has had on our limited water resources. ' Techniques will used to involve the audience in identifying ways to conserve water through the seasonal conservation periods. The following methods of water conservation will also be discussed: voluntary reductions,flow restriction kits, lawn & garden watering calendars, graduated fee schedules, use permits and other mandatory measures such as rationing. Implementation of these water conservation methods should be discussed openly. Setting priorities for ' methods of water conservation and determining limits upon which they will be implemented are of importance to the public's understanding of water conservation. ' Administration of the program will be performed by the staff of Renton's Water Department. Preparation of program materials will be performed by outside consultants. ' Costs: _ $5,000/year The greatest portion of the costs for this type of program will result from advertising and the preparation of program materials. Some costs may be incurred from reserving adequate space for the speaking engagements. It is assumed ' that the speakers presenting this information will volunteer their services to the community. Schedule: Start - 1992 (emphasis on summer months) Completion - Ongoing The majority of speaking engagements should be scheduled before the seasonally dry period in order to prepare the public for any conservation efforts that will occur in the following months. Intermittent presentations should occur throughout the dry months. Several speaking engagements should be scheduled if there is a severe water resource problem, and one should be scheduled for the winter months when flooding may possibly contaminate water resources. 2 ' PUBLIC EDUCATION Program Promotion Description: ' Program promotion is the task used to advertise the needs for and methods of achieving water conservation in the community. ' Increasing the public's awareness of techniques to conserve our water resources can occur by using the common medium of television, radio, newspaper and other publications. The degree to which each media is utilized will depend on the necessity for water conservation. ' Television and radio news, newspaper articles and advertisements can be very effective in educating the general public about common water conservation techniques and for quickly informing a wide audience--including those who work outside of the local community--of impending or current water-resource shortages,or system failures. Increased regional cooperation will be one result of such extensive advertising. Publications such as inserts in utility bill mailings, displays at local public facilities (i.e. libraries, schools, post offices,etc.),educational programs implemented in public schools,community speaking engagements and reminder items(i.e.posters,bumper stickers,hose tags,etc.)will also encourage water conservation throughout the community. By including water conservation kits with each new meter installation, the public will become involved with the community's water conservation program. ' Administration and press release preparation for the program will be performed by the staff of Renton's Water Department. ' Costs: _ $2,500/year All components of this program will require significant costs. The largest cost will arise from the creation and ' promotion of publications and television and radio public service announcements. The aid of the news media should be utilized whenever possible. Regional cooperation in presenting public service announcements, acquiring advertising space and preparing brochures will help reduce costs. Schedule: Start - 1993 Completion - Ongoing ' Throughout the year efforts should be made to educate the public about the advantages of water conservation and the measures they should take during the seasonally dry period. ' A long term decline in water reserves will require a public awareness and participation in a much more comprehensive water conservation program. Voluntary methods of use reduction such as calendar schedules for lawn & garden watering, installation of flow restriction devices, reduced personal use of showers, etc., will need to be implemented initially. If mandatory measures are required, the news media should be heavily relied upon to notify ' the public of all measures that are being taken to conserve water and the implications of not complying with regulations. 3 ' PUBLIC EDUCATION Theme Shows and Fairs Description: Direct contact with the public at local fairs and theme shows to promote water conservation techniques and distribute water conservation devices. ' The demonstration of water conservation techniques will be the cornerstone of the presentation. Pertinent topics for display would include common household water conservation techniques,graphical impacts of conservation programs, drought resistant plants and drought stricken regions. Common methods of water conservation that can be distributed to the public are:flow restriction devices in showers, plastic bottles in the toilet tanks, calendar schedules for lawn & garden watering and lawn watering gauges. Informational literature should be available that describes water conservation techniques, summarizes the impacts of water conservation efforts on system demands, illustrates drought resistant landscaping and answers questions about voluntary and mandatory restrictions. ' Administration of this program will be performed by the city's water conservation technician. Outside consultants will be used to develop the displays and program materials. Senior citizen volunteers will be asked to participate in the programs. ' Costs: _ $8,800 for 1st year _ $5,000/year after 1st year A majority of the costs will come from the preparation of the portable displays used for presentation. Devices and publications handed out during the event will increase costs but are essential in helping the public conserve water retain reference information. These publications can be the same ones used in other programs. Some additional ' costs may be incurred for transportation and personnel costs to staff the display. Schedule: Start - 1992 (emphasis during summer months) Completion - Ongoing Efforts should be made to exhibit the displays at community events in the spring and summer months in preparation for the seasonally dry periods. Renton River Days,Aquifer Awareness Day and theme shows at shopping malls will ' be the best opportunities to present this information to the public. 4 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Single-Family/Multi-Family Kits Description: ' This program is designed to provide inexpensive kits of easily installed water-saving devices to single-family residential homes and the owners and managers of apartment buildings and condominiums. ' These inexpensive devices will include shower flow restrictors,toilet tank water displacement containers,lawn & garden watering gauges and reminder items(i.e.bumper stickers,hose tags,buttons,etc.). Their operation and use will be highly encouraged through a variety of publications included in the kits. Importance of water conservation and the anticipated results from the application of these devices will also be illustrated in these publications. Distribution of the kits can be accomplished several ways. The fust method listed should be implemented initially. Results should be monitored to determine the effectiveness. If better results are required, the next method of ' distribution should be implemented to increase water conservation. 1. Make the kits available at public facilities(i.e.libraries,post offices,schools,etc.),public speaking engagements,fairs and theme show. ' - Cannot assure that all customers will receive and use the devices. Lowest cost option of distribution. ' 2. Deliver the kits to each residence. This can be performed by the meter readers during their normal rounds. - Cannot assure that all customers will install or use all devices. - Increased burden on the meter readers which will increase personnel costs. 3. Deliver and install lets at each residence. - This can be performed by the meter readers during their normal rounds. ' - This can be performed during an intensive, highly promoted period of conservation in which the public requests installation. - Will reach the largest portion of the customers. ' - Assuming high liability from complications of installation. Costs: _ $ 6,000/year ' The cost of the water conservation kits and the publications enclosed with them will amount to a significant portion of the overall costs of this program. If regional cooperation is attained, cost reductions can result from the ' procurement of a higher volume of kits and publications. Additional costs will vary depending on the method of distribution. The more intensive distribution programs will increase costs accordingly. ' Schedule: Start - 1992 Completion - Ongoing ' The distribution of water-saving device kits should begin as quickly as possible to give the public the means to begin water conservation. Their understanding of methods to reduce their water consumption will allow them to contribute to the water conservation program. The quicker these items are prepared for their use the sooner they can take action. The distribution should be a continuous operation in order to remind those individuals with the devices to 5 ' make use of them and for those individuals that have recently moved into the area to have the opportunity to become a part of the water conservation programs. ' 6 ' TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Purveyor Assistance/Customer Assistance ' Description: ' This element of the water conservation program involves distribution of information explaining the methods and results of the water conservation program implemented in our community. The neighboring purveyors can utilize the information we have developed to fulfill our water conservation goals to develop their own programs. The assistance this information may provide can allow water utilities to work together in regional programs. Samples of the publications and water-saving devices can be of great assistance to them in starting the water conservation process in their communities. ' Our evaluations and results of the progress of the program in our community can show other purveyors what they can expect to achieve by implementing this program. ' Feedback from other purveyors can aid us in the further development of improved methods of water conservation and preferable marketing strategies for community involvement. ' Customers can utilize the results determined from the program's efforts to help them understand how their contributions have affected the supply of water resources in their community and the region. This information should be incorporated into the program's publications. A customer assistance hotline could be installed to allow the public to request assistance on water conservation practices. This hotline could be the phone number for the city's water conservation technician. Administration of this element of the program will be performed by the city's water conservation technician. ' Preparation of publications and surveys will be performed by outside consultants. Costs: _ $2,500 - 1992 ' $1,000 - 1993 and after Publication and distribution costs will be the largest percentage of the expenses of this element of the program. Schedule: Start - 1992 Completion - Ongoing ' Neighboring purveyors should be advised of our efforts planned for conserving water in the coming summer dry periods. The earlier they become aware of our efforts the sooner they can support us in regional programs. ' Once the results of the initial water conservation program are determined and evaluated,neighboring purveyors and local customers should be notified. Status of the water supply for the community should be of utmost concern for the public. Daily reports and weekly reviews should be publicized. 7 ' TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Technical Studies Description: ' This element of the water conservation program involves intensive research on water use, conservation techniques and the effects of water conservation methods. ' Questionnaires could be distributed to the community or specific area before and after a period of the program in order to better evaluate the attitudes concerning and practices exercised by the public. ' Research on new methods of water conservation is essential in providing the community with the best possible means of contributing to the program. Everyone involved with the program should be on the outlook for opportunities to improve water conservation techniques. The public should be encouraged to donate their ideas for the good of the ' community. A variety of comparative analyses on water conservation methods will be devised that would require dividing the district into areas for study. A different method would be emphasized in each area. An evaluation of the effects ' each method had on the reduction of water use, public attitude and costs would be then determined. For example, water conservation kits could be distributed by different methods in each area. In one area, these ' devices would be distributed to local public facilities (i.e.post offices,libraries, schools,etc.) for the public in that area to pick up on their own. In a second area, these devices would be distributed by the meter readers with brochures encouraging their use. In a third area, these devices would be distributed and installed, if the customer allows,by the meter reader or a specified technician. Administration of this element of the program would be performed by the city's water conservation technician. Outside consultants would be utilized to collect data and evaluate results. ' Costs: _ $2,500 -1992 $ 500/year after 1992 The majority of the costs associated with the studies of water conservation methods would be associated with the collection of data and evaluation of results by outside consultants. Most of the materials and personnel used to implement water conservation are associated with other elements of the program. Schedule: Start - 1992 Completion - 5 years (research on public participation) - Ongoing (research for new methods) The analysis of the water conservation methods used by the public is essential in evaluating the effects of the efforts implemented. The parameters for the research on public attitudes and the limits by which results can be determined ' must be resolved prior to the implementation of the water conservation program. A five year study period will be used to determine which methods of water conservation promotion,distribution and feasibility will attain the highest level of public participation in this district. ' Research for new methods of water conservation should be an ongoing effort in order to take advantage of technologies being developed. 8 ' TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Unaccounted Water/Leak Detection Description: A program of regular and systematic surveying of the water distribution system in order to locate and repair leaks, ' potential problem areas and defective equipment. The city currently has a leak detection program that operates within the department of operations and maintenance. ' A sophisticated leak detection instrument enables the personnel to keep the system at a high level of operational performance. There is no reason to incorporate additional program tasks into the water conservation program at this time. ' Costs: _ $21,000/Year ' All costs associated with this element of the water conservation program are currently the responsibility of the department of operations and maintenance. Schedule: Existing and ongoing ' The department of operations and maintenance surveys 52 miles of transmission lines every year. This enables the city to survey the entire system once every four years. 9 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Nurseries/Agriculture ' Description: ' The application of water conservation practices to agricultural projects, selection and maintenance of landscaping and plant nurseries. The efficient use of water use for agriculture,landscaping and other plants can be improved by encouraging the use ' of moisture sensors, flow timers, low volume sprinklers, drip irrigation and other current technologies. Other elements of the water conservation program can be used to inform the public of the methods used to reduce water consumption for irrigation. Farms,nurseries and other businesses selling plants should be contacted and informed ' of water conservation methods that would apply to their products. Their distribution of information on these methods as well as products used for reducing water consumption for irrigation should be encouraged. ' A list of drought resistant plants that are suitable for the climate in this region should be developed. Local businesses should be encourage to stock a variety of these plants and recommend their use to customers. Recommended applications and maintenance requirements should be developed to provide businesses and the public with a better understanding of the plants characteristics. ' A designated part of a city park or area of public landscaping,possibly at city hall,should be developed as a garden to physically show these plants to public. Displays showing names, watering methods and general characteristics ' of each plant should be provided nearby. Administration of this element of the water conservation program would be performed by the city's water conservation technician. Landscape architects,horticulturists and other outside consultants would be used to develop program materials and garden concepts. Costs: _ $12,500 - 1994 ' $ 2,500 - Each year subsequent to 1994 The development of the list of drought resistant plants and the publication of information on each will comprise a large majority of the costs for this element of the program. Development of a garden for displaying these plants will amount to a significant portion of the initial costs depending on the amount of plants and area developed. Schedule: Start - 1994 ' Completion - Ongoing (Publication distribution) - 1994 (Garden development) ' The formation of the list and subsequent information on the drought resistant plants should begin long before the regular planting season. Development of the garden should take place early in the planting season and be publicized to familiarize the public with these plants. 10 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE Bill Showing Consumption History Description: ' An element of the water conservation program that provides an illustration of water usage to allow the customer to better understand their consumption of water. The best format for this illustration would take the form of a bar graph that shows water usage volume as a vertical ' bar for each month over a thirteen month period. This would allow the customer to quickly compare the previous months consumption to that of the same month for the previous year as well as any trends in consumption throughout the previous twelve month period. A superimposed line showing average water usage volume for each month in the district would allow the customer to easily compare their rate of consumption to that of the community. Tabular data showing the percentage of increase or decrease in consumption from the previous month, difference between consumption volume from the previous month,yearly average consumption,monthly volume deviation from the yearly average and a variety of other statistical data could be resented on the billing statement. ' P g Preparation and incorporation of the computer program into the current billing system would be performed by an outside computer programmer. Administration of the plan would be performed by the city's water utility accounting personnel. ' Cost: _ $8,500.00 -1995 only A one time cost for development of the computer program to perform the function of generating and presenting the billing history data would occur in 1995. Additional costs for providing this information are not expected but may occur depending on the scope of the presentation developed. Schedule: Start - 1995 ' Completion - Ongoing The development of the computer program should begin immediately in order to be able to incorporate this information into the customer's billing statement as soon as possible. Development time is unknown at this time and will depend on the scope of the presentation desired. ' 11 TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE High Technology Meters Description: An element of the water conservation program that utilizes the latest technologies of telemetry and metering to distinguish water use patterns. The city has implemented these technologies by metering all customers and installing a sophisticated telemetry and supervisory control system to tie together the operation of all major facilities. A data logger is used at each facility to record flowrates. This information is utilized for system demand analyses. Cost: _ $0.00 No additional cost is anticipated for this element of the water conservation program. Schedule: Ongoing Continue the operation of the telemetry and supervisory control system. Continue installation of meters for each customer. 12 ' POLICY Require Meters ' Description: An element of the water conservation program that requires the installation of individual service or master source meters for all water use, including public facilities. The city has implemented this policy by metering all customers and installing a data logger at each water facility to record flowrates. The periodic testing and repair of these meters is also a part of the district's current program performed by the ' department of operations and maintenance. Costs: _ $0.00 No additional costs associated with this element of the water conservationam ro anticipated. P �' are P Schedule: Ongoing ' Continue requiring the installation of meters for all customers. 13 ' POLICY Plumbing Code ' Description: This element of the water conservation program involves the development of recommendations for revisions to the plumbing code that would apply current technologies for the efficient use of water. Requiring water efficient fixtures to be installed in all new construction and extensively remodeled buildings would ' be the most significant revision pursued. Improved technologies for the minimization of leakage should be required to be implemented as soon as economical and reliable apparatuses are developed. ' Cooperation with County and State officials will be instrumental in adopting revisions and to the prompt response to the water conservation needs of the community. ' Costs: _ $1,500/year Costs associated with this element of the water conservation program would primarily be associated with administrative functions required to pursue revisions to the plumbing code. ' Schedule: Ongoing i ' The prompt recommendation for revision of the plumbing code should be pursued when the application of a new water conservation technology merits use. 14 ' POLICY Landscape Management/Playfields Description: ' This element of the water conservation program involves developing policies that promote the application, development and management of low water demand landscaping. Regulation of landscaping on the basis of water demand may become necessary to be able to better manage the available water resources. Strict control over landscaping of private,commercial,industrial and public land may not be necessary. Milder policies restricting water usage for landscaping and limiting the water districts liability from plant loss due to dehydration should be enacted. Encouraging the use of low demand landscaping features can be ' easily promoted with these type of policies when the comparison of costs to maintenance are compared for a hypothetically dry year. ' Cooperation with local nurseries is essential for ensuring the availability of landscaping products that are desired by the public and capable of surviving dry periods. Technical assistance provided by other elements of this program will help strengthen this cooperation. ' The water demand created by grassy areas of public parks should be offset by the appropriate selection and efficient use of space for non-grassy areas. The luster of rich green grass in non-activity areas needs to be weighed against community concerns, especially during the summer dry periods. ' Costs: _ $0.00 Enactment of policies concerning water demand for landscaped areas should not induce additional costs. Emphasis ' on the consequences of noncompliance should minimize liability. Schedule: Start - 1991 ' Completion - Ongoing Establishment of landscape management policies should begin as early as possible in order to cultivate public awareness of the water conservation efforts being implemented in the community. 15 POLICY Seasonal Pricing/Inverted Rates ' Description: ' This element of the water conservation program deals with the institution of various policies designed to provide incentives to conserve water based on the price of water. Seasonal pricing would vary the unit price of water depending on the time of year. Higher rates would be charged during high demand periods such as the summer months. Lower rates would subsequently be charged during low demand periods. Inverted pricing would charge the customer a specific price for an initial quantity of water. A higher price would be charged for a larger quantity of water. Higher prices would be charged for subsequent quantity ranges. Price variations can be developed that take into account the minimum requirements for a specified customer's demand and increase the price dramatically for use above that minimum demand. ' Market pricing would vary the rate by the demand on the system. If the availability of water was low a considerably higher price would be charged for quantities over a minimum amount. High availability would result in lower rates. ' During the summer dry periods the customer may see a reduction in rates from considerable water conservation. Obviously several pricing structures are possible. The effectiveness of each would require further study. A program ' of changing the rate structure every year or two to survey the effectiveness of each policy would allow this to be accomplished. Prudence must be exercised in order to keep customer relations good. Costs and benefits must be emphasized to the customer throughout the program. Costs: = $0.00 The direct cost for enacting any of these policies is difficult to quantify. Because of these difficulties,it is assumed that there are no costs associated with enacting policies to promote water conservation.There may be reductions in ' revenue due to an effective conservation policy or increases in revenue from an incentive policy that does not motivate conservation. ' Schedule: Start - 1991 Completion - 1995 ' An effort should be made to determine the effectiveness of a varying rate policy of water use. A five year survey period is recommended in order to have sufficient time to research the effectiveness and take into account seasonal water demand variations. At least two separate policies should be examined during this period. Further study may ' be desired if anticipated results are not achieved. 16 ' POLICY Irrigation/Private Wells ' Description: ' To better understand the availability of water resources within the city, private wells need to be identified The location,aquifer source,average annual and peak month usage should be analyzed to evaluate the impact these wells have on the water resources available to the city. Policies must be developed to protect the interests of the community served by the district. Significant impacts may result from the operation of these private wells. A policy of limiting the capacity of the wells impacting the city would protect the community and continue to allow the private well owner to operate the well. Metering private wells would allow for better resource management and also promote efficient use of water. ' Changes in land use may make a private well available for district use. Significant legal implications may be involved with any policy produced to address this situation. Legal council ' should be advised prior to taking any action. Costs:= $2,500/year ' Costs for identifying private wells may amount to a small amount of research costs. It is assumed that the identification process has been performed and the information is a part of land use records that currently exist. ' Schedule: Start - 1992 Completion - Ongoing after 1992 A survey of all private wells should be performed to identify sources of water. Research on the implications of ' restrictive policies on private wells should also begin in order to be prepared for possible legal complications in the future. 17 POLICY Utility Financed Retrofit ' Description: ' Provide water efficient fixtures for customers residences, commercial and industrial facilities. This element of the water conservation program is similar to other elements of the program regarding water conservation kits discussed in the technical assistance and public education sections. The decision to retrofit existing ' customers has obvious advantages of assuring that reasonable efforts are being taken to reduce excessive use. Other benefits of customer awareness and support can be expected from utility financed programs that benefit the customer. ' Several options for distributing these water efficient fixtures are possible. Fixtures can be provided at no cost at the water utility's office,local hardware stores or other public facilities(i.e.schools,libraries,post offices,etc.). Rebates ' for customer purchases of water efficient products approved but not provided by the utility can allow to customer to choose the style of fixture they prefer. The degree to which this program should be implemented is more a question of cost than necessity. An analysis ' of the cost savings,investment and expected return from customer support in this and other programs would have to be made to determine the magnitude of results possible. ' Cost: _ $27,500/year The majority of the costs associated with this element of the program will arise from the actual purchase and/or rebate for the water efficient fixtures. The cost of each fixture will depend on the quality and quantity provided. ' Rebates for selected items will also increase the overall costs. Some distribution costs can be expected but they should not represent a large percentage of the total cost for this element. ' Schedule: Start - 1992 Completion - Ongoing ' The analysis of financial investment to be made would be required before beginning this element of the water conservation program. Providing these water efficient fixtures should begin as soon as possible in order begin developing customer support and receive the benefits of the water conservation these items will bring. 18 ' POLICY Master Source Meters Description: ' This element of the water conservation program concerns requiring a master source meter,at a minimum,for Base Program utilities and would not apply to the city because of the size of the water utility. Costs: _ $0.00 ' No cost is associated with this element of the water conservation program. ' Schedule: Start - 1991 Completion - Ongoing ' No action needs to be taken on this subject because it does not concern the city. 19 Chapter Four PROGRAM EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION Since this will be Renton's first direct involvement in a water conservation program, the program is modeled on conservation efforts in other areas in King County. In order to maximize the return on the invested conservation dollar, this program should be closely monitored and evaluated at the end of its first year of use. The goal of the evaluation will be twofold: first, to find out which projects and programs are effective, and second, to use that ' information in revising future efforts and planning for future conservation programs. Program evaluation will involve collecting data from objective and subjective measures of the program's effectiveness, analyzing it, monitoring performance against projection,and measuring water savings. Evaluation using objective measures involves a variety of data collection activities. Project activity levels should be monitored and device-installation rates should be established through follow-up surveys of customers who receive kits. Data should be gathered to show actual,project-activity levels compared with projections made during the first ' year of the program. Subjective measures of program effectiveness will be important in evaluating the public cooperation program. The important factors to be considered include the audience reaction to programs, services and materials,and the staff's assessment of the effectiveness of various projects in changing customer attitudes and ' behaviors. By using both objective and subjective evaluation measures, the staff will be able to guide the evolution of the ' program during its first five years. The Water Conservation Program must be dynamic to further reduce water consumption,requiring frequent evaluation in an on-going process of program planning and development. The most effective way to evaluate the different procedures would be to conduct different conservation campaigns ' in the three major hills in the city:West Hill,Highlands,Rolling Hills and the Downtown 196 Zone. The demands in these areas could be calculated independently, and their reduction in water consumption compared at the end of the program's first year. Assuming the reduction in demand in the different areas varies, the information could be ' used to emphasize the use of either device-oriented or education-oriented conservation procedures. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION The implementation plan for the 1991 to 1995 planning period divides the conservation tasks into three groups. III ' 1. Continuous projects beginning in 1991 2. Phased projects 3. Continuous projects beginning after 1991. ' As discussed previously and in r detail in Chapter 5 we recommend the isolated implementation of some of P Y grease P P the conservation tasks in order to develop realistic data about the effectiveness of each program. The continuous ' projects remain in effect after they are started,but are not started simultaneously in all areas of the city. Projects that cannot be isolated geographically would start in later years to allow time to develop data on the other projects. ' In some circumstances, program tasks are similar and could be grouped together on the implementation schedule. Breaking these tasks into separate schedules would not provide additional meaningful data, since the target group and/or methods are similar. The following is a list of tasks that have common characteristics and should be included ' together for implementation purposes. GROUP 1 School outreach Speakers bureau Theme shows and fairs ' GROUP 2 Program promotion GROUP 3 i Single-family/Multi-family kits Plumbing code Utility financed retrofit ' GROUP 4 Purveyor assistance Technical studies Irrigation/private wells 1 GROUP 5 Leak detection High technology meters ' Require meters Master source meters GROUP 6 ' Nurseries/Agriculture Landscape management GROUP 7 Seasonal pricing ' Bill showing consumption summary In general those tasks that generate immediate results should be implemented first. Consequently,the results of the ' tasks whose impact takes several years to measure are not attributed to other tasks that may have started in those subsequent years. In addition, the least expensive tasks should be implemented first to minimize the short-term, financial impacts on the city during a period when its Capital Improvement Program is aggressive. Groups 6 and 7 cannot be isolated and implemented on a geographical basis; they must be used system wide. It is recommended that they be implemented in later years to prevent them from masking the data collected from the other tasks. ' Some of the projects are not continuous,but involve research,study or one-time efforts that could be implemented throughout the planning period. Under some circumstances, such as a water shortage, implementation of this plan should be interrupted so that staff can react to the emergency. Using this criteria, the implementation schedule shown in Table 5-1 should be used. ' PROGRAM EVALUATION OF PHASED PROJECTS The different conservation campaigns should be evaluated using a three-phase plan. Phase one consists of developing demand data for each of the implementation areas of the city: West Hill, Highlands,Rolling Hills and Downtown 196 Zone. This should be performed in 1991 in order to identify demand per customer per month in each area. This data will be used in subsequent years to evaluate the conservation savings in each zone. Demand is calculated using records compiled by the Water System Data Logger. Each operating area includes the following zones and supply sources: ' Operating Area Zones Supply Sources West Hill West Hill 495 zone West Hill Pump Station ' West Hill 270 zone 2 Highlands Highlands 565 zone Mount Olivet Pump Station Highlands 435 zone Windsor Hills Pump Station Kennydale 320 zone Well 5 Rolling Hills Rolling Hills 590 zone North Talbot Pump Station Rolling Hills 490 zone South Talbot Pump Station ' Talbot Hill 350 zone Tiffany Park Pump Station Fred Nelson Pump Station Downtown 196 Downtown 196 zone Wells Nos. 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 ' Springbrook Springs The water pumped from each supply source should be recorded each month and tabulated. The number of customers in each operating area should be compiled from the billing department each month. The average demand per customer in each operating area is then calculated by dividing the supply to the operating area by the number of customers. Average demand is computed at the end of 1991 and used as the base line data for future observations ' and comparisons. Phase two consists of implementing Group 3 tasks in the West Hill operating area,Group 1 tasks in the Highlands operating area,and Group 4 tasks in the Rolling Hills operating area. Demand data should continue to be compiled for each operating area. The costs to administer and implement each task should be recorded and compiled as detailed in Chapter 4. Phase three consists of comparing demand per area in 1991 with demand per area in 1992. The Downtown 196 zone can be used as a control set to cancel the possible effects of weather or other non-conservation influences,since there would be no conservation programs scheduled for this area in 1991 or 1992. Demand reductions in each area would then be combined with program costs to identify which program tasks are the most cost-effective. Future conservation tasks, programs, and program emphasis are then modified to reflect the most efficient conservation methods. 3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I cr I I f I I I � � w Z: - w J I I I I I I LLJ uj of LO I I I I I I 1 j�' I I I I I � z ; � Q �� I I I I I � ¢ zwof Cf) J >- O e w O O ?- of a S ct� (n 0- W V) - C) ' ``' I I I I I I I I-- m I I I I I w I I I I I I I w I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I L G L N o Mi `n D t d' a) U) N in cc � co y r � a. rt c o 0_ 0_ Y O O y 0_ _ O a; 0_ w 0_. 'L O - i LT S O uo +-. C J Q) QJ Q, :D — T m OO ? CW) O c O 0 ' O O o C.5 2 O a s O Q o > C5 ,G >' y ` O ¢ a O o c 0 3 c 0_ o o a G cr 3 V l Cn > O U dJCn V) US 0 12) cn _ L i Chapter Five ' PROGRAM COSTS PROGRAM COSTS ' The costs to implement this conservation program will be funded by the operating fund within the Water Utility. The costs can be divided into two categories: personnel and equipment. ' The personnel costs will include the following additional staff hours to implement and monitor the conservation program: four hours per day in 1991 and eight hours per day in following years of a staff engineer; approximately two hours per week of the customer service or engineering manager's time for coordination and administration; ' periodic professional engineering services to update the plan,monitor the progress and effectiveness of the program elements and prepare community literature;maintenance personnel time to operate the leak-detection equipment;and programming time to add consumption history to the billing program. A summary of these costs is shown in Table 4-1. The conservation program is an unbudgeted task in the city's 1991 budget; therefore, full deployment of the plan will not begin until fiscal 1992. Personnel costs have been assumed to inflate approximately 5 percent per year. Professional services costs are primarily for the creation of conservation literature and program materials. Equipment costs include a display board and project literature for the theme shows, water saving devices, leak ' detection equipment,and rebates for water-saving plumbing fixtures. Leak detection costs have been established by the maintenance department;they are estimated costs for checking 52 miles of pipe per year. At this inspection rate, each pipe in the system is checked every four years for leaks. The equipment costs for fixture rebates represent the approximate costs to retrofit 25 houses per year with water- saving toilets. Although the details for administering this program should be developed by the Water Department ' staff,it is assumed that households would apply for a rebate and the city would select approximately 25 houses per year for the rebate program. Houses would be chosen in the areas of Renton where water savings would provide the greatest benefit, such as the Highlands 565, West Hill 495, or Rolling Hills 590 zones. These zones are the highest in the city,and therefore are the most costly to supply with pumped water. Savings under this program could produce as much as .15 million gallons per day of water savings. In 1992 the program costs are expected to be 3.1 percent of the operating costs of the water utility and 1.99 percent of the total water department budget. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS The success of this program can be measured in two ways. First,does the program maintain or improve the current 6 1/2 percent per capita reduction in 1987 demands, and second, are the reductions cost effective. Since the conservation program is mandatory,the cost effectiveness of the overall program is not as important as identifying which tasks or elements of the program are the most efficient. This will allow the program elements to be tailored to Renton customers and allow the targets to be realized at a minimum cost. The highest priority of the program's .fust, five years should be evaluating the costs effectiveness of the tasks identified by the Department of Health. Currently,there is insufficient data to perform a cost-benefit analysis of each program element or task; however,it should be the highest priority of the conservation program to develop the data base necessary to do so. The data would be used in subsequent years to identify which tasks should be deleted, modified,or emphasized. 1 The necessary data base consists of two components: 1. Cost of each conservation task ' 2. Percent reduction in per capita use of each task A portion of a staff person's time should be dedicated to documenting how much time and how many resources are ' expended on each task. This information should be compiled every six months,at a minimum,to determine the cost of each conservation task. The six-month time frame is convenient to use since the city's budget and budget adjustment occur at six-month intervals. ' The six-month summaries will be easy to compile if staff people account for the time they work for the conservation program on separate time sheets. On the time sheets each conservation task should be divided into two categories,"Time"and"Materials," which should also include an estimate of the resources used for each task. The ' time sheet should also include a general administrative category for non-task specific activities, and later it should be divided equally into the cost of each conservation task. These time sheets would not be used by the personnel or accounting departments,but by the engineering staff who would use them to identify the cost of each conservation task and to perform a cost/benefit analysis. The second set of data needed to determine cost/benefit ratios is the effectiveness, or percent demand reduction of each conservation element. Three procedures can be used to determine task effectiveness: 1. Estimating 2. Isolated task application ' 3. Phased task implementation The first procedure consists of beginning all conservation tasks simultaneously in the entire service area. The effectiveness of each task is estimated by customer surveys and interviews,which would determine which tasks they believe benefitted them the most and which ones they remembered. This procedure results in the least reliable data, but is easy to administer and results in maximum conservation savings early in the program. ' The second procedure consists of applying selected tasks to each hydraulically independent section of the city. Because of Renton's comprehensive data logging system, it is possible to isolate demand in each of three hills of the water system (West Hill, Highlands, Rolling Hills). The city could, therefore, distribute devices on one hill, perform public education on another, and perform utility retrofits on the third. Each hill could be monitored independently the fust year and an estimate made of the reduction potential of each program. This procedure is more difficult to administer,but results in more accurate data for the cost/benefit analysis. An inverted or seasonal pricing structure cannot use this procedure, since the entire service area must be billed uniformly. Some program tasks are not suited for this type of isolated application since the effects may inadvertently apply city-wide; seasonal pricing, modified bills,and nursery participation are examples of this situation. Other tasks, however, can be implemented on a geographical basis. The third procedure consists of applying a new task each year to the service area, and monitoring its effectiveness on a yearly basis. As an example, in 1991 only home kits would be distributed, in 1992 home kits and speakers would be used,and in 1993 home kits,speakers and seasonal pricing would be distributed. A potential disadvantage of this procedure is the difficulty in assigning cause and effect relationships in demand estimates. Are changes caused only by conservation,or by weather,new development character,etc.? Another potential disadvantage is the implied consent to delay some conservation tasks, rather than beginning a comprehensive and complete program immediately. It should be remembered,however,that Renton has achieved the 6 1/2 percent target,and,therefore, has the luxury of using 1991 through 1995 for task and program evaluation, an easy procedure to administer. We recommend the second procedure,Isolated Task Application,if Renton is able to devote considerable staff time to the Conservation Program. This task usefully combines responsible and timely implementation with accurate 2 data,but requires intensive time to administer. If Renton is unable to allocate the necessary hours,we recommend the first procedure,Estimating. This program complies with the intent of the Department of Health regulation and is easy to administer. ' Final analysis of the Cost/Benefit ratio should include all of the costs necessary to administer and implement each task of the conservation program and compare that cost with the estimated water savings produced by the task and expressed as: * Cost per gallon per connection per day. RATE IMPACTS ' Table 4-1 is a summary of the program's projected costs for 1991 and 1992 and their impact on water system rates necessary to support this program. The total budgets shown in Table 4-1 are estimates based on the CIP program identified in the Comprehensive Water System Plan and based on the assumption that operation and maintenance costs will increase approximately 5 percent per year. Since these are estimates, actual rate impacts will differ slightly. The average monthly customer cost to implement this Water Conservation Plan is as follows: 1992 $ 0.33 1993 $ 0.27 1994 - $ 0.26 1995 - $ 0.22 The effects of revenue reduction from the conservation plan are not included in these rate impacts,since there is no data to support the effect of each conservation task. For comparison purposes, the approximate yearly commodity cost to produce 1 percent of the city's water supply(not including fixed overhead and maintenance costs)is$4,400. The billing income for 1 percent of the supply is approximately$22,000 per year,resulting in a$ 1,466 per month loss for the Utility, or a rate impact of$0.13 per customer per 1 percent conservation savings. 3 i TABLE 4-1 ' 5 YEAR CONSERVATION COSTS 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1 EP RSONNELCOSTS School Outreach $0 $5,000 $5,250 $5,513 $5,788 $6,078 Speakers Bureau $0 $5,000 $5,250 $5,513 $5,788 $6,078 Program Promotion $0 0 $2,500 $2,625 $2,756 $2,894 Theme Shows/Fairs $0 $5,000 $5,250 $5,513 $5,788 $6,078 Family Kits $0 $1,500 $1,575 $1,654 $1,736 $1,823 Customer Assistance $0 $1,000 $1,050 $1,103 $1,158 $1216 Technical studies $0 $500 $525 $551 $579 608 Leak Detection $0 $21,000 $22,050 $23,153 $24,310 $25,526 ' Nursuries/Agriculture $0 $0 $0 $2,500 $2,625 $2,756 Bill Showing History $0 $0 $0 $0 $8,500 $0 High Tech Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Require Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Plumbing Code $0 $1,500 $1,575 $1,654 $1,736 $1,823 1 Landscape Management $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Seasonal Pricing/Rates $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Private Wells $0 $1,000 $1,050 $1,103 $1,158 $1,216 Utility Financed Retrofit $0 $2,500 $2,625 $2,756 $2,894 $3,039 Master Source Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 SUBTOTAL $0 $44,000 $48,700 $53,635 $64,817 $59,133 EQUIPMENT COSTS School Outreach $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Speakers Bureau $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 ' Program Promotion $0 $0 $2,500 $2,500 $0 $2,500 Theme Shows/Fairs $0 $3,800 $0 $0 $2,500 $0 Family Kits $0 $4,500 $4,725 $4,961 $5,209 $5,470 Customer Assistance $0 $1,500 $0 $0 $0 $0 Technical studies $0 $2,000 $0 $0 $0 $0 ' Leak Detection $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Nursuries/Agriculture $0 $0 $0 $10,000 $2,500 $2,625 Bill Showing History $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 High Tech Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Require Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Plumbing Code $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Landscape Management $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Seasonal Pricing/Rates $0 $0 $0 $0 $1,000 $0 Private Wells $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Utility Financed Retrofit $0 $25,000 $26,250 $27,563 $28,941 $30,388 Master Source Meters $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 SUBTOTAL $0 $36,800 $33,475 $45,024 $40,150 $40,982 TOTAL $0 $80,800 $82,175 $98,659 $104,967 $100,115 RATE IMPACTS Anticipated Utility&0&M Costs $2,608,000 $2,738,400 $2,875,320 $3,019,086 $3,170,040 - Anticipated CIP Program Costs $2,035,000 $2,487,000 $3,134,000 $3,898,000 $4,849,500 Total Anticipated Costs $4,070,000 $4,974,000 $6,268,000 $7,796,000 $9,699,000 Percentage of City Budget 0.00 1.99 1.65 1.57 1.35 Average Cost Per Customer Per Month $0.00 $0.33 $0.27 $0.26 $0.22 1 1 1 1 ' WATER CONSERVATION PLAN Appendix A 1 1 1 Program Elements & Tasks ' From East King County Coordinated Water System Plan DEFINITION OF CONSERVATION ELEMENTS FOR PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS ' For purposes of the recommended plan, program elements are defined as follows: A. PUBLIC EDUCATION 1. School Outreach - Education program targeted to increase awareness of local water resources and encourage water conservation practices. Activi- ties include school presentations, preparation of curriculum material, and tours of water system facilities. 2. Speakers Bureau - Seeking speaking opportunities and making speakers available to a wide cross-section of service, community, and other groups. Provide speakers with audio and visual aids for presentations. Focus on ' increasing public awareness of water resource and conservation issues. 3. Program Promotion - Publicize the need for water conservation through ' television and radio public service announcements, news articles, and public water systems bill inserts. 4. Theme Shows and Fairs - Prepare a portable display of water conserva- tion devices and selected written material. Staff this display at local area theme shows and fairs. ' B. TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROGRAM 1. Single-Family/Multi-Family Kits - Distribute kits containing inexpensive, easily installed, water-saving devices to single-family residential homes and the owners and managers of apartment buildings and condominiums. Devices in the kits include shower flow restrictors, toilet tank water ' displacement bags, leak detection dye tablets, and an informational brochure. ' 2. Purveyor Assistance ZCustomer Assistance - regional assistance to aid purveyors in developing and implementing conservation programs tailored to their needs. Similar response by purveyors to customers who ' request assistance in implementing water conservation practices. -15- ' 3. Technical Studies - Studies would be designed and conducted by the public water system and/or regional organization. Study objectives would be to collect data and research new technology to develop programs which would produce measurable water savings. Study areas might include residential flow metering, lawn watering practices, and commer- cial/industrial water use patterns. ' 4. Unaccounted Water/Leak Detection - Conduct a regular and systematic' program of finding and repairing leaks in system mains and laterals. This includes on-site tests using computer-assisted leak detection equipment on water distribution mains,valves, services, and meters. ' 5. Nurseries/Agriculture - Apply current technology to water use practices of large agriculture/irrigation operations. Examples are nurseries and park department facilities. Moisture sensors, flow timers, low volume sprinklers, drip irrigation, and other practices to increase irrigation effi- ciency would be implemented. 6. Bill Showing Consumption History - An extension of the electric energy conservation program. Billings would show percentage increase/decrease in water use over the same period in the previous year. ' 7. High Technology Meters - Utilize concepts of telemetry and exception reporting to detect and investigate instances of abnormal water usage. C. POLI 1. Require Meters - Require the installation of individual service and master source meters for all water use, including public facilities. Maintain periodic meter testing and repair program. I Plumbing Code - Develop recommendations for Code revisions to require water efficient fixtures for new construction and extensively ' remodelled buildings. Work with State officials for adoption. 3. Landscape Management alayfields - Promote low water demand land- scaping in all retail customer classes (private, public, commercial, indus- trial, etc.). Work with local nurseries to ensure the availability of plants that achieve this objective. 4. Seasonal Pricing - Implement rate design techniques to provide economic incentives to conserve water. Under seasonal pricing, the unit price of water would be increased during a high seasonal use period. Rate setting ' is the responsibility of the public water system. -16- ' 5, IrrigationlPriyate Well - Identification of location, aquifer source, aver- age annual, and peak month usage to analyze impact on supply and eval- uate availability for public water systems use where land use changes occur. General purpose government would be encouraged to monitor use and consider land use and building code conditions that would promote ' efficient use of water from these sources. All wells above a specified capacity should be required to be metered with use records available for resource management. ' 6. System Financed Retrofit - Under a program similar to that used in the electrical energy program, installation of water efficient fixtures in exist- ing residences and commercial/industrial facilities would be promoted by the system by: (a) providing fixtures at no cost, (b) giving a rebate for consumer purchased fixtures, and (c) arranging for suppliers to provide fixtures at the systems' cost. 7. Master Source Meters - Require a master source meter, at a minimum, ' for Base Program systems. D. MERITING CONSIDERATION 1. Mandatory Seasonal Restriction - Implement and enforce restrictions in water use during peak demand periods in all categories of consumers under an adopted strategy/plan. 2. ling/Reuse - Examine opportunities for water reuse and recycling as an approach to reducing water demands. Potential program areas include: o Reuse of reclaimed public water systems wastewater for the irriga- tion of public green space, industrial cooling, and power plant cooling. o On-site wastewater treatment and recycling of effluent for non- potable uses in commercial buildings. ' o Utilization of gray water (bath, lavatory, and clothes washing water) for non-potable uses. ' 3. No Water For Golf Courses/Major Use - In future siting of golf courses and other large water consuming facilities, or where the location of such ' existing facilities warrants, allow only the use of reclaimed wastewater. -17- f . ' 4. Conservation Program Performance Audit - To evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a system conservation program, an entity such as the Regional Water Association or the County shall routinely conduct a ' program performance audit and report its :Findings to the system. 5. Reduce Pressure to 45 psi - In service areas with excessive pressure (as ' determined by the system) require pressure reducing valves on service, connections. I -18- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I � 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1