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RES2553 CITY OF RENTON, WASHINGTON RESOLUTION N0 . 2553 A RESOLUTION OF THE CITY OF RENTON, WASHINGTON, ADOPTING WELL FIELD PROTECTION STUDY WHEREAS the City of Renton has had prepared by its consultants , a Well Field Protection Study , and WHEREAS protection of City wells is of paramount importance , and WHEREAS the Well Field Protection Study furthers that effort and is of benefit to the City, now therefore THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF RENTON, DO RESOLVE AS FOLLOWS : SECTION I : The above recitals are found to be true and correct . SECTION II : The City Council hereby adopts the Well Field Protection Study, its findings and recommendations . PASSED BY THE CITY COUNCIL this 23rd day of July , 1984 . Maxine E. Motor , City Clerk APPROVED BY THE MAYOR this 23rd day of July ,, 1984 . Barbara Y. S� hin,poc i, Mayor Approved as to form: Lawrence J'. `tdaren,.. .C�ty...�ttorney Report On � WELL FIELD � PROTECTION STUDY 1 City of Renton i Washington CH2M::HILL August 1984 r4 i ADDENDUM to the WELL FIELD PROTECTION STUDY for City of Renton, Washington May 22 , 1985 INTRODUCTION This addendum supplements the report on Well Field Protec- tion Study prepared for the City of Renton by CH2M HILL in August 1984 . It documents a more detailed review of chemi- cal and petroleum products storage and other activities at the Stoneway Concrete Plant and at the North American Refrac- tories Brick Plant. It also documents information gained about Tony' s Cleaners (a dry cleaning establishment on Bron- son Way just north of the Cedar River) . These three facilities were investigated in more detail be- cause of their possible hazard to Cedar RivE!r aquifer water quality. The Stoneway and North American plants were de- scribed on pages 3-9 through 3-12 of the study report. These potential contaminant sources were also evaluated in Table 3-2 . Tony' s Cleaners was not described or evaluated in the study report. Specific recommendations were made concerning the Stoneway and North American plants on pages 4-14 and 4-15 . From the descriptions that follow, the location of most facilities may be visualized by reference to Figure 3-1 of the study report. STONEWAY CONCRETE PLANT Concrete additives stored onsite were correctly listed in the study report. All of these are stored in aboveground tanks near the concrete mix plant at the center of the site. Any spillage from these tanks would follow the pattern of surface water drainage to the slurry pond (holding pond) mentioned in the study report and discussed below. Most of the Stoneway plant site is paved and slopes toward the holding pond located near the west end of the site about 100 feet from the river. Surface drainage runs to this pond, and the truck wash area is adjacent to it. Sand and gravel are occasionally removed from this pond and salvaged. Decant water is pumped from this pond to an infiltration pond about 1 ,000 feet upstream, adjacent to the bend in the river. From the infiltration pond, water percolates through the gravel pond bottom to the river and su=ounding alluvium. The infiltration pond has been dredged out to ensure good percolation. se5548C1 All of the buried fuel tanks and the aboveground waste! oil tank listed in the study report are located near the front (northeast end) of the plant site, adjacent t� Highway 169 and the lube room. Two underground tanks not listed in the study report are a 500-gallon diesel tank adjacent to the shop and a 500-gallon gasoline tank adjacent to the office, both at the front of the plant site. One of the 10 , 000-gallon diesel fuel tanks was installed in 1973; all of the other tanks are older, but their specific ages are unknown. According to Stoneway personnel, no part of the plant site is presently used as a disposal area or dump :for waste mate- rials. These personnel did not know whether any area had been used in the past for disposal of waste materials. Stoneway presently parks and maintains onsite a fleet of 25 or more ready-mix trucks , together with other plant equip- ment such as front-end loaders and miscellaneous vehicles . There have been no changes in the basic plant facilities and operations over the past 15 years, and no changes are antic- ipated in the next 5 years . Stoneway would :Like to move to a less expensive location, but has no specific plans for the foreseeable future. The south portion of the Stoneway plant site has been occupied by Renton Concrete Products (RCP) . However, since their lease will not be renewed in 1987, RCP is relocating to Tacoma. Their pipe and vault production has already been moved to Tacoma; the Renton plant will continue to manufacture vault lids and other small items . RCP has their own fuel tanks and other storage facilities, independent of Stoneway. These include the following: o An aboveground 1 , 000-gallon diesel_ fuel tank (about 1 year old) , near the west end of the plant site. o An underground 1 , 000-gallon gasoline tank (adja- cent to the aboveground diesel tank) , previously used for diesel fuel storage. o Possibly, a second 1 , 000-gallon underground tank (no longer used) adjacent to the above tanks. o A 500- to 1 , 000-gallon underground waste oil tank adjacent to the southeast corner of the mainte- nance shop, near the west end of the site,. This tank was used as a gasoline tank until it was found to be leaking. It is no lcnger used for storing waste oil, since the maintenance shop is no longer used. o Two aboveground 500-gallon diesel. (stove oil) tanks near the dispatch building,, located just se5548C2 west of Stoneway's mix plant. These tanks were once used for fuel storage for the boilers in this building. o A 1 ,000-gallon aboveground propane storage tank near the dispatch building; propane is now used for heating the building. o The maintenance shop has two lube pits, which ap- parently have no floor drains. Oil changes, lubri- cation and other vehicle maintenance were once done here. This building, having a concrete floor, also serves as a storage area for about eight 50-gallon drums of engine oil, several 5- to 15-gallon cans of grease, tires, and parts and supplies. Two 50-gallon drums aboveground outside this building have held stove oil for fueling the shop heater. o The fabrication shop (toward the east end of the site) houses reinforcing steel and other metal fabricating operations, and spray painting facil- ities, but not sand-blasting or pickling facil- ities for metal preparation. A paint storage locker outside the east end of the! building is used to store fifteen to twenty 1-•gallon cans of Galvacon, other paints, thinners, solvents and supplies. There is no paint/solvent waste storage tank. Left-over materials are reportedly dumped on the ground or placed in a dumpster with paper to absorb excess liquid. Stored inside the fabri- cation shop were 12 to 15 pallets of cement in sacks. o Approximately ten 50-gallon drums of form (strip- ping) oil were stored on the ground near the fab- rication shop. Even with the majority of concrete casting operations moved to Tacoma, it is antic- ipated that some form oil will continue to be used at this site. Site surface drainage is less well defined on the RCP site than at Stoneway. Although much of the site is paved, run- off is not channeled to a single collection point. A por- tion of the site that is not paved drains to a low point near Stoneway's holding pond, thence to the river through a catch basin and 50 feet of 12-inch culvert. There is no oil separator at the catch basin. Oil slicks have reportedly been observed in the Cedar River adjacent to discharge point (s) from this site. Portions of the site seem to have no specific drainage pattern, suggesting percolation downward from the surface. se5548C3 The aboveground 1 , 000-gallon diesel fuel tank is located on an abandoned concrete floor area where a shed'' once stood, about 100 feet from the river. There are no containment curbs or protective barriers around the tank. South of the maintenance shop two 50-gallon drums (possibly containing form oil) were observed lying on the ground, one leaking into a puddle. The paint storage locker at the fabrication shop, although located on a concrete slab, also has no con- tainment curbs around it, nor does the paint ng area. The two 500-gallon diesel tanks near the dispatch building are located over a concrete slab, also without c6ntainment curbs . RCP personnel did not know of any specific areas on their site which might have been used for disposal of waste mate- rials . However, current housekeeping is not as good as it could be , and with the continuing move of plant operations to Tacoma, this site should be carefully obsE�rved. Stone- way' s plans for future use of the RCP site are unknown. NORTH AMERICAN REFRACTORIES BRICK PLANT The size and use of the two fuel storage tanks discussed in the study report was confirmed. The 1 , 000-gallon under- ground gasoline tank is located near the east: end of the main factory building, with the fuel dispensing equipment next to the building, adjacent to the tank. The 100 , 000- gallon aboveground diesel storage tank at the western end of the plant site was built in 1973 , sized for =_ong-term stor- age of fuel for the rotary kiln. Because the kiln has not been used for the past 4 years , and probably will never again be used, only about 5 , 000-gallons of d:Lesel fuel are now stored in this tank. Although the tank :Ls surrounded with a 4-foot-high concrete block/brick containment wall, the earth surface inside the containment wall is gravel, and has no impermeable liner beneath it. Rainwater percolates downward in the containment area, as would spilled fuel . Other petroleum products are stored onsite in a small wood frame building with concrete floor toward the east end of the site. Approximately twenty 50-gallon drums and twenty 5- to 15-gallon cans of engine oil, hydraulic oil, kerosene, grease, and other lubricants are currently stored in this building. The floor has no floor drains or concrete curb, and is covered with "Floor Dry, " an absorbent material to catch spilled petroleum product. Waste oil is stored in an aboveground 300-gallon steel tank and two 50-gallon drums, located near the above petroleum products storage building. Although this tank is surrounded by a 1-foot-high concrete containment curb, the earth sur- face inside the curb is covered only with gravel. The waste oil is periodically hauled away by a contracted disposal service. se5548C4 i,� Chemicals stored onsite for brick manufactur were correctly listed on page 3-12 of the study report. Tho 4 , 000-gallon underground sodium silicate solution tank is located :near the gasoline storage tank. Both trisodium phosphate and aluminum sulfate are stored in bags in the main factory building. Maintenance of yard equipment (front endloafers , trucks, etc. ) is done onsite. There are no special ashdown facil- ities; the nature of the plant operations an equipment does not require washdown. North American Refractories has an NPDES permit for dis- charge to the Cedar River. It was recently renewed; how- ever, it is not currently needed since the rotary kiln is no longer operated. The permit, acquired 9 years ago, required that water discharged from the kiln exhaust gas scrubber be monitored for fluoride, pH and suspended solids; river water quality upstream and downstream of the discharge point was also monitored. The western 80 percent of the plant site (to the east: end of the main factory building) is paved with asphalt. Surface runoff flows primarily to two catch basins, ar off the edges of the asphalt. The catch basins discharge to a 24-inch storm sewer which runs diagonally through the plant site in a northwesterly direction and discharges to the Cedar- River about 1 , 000 feet from Wel]. No. 8 . The area behind (east of) the eastern-most buildings is not paved. No surface drain- age pattern is evident, suggesting downward percolat:Lon. The plant site receives considerable runoff (stormwater) from the hill south of the plant. The hill side is heavely wooded, yet erosion occurs occasionally. At the toe of the slope most of the runoff percolates into the ground under the plant, although storm water at the southeast corner of the plant site ponds and enters the 24-inch storm sewer. No changes in the present operation of the plant are planned for the future. North American RefractoriesP ersonnel did not know of any specific areas on their site which might have been used for disposal of hazardous waste materials . Northeast of the main plant, between the rail P � road tracks and the Cedar River, is a large mound approximately 1 , 000 feet long, 200 feet wide, and 20 to 25 feet high; on land owned by North American Refacto:ries. Waste materials from opera- tion of the plant over many years have been dumped here. The mound by observation also contains crushed brick, waste wood (pallets , etc. ) , scrap metal, waste cement additives, and discarded paper and plastic sacks and brackets . It is possible that it may contain other waste materials . se5548C5 i TONY 'S CLEANERS Tony' s Cleaners uses a cleaning solvent callE!d Percoethylene. The solvent is recycled by filtering to remove dirt and lint. Losses are through solvent left in the cloth---ng, in the fil- ters , and evaporation. Approximately 30 to 10 gallons of solvent must be replenished every three mont4s; this is done by bulk tank delivery with a hose connected between the tank truck and the solvent storage tank. The storage tank , lo- cated under the floor of the building, is thought to hold 50 to 100 gallons, and could not be observed when the site was visited. No separate containers of replacement solvent are stored on site. The dryer which removes the last of the solvent from cloth- ing discharges to the sanitary sewer. Steam condensate from other cleaning operations is also discharged to the sanitary sewer. The filters used for cleaning recycled solvent are discarded and picked up by the garbage collection service. Tony' s Cleaners has been in business at this location for 13 years and has no plans to change operations in the foreseeable future. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In the contaminant source evaluation on Table 3-2 of the study report the Stoneway Concrete plant was ranked as hav- ing a "high" overall relative significance as a potential contaminant source to the Cedar River aquifer. The research documented in this addendum reinforces this ranking and, given the conditions recently observed at the site, the "probability of occurrence" parameter should be revised from "medium" to "high" as well. The North American Refractories Company was ranked as having a "low" overall relative significance as a potential contami- nant source to the Cedar River aquifer., The research docu- mented in this addendum suggests a "medium" ranking; however, no more specific conclusion can be made until the direction of groundwater movement is known from the upcoming City well field monitoring study. Tony' s Cleaners should also be listed .in thea subsurface cat- egory of Table 3-2 . The evaluation parameters are ranked as follows: Hazardous nature High Location of source (:nearness to wells) Medium Potential quantity Low Probability of occurrence Unknown Mobility (lack of attenuation) High Difficulty of detection High Overall relative significance Medium se5548C6 y+ In addition to the recommendations given inter 4 of the study report, the following are recommended Zrflothe Stoneway plant site: o All areas should be paved to control runoff and spills . Discharge should be direc ed to the Cedar River at specific points, and oil eparators should be installed upstream of al discharges. o The protective measures recommended for all ser- vice stations in the aquifer area (relative to storage tanks and monitoring) should also be ap- plied to this site. Scattered tank's on the site should be consolidated into one arE!a. o All underground tanks not in use should be removed, and the soil surrounding the -tanks should be verified free of petroleum product: or other contaminants . o All aboveground storage tanks and areas for stor- age of any hazardous material should be placed over impervious ground covers with containment curbs sufficiently high to contain the maximum volume of spilled materials . o As Renton Concrete Products is mov:_ng out, the condition of their site should be verified and any identified contaminants removed. o Permanent monitoring wells should be located ei- ther within the Stoneway site at critical points or between the site and the City' s wells. o New development (construction of additional fuel storage tanks or use of additional hazardous mate- rials) should be prohibited. For the North American Refractories Company :site, the rec- ommendations given in Chapter 4 of the study report and those above for the Stoneway plant should be applied, if the up- coming City well field monitoring study veri:Eies groundwater movement from the site across the river toward the City' s wells . For Tony' s Cleaners, the protective measures recommended for all service stations in the aquifer area (relative to storage tanks and monitoring) should be applied, if -the upcoming City well field monitoring study verifies groundwater move- ment from the cleaners site toward the City' s wells. se5548C7 It is also recommended that the City well fied monitoring study be started as soon as possible so that he need for specific protective measures identified above can be determined. I se5548C8 I 1 ! Report On 1 1 WELL FIELD PROTECTION STUDY 1 City of Renton Washington �pfWAsy� Nr �1 ti�fo qFG/STERE 1 _ FSS��I�'gL CH2M::HILL ' August 1984 ! 1 1 CONTENTS 1 _Page Recommendations vii Summary ix 1 Introduction 1-1 Project Description 1-1 Background 1-1 Well Field Description 1-1 Purpose 1-2 Scope of Report 1-2 Report Organization 1-3 Existing Regulations 1-3 Information Sources 1-6 2 Hydrogeology 2-1 Introduction 2-1 Cedar River Drainage Basin 2-1 Geology 2-2 Cedar River Aquifer 2-3 Contaminant Flow Paths 2-4 Water Quality 2-5 Renton Well Water 2-5 Maplewood Well Water 2-6 River Water 2-6 3 Potential Contaminant Sources 3-1 Introduction 3-1 Subsurface 3-1 Surface 3-1 River 3-1 Transportation 3-1 General 3-1 Evaluation Parameters 3-1 River Sources 3-2 Septic Tanks 3-2 Landfills 3-4 Gull Service Station 3-5 Sewage Pump Station Overflows 3-5 Olympic Petroleum Pipelines 3-5 Miscellaneous 3-5 1 Subsurface Sources 3-6 Service Stations 3-6 Concrete Plant 3-9 Brick Plant 3-11 1 Sanitary Sewers 3-12 Storm Sewers 3-13 Cemetery Sites 3-14 Private Fill Sites 3-14 Surface Sources 3-15 Sprays and Fertilizers 3-15 iii I Transportation Sources 3-17 Interstate 405 3-18 State Route 169 3-21 City Streets 3-21 Burlington Northern Railroad 3-21 General Sources 3-22 Coal Mines 3-22 Residential Heating Oil Tanks 3-23 Residential Use and Disposal 3-23 Dry Cleaners 3-24 Summary 3-24 4 Contamination Prevention 4-1 Introduction 4-1 General Methods 4-2 - Preventive Programs by Others 4-2 Land Use 4-2 Regional Issues 4-3 Water Table Monitoring 4-5 Water Quality Monitoring 4-6 ' Discharge Permits 4-7 Emergency Response Plan 4-8 River Source Prevention 4-10 Septic Tanks 4-10 Landfills and Solid Waste Disposal 4-11 Sewage Pump Station Overflows 4-11 Olympic Petroleum Pipelines 4-11 Subsurface Source Prevention 4-12 Service Stations 4-12 Concrete Plant 4-14 Brick Plant 4-15 Sanitary Sewers 4-15 Storm Sewers 4-16 Cemetery Sites 4-18 Private Fill Sites 4-18 Surface Source Prevention 4-18 ' Sprays and Fertilizers 4-19 Transportation Source Prevention 4-20 Interstate 405 4-20 SR 169 (Maple Valley Highway) 4-21 City Streets 4-22 Railroad 4-23 General Source Prevention 4-23 ' Coal Mines 4-23 Residential Heating Oil Tanks 4-23 Residential Use and Disposal 4-24 Dry Cleaners 4-24 , Conclusions 4-24 Appendix A. Water Quality Test Reports Appendix B. Landfill Leachate and Storm Runoff Characteristics Appendix C. Meeting Minutes and Correspondence With WSDOT ' Appendix D. California Buried Storage Tank Legislation iv TABLES Page ' 3-1 Spray and Fertilizer Usage 3-16 3-2 Contaminant Source Evaluation 3-26 FIGURES 2-1 Cedar River Drainage Basin 2-9 2-2 Lower Cedar River Drainage Basin 2-13 2-3 Geologic Map 2-15 2-4 Schematic Cross Section, Cedar River Aquifer 2-17 2-5 Recharge Flow Paths 2-19 3-1 Potential Contaminant Sources 3-27 4-1 Aquifer Area Land Use 4.-27 v RECOMMENDATIONS This Well Field Protection Study has defined the City of Renton' s well field recharge area, evaluated potential con- tamination pathways, identified contaminant sources, and identified controls and actions by which the City and others can minimize contamination of the well field. Specific methods of contamination prevention recommended herein are listed below. (R) indicates action by City of Renton; (0) indicates action by others with monitoring or participation by Renton; and (1) indicates high priority. 1. Limit land use within the aquifer area. (R1) 2. Resolve regional issues such as highway planning, traffic restrictions, solid waste disposal, and development and sewerage of the area upriver of Renton. (0) 3 . Monitor groundwater table elevations in the aquifer area. (R1) 4. Continue monitoring well and river quality trends. (R) 5. Develop an emergency response plan to deal with contamination incidents. (R) 6. Provide sewer service for the Maplewood Addition. (R1 or 01) 7. Continue monitoring Cedar Hills and Queen City Farms landfills to ascertain leachate :movement. (0) 8. Modify Cottonwood and Falcon Ridge sewage pump stations as required to minimize chance of overflows. (R) 9 . Require improved storage for hazardous substances (primarily petroleum products) at existing facil- ities in the aquifer area. Ban new service stations in the area. (R1) 10. Monitor aquifer water quality to detect sanitary sewer leaks. (R) 11 . Collect all surface runoff from I-405 and SR 169 and extend storm sewers to discharge downriver of Wells 1 and 2 . (R1 or 01) vii 12. Continue monitoring operation of fill sites near Mt. Olivet Cemetery. (R) 13. Restrict use of herbicides, pesticides, and fer- tilizers in aquifer area. (R1 and 01) 14. Construct jersey barriers along paved shoulders and on/off ramps of I-405. (0 1) 15. Control construction activities during expansion of I-405. (0) 16 . Address well field protection in EIS for I-405. 17. Construct jersey barriers along paved shoulders of SR 169. (0) 18. Restrict hazardous materials transportation on I-405 , SR 169 and city streets in aquifer area. (R and 0) ) 19 . Survey aquifer recharge area to determine extent and risk associated with private heating oil and motor fuel storage tanks. (R) 20 . Sponsor a program to inform public of potential consequences of residential disposal of hazardous materials. (R) 21 . Provide collection center (s) for hazardous mate- rials unacceptable to normal garbage collection services. (R, 0) 22. Monitor operations of dry cleaning facilities to ,. ensure proper disposal of cleaning solvents. (R) It is also recommended that the City study the feasibility of relocating the well field upriver near the Maplewood Golf Course. The study should determine the suitability of the aquifer through a test drilling program, evaluate ground- water quality, determine transferability of water rights and impact on Cedar River flows, evaluate well field protection requirements, and compare the costs and impacts of reloca- tion with costs and impacts recommended for protection of the existing well field. A study should also be done to consider the merits and com- plications associated with having the Cedar River aquifer declared a sole-source supply by the EPA. viii SUMMARY The City of Renton depends upon the Cedar River aquifer for up to 85 percent of its water supply. The results of an engineering study for the protection of that aquifer (well field) from contamination by encroaching urban development are reported herein. The scope of the study was as follows: o Define the well field recharge area and evaluate potential contamination pathways based on existing topographic maps , well logs, geologic and hydro- logic publications and reports, water quality test reports, and other available information as pro- vided by the City of Renton o Identify potential industrial, commercial, traf- fic, and other contaminant sources that could adversely affect the well field. Evaluate rela- tive significance of contaminant sources identi- fied and their potential impact on the well field o Identify controls and actions that the City of Renton and others could exercise to minimize or prevent potential contamination of the well field Existing State of Washington Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) regulations place the responsibility for protection of the City' s sources of water on the City. Re- cent state legislation directs the Department of Ecology (DOE) , DSHS, and local government agencies to explore and implement all possible measures for the protection of ground- water supplies. The upper two-thirds of the Cedar River drainage basin is within the protected City of Seattle watershed. The lower one-third of the river basin, from Landsburg to Lake Wash- ington, is not protected as a watershed and is therefore of greater significance to this study. Water from the entire drainage basin may contribute to recharge of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer. For purposes of this report, the boundaries of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer have been identified (Figure 2-3) as the val- ley walls northeast and southwest of the river, the bedrock narrows 4 ,000 feet southeast of I-405 , and a line drawn approximately 1 ,000 feet northwest of I-405. This aquifer is generally 70 to 90 feet deep, as are the five wells in the well field. The aquifer receives natural recharge from direct precipita- tion infiltration, subsurface lateral and vertical discharge from the adjacent plateaus on either side of the valley, surface water runoff and seepage from the valley walls, underflow through the bedrock narrows, and inflow from the i Cedar River during flood flows. ix Contaminants can enter the aquifer through the same flow paths as natural recharge. Contaminants are attenuated in the earth to various degrees, depending on the chemical nature of the contaminant and nearness of the contaminant source to the wells. Water quality in the aquifer, as sampled at the wells, cur- rently exceeds drinking water requirements for all param- eters. No detailed comparison of past and present well water quality data was made to identify trends, if any, in contaminant levels. However, water quality in the river adjacent to the aquifer is not as high and does not always meet drinking water standards. Also, river water quality is expected to decrease in the future as increased population growth occurs east of Renton. River water quality can affect aquifer water quality. Current land use activities and potential contamination incidents adjacent to the aquifer are likely to have a more significant effect on water quality in the aquifer. Poten- tial contaminant sources have been classified as river, sub- surface, surface, transportation, and general. Significant river sources of potential contamination upstream of the aquifer include: o Septic tanks in the Maplewood Addition and in other developing areas upstream o The Cedar Hills and Queen City Farms landfills o The Gull service station approximately one mile east of I-405 along the Maple Valley Highway o Overflows from Cottonwood and Falcon Ridge Sewage Pump Stations Significant subsurface sources of potential contamination near the aquifer include: o Underground petroleum storage tanks and piping at two and possibly four service stations o Fuel and concrete additive storage tanks at the Stoneway concrete plant o Sanitary and storm sewers near the aquifer o Three private fill sites near the Mt. Olivet Cemetery Significant surface sources of potential contamination near the aquifer include sprays and fertilizers used in the im- mediate vicinity of the aquifer. X i Significant transportation sources of potential contamina- tion near the aquifer include: o Surface (stormwater) runoff from I-405, SR 169, and city streets o Accidental spill of petroleum products, chemicals, or other hazardous materials on I-405, SR 169 , city streets, and Burlington Northern railroad tracks Significant general sources of potential contamination near the aquifer include: o Residential heating oil tanks o Residential disposal of paints, solvent:3, herbi- cides, pesticides, petroleum products, and other common but hazardous materials o Chemical solvents from dry cleaning operations Severe contamination of the aquifer could be extremely ex- pensive. Necessary actions following contamination might include one or more of the following: o Cleanup of the contaminated aquifer soils o Isolation or diversion of contaminated aquifer water from the City' s wells o Construction of water treatment facilities o Abandonment of the aquifer and existing supply facilities o Location and development of a new source of water supply o Purchase of water, if available, from Seattle Water Department Preventive measures can be implemented to protect Renton' s Cedar River aquifer from contamination. The coats of imple- menting these measures must be weighed against -the risks of taking no action. Among the general methods of prevention recommended herein are: o Development of policies that limit land use within the aquifer recharge area. Such policies include appropriate zoning to limit or eliminate commercial activities that are potential contaminant sources, and the acquisition of such properties for conver- sion to park, greenbelt or other non--contaminating use. xi o Increased participation by the City of Renton in resolution of regional issues that may impact aquifer protection. These issues include I-405/ I-90 and other highway planning, construction, and traffic restrictions; continued use of and hauling of waste to the Cedar Hills landfill; land use in the river basin east of the city limits; sewerage of outlying areas; and maintenance of minimum stream flows in the Cedar River. o The Cedar River aquifer could be declared a sole- source supply by the EPA at the request of the City. The ramifications of the declaration should be carefully considered by the City prior to making such a request, however. o Water table monitoring in the aquifer area to con- firm groundwater and contaminant flow paths. o Water quality monitoring of both well (aquifer) water and river water to observe trends in contam- inant levels. o Development of an emergency response plan to deal with possible aquifer contamination incidents. Among the specific methods of contamination prevention for river sources recommended herein are: o Provision of sewer service for the Maplewood Addi- tion as soon as possible o Continued monitoring of the Cedar Hills and Queen City Farms landfills to ascertain leachate move- , ment patterns and the need for additional protec- tive measures in the future o Modify Cottonwood and Falcon Ridge Sewage Pump Stations as required to minimize chance of overflows. Among the specific methods of contamination prevention for subsurface sources recommended herein are: o Adoption of an ordinance that requires construction of improved storage facilities for hazardous sub- stances, primarily the petroleum products at the identified service stations (including the Gull station) and the petroleum products and concrete additives at the Stoneway plant. Ban new service stations in the aquifer area. xii o Continued monitoring of aquifer water quality to detect leakage from adjacent sanitary sewers, with immediate repair of any known leaks in such sewers. The abandoned sewers in Cedar River Park should be completely plugged o Repair of any known leaks in storm sewers and ex- tension of storm sewers to discharge to the river downstream of Wells 1 and 2 wherever possible. Prevent contaminants from entering storm sewers whenever possible o Continued monitoring of the operation of the three private fill sites near Mt. Olivet Cemetery to assure that no hazardous leachable materials are included in the fill Among the specific methods of contamination prevention for surface sources recommended herein is continued restraint by the City, WSDOT, and BNRR in the use of herbicide and pesti- cide sprays and fertilizers in the vicinity of the aquifer. Among the specific methods of contamination prevention for transportation sources recommended herein are: o Collection of surface runoff from all paved areas of I-405 that drain toward the aquifer and dis- charge of this storm sewage to the river at a point downriver of Wells 1 and 2 o Construction of jersey barriers along the paved shoulders and on/off-ramps of I-405 to prevent vehicles from spilling contaminants outside the paved areas and to protect the well facilities from physical impact o Control of construction activities (such as refuel- ing of equipment) during expansion of I-405 to minimize chances of groundwater contamination o Protection of the well field should be addressed during preparation of the environmental impact statement by WSDOT for the I-405 expansion ' o Collection of surface runoff from all paved areas of SR 169 in the vicinity of the aquifer and dis- charge of this storm sewage to the river down- stream of Wells 1 and 2 if possible o Construction of jersey barriers along the north ' and south paved shoulders of SR 169 to prevent vehicles from spilling contaminants outside the paved areas xiii o Implementation of restrictions on the types of hazardous materials that can be transported on I-405, SR 169 , and city streets in the vicinity of the aquifer Among the specific methods of contamination prevention for general sources recommended herein are: o Survey of the aquifer recharge area to determine the number of existing heating oil and motor fuel storage tanks; evaluation of the risk they repre- sent to the aquifer, and development of a program for minimizing leakage from these tanks if neces- sary o Sponsoring an education program (through inserts in monthly utility billings or other means) that informs the public of the potential consequences of residential disposal of hazardous materials such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum products o Provision of convenient collection centers for the public to dispose of such materials that are unac- ceptable to normal garbage collection services o Monitoring operations of any dry cleaning facili- ties to ensure proper disposal of cleaning solvents �. No guarantee is made that all potential contaminant sources have been identified. Additional or improved methods of contamination prevention may be available or will be devel- oped in the future. The main intent of this report is to stimulate an awareness of the potential for aquifer contami- nation and that it serve as a tool toward maintaining the high quality of the City of Renton' s existing water source. One option to protection of the existing well field which the City should consider is that of relocating the City' s wells upriver, near the Maplewood Golf Course. It appears that protection of a well field at this site from long-term contamination might be more easily accomplished. If the aquifer there is suitable for development of major wells, groundwater quality is acceptable, and the cost of relocat- ing to that area can be justified when compared to the cost of well field protection at the present site, then the Maple- wood site might provide the City of Renton with a better source of water in the future. xiv i ■■ Chapter 1 NO INTRODUCTION PROJECT DESCRIPTION Background The City of Renton has five potable water wells that are located in an urban setting. The wells have historically produced high-quality water that consistently exceeded State of Washington Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality standards for public water supplies. However, the wells are vulnerable to contamination because they are located near existing commercial business activities and major transportation corridors. Encroaching urban developments and proposed highway expansions in the area encompassing the wells increase the potential for future contamination. Protection of these wells is crucial to the health and safety of the public because they are the source of approximately 85 percent of the City' s total water supply. Other sources of water are not readily available 'to meet the demands for potable water. Well Field Description The locations of the five wells, all of which draw from the Cedar River aquifer, are shown in Figures 2-3 and 3-1 . The wells are described in detail in the 1983 City of: Renton Comprehensive Water System Plan. Their construction dates, depths, and capacities are as follows: Depth to Bottom of Well Well Date Well Screen Capacity No. Constructed (feet) (gpm) 1 1942 82 2,000 2 1942 82 3 ,000 3 1959 56 1 , 600 8 1967 92 3 , 500 9 1984 105 1 ,250 The wells are located within two separate City of Renton parks. Wells 1 and 2 are located at the southeast corner of Liberty Park, with the Cedar River approximately 100 feet to the south and Houser Way bordering on the east. Houser Way is a one-way arterial street bounded on the east by a single set of Burlington Northern Railroad tracks and Inter- state 405 (I-405) . 1-1 1 Well 3 is located at the northeast corner of Liberty Park, at the intersection of Bronson Way and Houser Way: Bronson Way is a multilane arterial street with a service station and other commercial businesses to the north. Wells 8 and 9 are located directly east of I-405 within Cedar River Park. Cedar River Park is encompassed by I-405 to the west, State Route 169 (Maple Valley Highway, SR 169) to the north, the Stoneway concrete plant to the east, and the Cedar River to the south. The City of Renton plans to construct additional wells in the Cedar River aquifer as future water demands increase. These wells may be located near the five existing wells or they may be located farther upriver, near the Maplewood Golf Course. Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify potential sources of contamination that could adversely affect the quality of water produced from the wells, and to provide information on which future decisions and actions to protect this vital resource can be based. Recent laboratory tests on water samples taken from the City's distribution system indicate that the water currently extracted from the wells is of ex- cellent quality. This report identifies potential future sources of contamination so that preventive measures can be implemented to maintain this quality. Therefore, the rec- ommendations outlined in this report are preventive rather than corrective. It is unlikely that all preventive measures, even though desirable, can be implemented. Some accidental contamination of the aquifer might occur even though all preventive measures were implemented. Further, it is possible that contamination of the aquifer has already occurred but has not yet been detected. The objective, then, of developing an aquifer protection plan is to reduce the risk of occurrence and the magnitude of possible contamination to acceptable and affordable levels. SCOPE OF REPORT This report documents an investigation of the well field area surrounding Wells 1 , 2 , 3, 8 , and 9. The scope of the investigation, as outlined in an engineering services contract between the City of Renton and CH2M HILL, is as follows: o Define the well field recharge area and evaluate potential contamination pathways based on existing topographic maps, well logs, and geologic and 1-2 hydrologic publications and reports, water quality test reports , and other available information as provided by the City of Renton o Identify potential industrial, commercial, traffic, and other contaminant sources that could adversely affect the well field. Evaluate relative significance of contaminant sources identified and their potential impact or., the well field o Identify controls and actions that the City of Renton and others could exercise to minimize or prevent potential contamination of the well field REPORT ORGANIZATION This report is organized in a manner similar to the scope outlined above. The well field recharge area is defined in Chapter 2 using available geologic and hydrologic information. Included is a discussion of probable groundwater movement and surface drainage patterns. Chapter 3 addresses the sources of potential contamination and their possible impact on the well field. The impact of each potential contaminant source is evaluated and ranked according to parameters such as chemical content , potential quantity, location, probability of occurrence, attenuation, and detectability. A table is provided at the end of the chapter listing each of the sources of potential contamina- tion and the ranking of these parameters for each. Possible methods of eliminating or controlling the potential contaminant sources or minimizing their effect on the well field are considered in Chapter 4. EXISTING REGULATIONS The City of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer is unique among sources of public water supply because of its urban location, relatively shallow depth to water surface, and the large number of customers served. Most water purveyors of Renton' s size use surface or subsurface supplies from more remote and protected watersheds. Other smaller local communities with water sources similar to Renton' s include Federal Way, Issaquah, and Redmond. Because Renton' s water source is somewhat unique, there are few other existing guidelines or examples of aquifer protection which Renton might follow. Current EPA and DSHS regulations governing public water sys- tems are oriented primarily toward defining potable water quality and the design and operation of water :systems. 1-3 Neither EPA nor State of Washington Department of Ecology (DOE) currently has regulations specifically governing protection of aquifers. However, the following excerpt from DSHS ' Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Health Retarding Public Water Systems , August 1983 , best identifies protection requirements for water sources : 248-54-125 Source protection. Public drinking water shall be obtained from the highest quality source feasible. 8 q Y Existing and proposed sources of supply shall conform to the water quality stand- ards established in WAC 248-54-175. (1) For wells and springs, the water purveyor shall provide an area of sanitary control for a radius of one hundred feet (thirty meters) and two hundred feet (sixty meters) respectively;except the water purveyor shall control land of a greater or lesser size or of a different shape than is defined by a one hundred or two hundred foot radius where an engineering justification has been reviewed and accepted by the department. The engineering justifica- tion must address geological and hydrological data, well construction de- tails, and other relevant factors indicating a control area of different size or shape is necessary to assure adequate sanitary control in the vicinity of the source. Within the control area, no source of contamination may be constructed, stored,disposed of,or applied without the permission of the department and the purveyor. The control area must be owned by the water purveyor in fee simple, or he or she must have the right to exercise complete sanitary con- trol of the land through other legal provisions. A purveyor owning all or part of the control area in fee simple, or who has possession and control of the sanitary control area, even though the legal ti- tle is held by another, shall convey to the department a restriction on the use of the land in accordance with these rules, by appropriate legal docu- ment,such as a declaration of covenant.This document shall state no source of contamination may be constructed,stored,disposed of,or applied without the permission of the department and the purveyor, and if any change in ownership of the system or sanitary control area is considered, all affected parties shall be informed of these requirements. Where portions of the control area are in the possession and control of an- other, the purveyor must obtain a duly recorded restrictive covenant which shall run with the land, restricting the use of said land in accordance with these rules, which shall be recorded in the county wherein the land is located. (2) Adequate watershed control, consistent with treatment provided, shall be demonstrated and documented for all surface water sources pursuant to WAC 248-54-225. A department guideline regarding watershed control is available to assist utilities in this regard. (3) In situations where regional ground water resources are being utilized, col- laborative actions may be taken by appropriate local,state,or federal agen- cies when necessary to protect underground sources of drinking water.These may include, but not be limited to: Sole source aquifer designation;special design criteria;or grand water resource management. [Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. 83-19-002 (Order 266), 1 248-54-125, filed 9/8/83.] 1-4 1 The following excerpt, also from DSHS' Rules and Regulations , identifies watershed contra: i 249-54-225 Watershed control. (1) All public water systems utilizing surface water shall adequately exercise surveillance over conditions affecting source water quality. ' (2) Those public water systems using unfiltered surface waters shall,in addition to subsection (1)of this section,document a watershed control program. All facilities and activities in the watershed affecting public health shall be un- der the surveillance of the water purveyor and shall be satisfactorily limited and controlled so as to preclude degradation of the physical, chemical, microbiological,viral,and radiological quality of the source of supply. (3) Those public water systems using unfiltered surface water shall submit to the department for approval a report identifying all conditions, activities, and facilities within the watershed,together with an acceptable program for necessary surveillance, limitation, and control. This report shall be part of the water system plan required in WAC 248-54--065, included in an opera- tions program as required in WAC 2:48-54-195, or prepared independently for those systems not required to have such a plan. The report shall be M viewed, updated as necessary,and submitted to the department annually. [Statutory Authority: RCW 43.20.050. 83-19--002 (Order 266), !; 248-54--225, filed 9/8/83.] As these excerpts indicate, the responsibility f r protection of the Cedar River aquifer lies prima ily with the City of Renton. However, the City currently ,Ihas no specific ordinances that focus on protection of he Cedar River aquifer. Such an ordinance, or aquifer pr tection plan, is needed to supplement existing regulatio s to ensure long-term protection of this most important drinking water source. House Bill No. 1138 , recently enacted by the state legislature and effective June 7 , 1984, is an act which amends existing State laws to provide additional. protection of the quality and quantity of ground water used for public water supplies. It states in part that the City' s 1-5 Comprehensive Plan shall provide for such protection. It further states: 1 NEW SECTION. Sec. 4. There is added to chapter 90.54 RCW a new 2 section to read as follows: 3 The department of ecology may recommend land use management 4 policy modifications it finds appropriate for the further protection 5 of ground and surface water resources in this state. Such advisory 6 recommendations may be made to other state regulatory agencies, local 7 governments, water systems, and other appropriate bodies. 8 NEW SECTION. Sec. 5. There is added to chapter 90.54 RCW a new 9 section to read as follows: 0 The legislature hereby declares that the protection of 1 groundwater aquifers which are the sole drinking water source for a 2 given jurisdiction shall be of the uppermost priority of the state 3 department of ecology, department of social and health services, and 4 all local government agencies with jurisdiction over such areas. In 5 administration of programs related to the disposal of wastes and 6 other practices which may impact such water quality, the department , 7 of ecology, department of social and health services, and such 9 affected local agencies shall explore all possible measures for the i protection of the aquifer, including any appropriate incentives, , 3 penalties, or other measures designed to bring about practices which 1 provide for the least impact on the quality of the groundwater. INFORMATION SOURCES To investigate the well field area surrounding Wells 1 , 2, 3, 8 , and 9, the following documents , reports, plans, and miscellaneous sources of information were reviewed: o City of Renton Comprehensive Water Plan, 1983 C City of Renton Water Report, 1965 o City of Renton Comprehensive Land Use Plan, 1983 o City of Renton Zoning Map and Zoning Ordinance o City of Renton Parks and Recreation Department Map o City of Renton Sanitary Sewer Maps City of Renton Storm Sewer Maps City of Renton Water Distribution System Maps City of Renton Street Improvement Maps City of Renton Topography Maps 1-6 o DSHS Rules and Regulations of the State Board of Health Regarding Public Water Systems, 1983 o American Water Works Association Manual No. M19, Emergency Planning for Water Utility Management o American Water Works Association Manual No. M21, Groundwater o Various reports and appendixes prepared for the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) through its River Basin Coordinating Committee (RIBCO) . These reports and appendixes summarize the investigations of the Water Quality Management Study (WQMS) and Water Resource Management Study (WRMS) for the Green and Cedar Rivers and were completed in 1975. o Washington State Department of Transportation Maps of Existing I-405 and SR 169 Facilities o U. S. Geological Survey Geology and Groundwater Resources Maps o King County Soos Creek Plateau Community Plan o King County Newcastle Community Plan o U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development King County, Washington, Flood Insurance Rate Maps For brevity, information found in the above sources has generally not been repeated herein. Numerous discussions were held with City of Renton Utilities, Parks, Fire, Traffic, Building and Planning Department staffs. Represen- tatives of Seattle Water Department, Metro, EPA, DSHS, DOE, DOT, and potential contaminant sources were contacted. Field investigations of the well field area were: also made. Four project meetings, involving some of the above staff and representatives, were also held as the investigation progressed. 1-7 Chapter 2 HYDROGEOLOGY INTRODUCTION The City' s wells extract water from the aquifer beizeath the Cedar River valley. The aquifer is a saturated stratum of unconsolidated deposits. Water entering the aquifer from the ground surface, or from subsurface sources, is termed recharge. The area around the aquifer that collects and transmits significant quantities of recharge to the aquifer is called the recharge area. Contaminants discharged or spilled within that area can potentially cause contamination of Renton' s aquifer. Therefore, protection of this area from contaminants is of great importance to the protection of the aquifer. This chapter describes Renton' s aquifer recharge area and identifies potential contamination pathways, based on existing geologic and topographic data. CEDAR RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN Flow from the entire Cedar River drainage basin may contrib- ute to recharge of the aquifer. The Cedar River 'heads in the Cascades at the eastern edge of King County. The upper two-thirds of the river' s 50-mile length and 188-square-mile drainage basin is located within the City of Seattle water- shed. The westerly limit of the Seattle watershed is at Landsburg, where Seattle Water Department withdraws its major water supply. The limits of the Cedar River drainage basin below Landsburg are shown in Figures 2-1 and 2-2. The portion of the drainage basin below Landsburg is of primary importance to this study. II' � From the topography illustrated by contour lines in Figures 2-1 and 2-2, major surface drainage patterns are evident. These are limited primarily to natural flows overland and in contributory streams. However, below (west of) Maplewood Golf Course, the natural surface and subsurface drainage patterns are supplemented by paved streets with gutters and storm sewers in densely developed areas. Several major storm sewers discharge into the Cedar River in the vicinity of the well field at locations indicated in Figure 2-2. The largest of these is a 30-inch line from the South Highlands area, which discharges to the river at the I-405 crossing. Others include five 18- and 24--inch lines along SR 169 southeast of the well field. These five sewers collect highway drainage and surface and subsurface water from the Lower Maplewood area. 2-1 Throughout the drainage basin, underlying soils formations t affect movement of subsurface water toward the river. This is evident along the edges of the Cedar River valley between the well field and Maplewood Golf Course. Here, springs emerge from the valley walls at intervals. These springs are fed from the plateau areas northeast and southwest of the valley where surface water generally percolates into the ground. These plateau areas include South Highlands, Lower Maplewood, Heather Downs, and Tiffany Park Cascade. GEOLOGY The limits and character of the Cedar River aquifer in the vicinity of Renton' s well field were determined by review of topographic maps, well logs, and geologic and hydrologic publications. Sources most helpful include the following: - o Water Supply Bulletin No. 28 , Geology and Ground- , water Resources of Southwestern King County, Wash- ington, 1969, by the State of Washington Department of Water Resources , prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey. The accompanying Plates 1 and 3 of the Bulletin show soil formations and known well locations in the area. o Boring logs for Wells 1, 2, 3, 8, and 9 and obser- vation wells for Wells 8 and 9, plus the drilling and testing reports for each of these wells. o Hydrologic Analysis, Renton Well 9, 1983. , Information from the above sources was supplemented by field observations. The geology of the well field area is sum- marized in Figure 2-3. The following brief description of geologic units in the area will illustrate the significance of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer. The geologic units that form the Cedar River valley in the vicinity of Renton' s well field are, from oldest to youngest: o Bedrock of the Puget Group The Puget Group underlies the valley wall south- , west of the Cedar River. It consists of highly folded and faulted sandstone and interbedded shale and coal. In the Renton Tiger Mountain area, the unit includes volcanic conglomerate, siltstone, breccia, and lava flows. o Undifferentiated Pre-Vashon Drift , 2-2 This unit, underlying the valley wall northeast of the Cedar River, is over 400 feet thick beneath Renton' s well field. It consists of at :Least four layers of till separated by river-deposited sand and gravel and lake-deposited sand, silt, clay, and peat. ro Vashon Till The Vashon till varies in thickness from zero to 80 feet. It is a compact mixture of gravel and boulders in a silty/sand matrix. o Vashon Outwash The outwash unit caps the hills northeast of the Cedar River near the well field and is from zero to 300 feet thick. It consists of clean sand and gravel. o Vashon Drift This unit caps the hills southwest of the Cedar River. It consists of undifferentiated till and outwash sand and gravels. o Alluvium (Cedar River aquifer) This unit comprises the Cedar River aquifer, the aquifer pumped by Renton' s Wells 1 , 2 , 3 , 8 , and 9. It consists of terrace and flood-plain deposits of clean gravel and sand in the Cedar River valley. The alluvium is about 70 to 90 feet thick in the well field area. The water table within the aquifer is generally ELt or near the elevation of the water surface in the Cedar River. In the area of the well field, the water table is approximately 20 feet below the ground surface. 1 The areal and stratigraphic relationships of these geologic units are shown in Figures 2-3 and 2-4. CEDAR RIVER AQUIFER The alluvium is the only major water-bearing unit in the area. The Vashon drift and outwash may support a perched water table above the river valley near the well field, but this unit has not been developed. The underlying pre-Vashon drift has been reported to be not capable of yielding large quantities of water in the vicinity of the well field based on a 400-foot-deep test hole (observation Well 9) . The 2-3 1 bedrock Puget Group usually yields only a few tens of gallons per minute to wells. For purposes of this report, the boundaries of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer, as distinct from the drainage basin, have been defined as the valley walls northeast and southwest of the river, the bedrock narrows located about 4, 000 feet southeast of the well field, and a line drawn about 1, 000 feet northwest of Wells 1 , 2 , and 3 (see Figure 2-3) . The bedrock narrows was chosen as the south- east boundary because it is believed that the alluvium is thin there and most of the groundwater flowing down the val- ley (roughly parallel to the river) is forced to the sur- face. The northwest boundary was chosen to represent an assumed probable maximum radius of influence (area affected by a pumping well) of Wells 1 , 2 , and 3 based on reported testing of Well 9 , although the aquifer itself extends beyond these limits. As Figure 2-5 illustrates, the aquifer receives natural re- charge from direct precipitation infiltration; subsurface lateral and vertical discharge from the pre Vashon drift, surface water runoff and seepage from the valley walls bounding the aquifer; underflow through the bedrock narrows; and inflow from the Cedar River during flood flows. Water in the alluvium generally moves down valley parallel to the river, with a component of flow toward the river under non- pumping conditions. Natural discharge is to the river and/or ultimately to Lake Washington and Puget Sound. Pump- ing distorts the natural flow, causing water to flow roughly radially toward each well. If the aquifer becomes contam- inated, the contaminants must migrate to within the well' s radius of influence before a quality problem could develop with the well water. CONTAMINANT FLOW PATHS Contaminants can enter the aquifer system by many different i routes. The principal flow paths are listed below and illustrated in Figures 2-2 and 2-5. Figure 2-5 represents a generalized cross-section of the Cedar River aquifer at the well field. The existing wells extend to near the bottom of the aquifer. o Contaminants from direct surface sources above the aquifer could migrate through the soil to the water table. o Contaminated Cedar River water could enter the aquifer during flood flows (when the river level is higher than the groundwater level) . Entry , could also be induced by pumping, as may be the case for Wells 1 and 2. Any spill or activity 2-4 within the surface watershed of the Cedar River above the narrows could conceivably contribute to river contamination. ' o Surface runoff/spills from South Highlands, Lower Maplewood, Heather Downs, Tiffany Park Cascade, and the eastern portion of North Renton could carry contaminants to the aquifer. o Contaminants from surface sources in the upland areas described above could migrate through the soil and seep out along the valley walls or enter the aquifer below ground. o Leaking sewers or other pipelines passing through (above) the aquifer area could carry contaminants - to the aquifer. Contaminants that enter the aquifer will be attenuated to various degrees, depending on the chemical nature of the contaminant, the nature of the aquifer materials, and nearness of the contaminant source to the wells. The major attenuation processes include sorption to aquifer materials, chemical precipitation and related reactions, biodegradation, mechanical filtration, and dilution due to dispersion and mixing. The inverse of attenuation is mobility, a term used later in this report to rank contaminants. Sorption (adsorption or absorption) generally is a revers- ible process and therefore serves only to slow the rate of contaminant movement relative to the water. Chemical preci- pitation is generally more permanent. However, all reactions are reversible to some degree. The extent of biodegradation will depend on the value of the contaminant as a food source to organisms existing in the soil. WATER QUALITY Renton Well Water Water from Renton' s four existing wells (and from Well 9 when completed) is disinfected by chlorination prior to dis- charge into the City' s distribution system. In accordance with DSHS regulations, the City routinely collects untreated (raw) water samples from each well for analysis of bacterio- logical (total coliform) and inorganic chemical and physical 1 parameters. Water is also sampled for turbidity, trihalo- methanes, corrosivity, pesticides and radionuclides. Copies of recent laboratory analysis reports are included in ' Appendix A. As these reports indicate , the well water quality (and thus the aquifer water quality) exceeds current drinking water requirements for all parameters. No detailed 2-5 comparison of past and present water quality data was made to identify trends, if any, in contaminant levels.- Maplewood evels:Maplewood Well Water , The Maplewood Addition Water Co-op provides water service to the entire Maplewood Addition, including that portion inside the city limits (see Figure 3-1) . Their source of supply is two wells 15 to 20 feet apart, located within the residen- tial area near the easterly edge of the Maplewood Addition. Each well is equipped with a 10-horsepower, 200-gpm vertical ' turbine pump. According to a representative of the Co-op, two raw water ' samples are tested for coliform each month by the King County Health Department. The representative stated that the coliform counts are always below the DSHS-allowed maxi- mum. A comprehensive water quality analysis is also con- ducted every 3 years. The latest test results from November 1982 , also included in Appendix A, indicate water quality meeting DSHS requirements. The water quality closely parallels that from Renton' s Cedar River aquifer. Little else is known about these wells. No conclusions have been drawn as to the relationship of this well water quality with the quality of water from the adjacent Cedar River. River Water Limited data is available on quality of water in the Cedar River, both adjacent to Renton' s Cedar River aquifer and , further upstream. Potential data sources which were checked include the following: o U.S. Geological Survey o Metro o EPA (STORET system) o DOE o DSHS o Seattle Water Department o City of Renton , Data from the Seattle Water Department relative to Cedar River water is limited to water quality at the Landsburg , Dam. A recent water analysis report for this source is included in Appendix A. As this report indicates, water quality at Landsburg is considerably higher than that from Renton' s wells. This is as expected, due to Landsburg' s upstream location away from most contaminant sources, and to the fact that ground (well) water typically contains more dissolved inorganics than does surface (stream) water. ' 2-6 River water quality data have been collected by USES, Metro, DOE, EPA, and the University of Washington at six locations between the mouth of the Cedar River and the town of Maple Valley at various times from 1959 (RIBCO Water Quality Management Study, Part III, Appendix B, Water Quality Analyses, December 1974) . EPA STORET data from the sampling point at the Logan Street bridge are included in Appendix A. The data have not been studied in detail in preparation of this report; however, they would be useful baseline data for future river water quality analyses and determination of contaminant trends. In general, the available historical data indicate that, in 1 the lower Cedar River below Maple Valley, water quality conditions frequently violate Washington State Water Quality Standards for Class A waters or similar standards suggested ' in the RIBCO Water Quality Management Study. (The DOE classifies the Cedar River from Lake Washington to Landsburg Dam as Class A excellent, suitable for domestic, industrial, and agricultural water supply, among other uses. ) High temperatures and low dissolved oxygen concentrations have been noted during low flow conditions (summer) . Exces- sive total coliform counts (due to nonpoint sources) have been observed at various times year round. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations have been noted in the winter months, apparently from nonpoint sources , and exces- sive concentrations of phosphate-phosphorus are also believed to occur. Computer-modeled projections of future water quality condi- tions (to the year 2000) were made during the RIB-CO WQMS work, assuming no significant change in the land uses of the 1 watershed upstream of Landsburg and that no point. sources would discharge to the Cedar River in the future. The modeling simulated changes in land use (increased population densities) below Landsburg. It indicated that, even with greater population, river water quality conditions will not be significantly degraded in the future. Only coliform bacteria showed significant increases to year 2000; inorganic chemical and physical parameters and BOD were not predicted to change significantly. In conjunction with this well field protection study, the City of Renton sampled Cedar River water at Cedar River Park in March 1984. The laboratory analysis report, included in Appendix A, indicates levels of coliform and inorganic chemical and physical contaminants similar to the levels found in the well water. One sample, however, is not a reliable indicator of river water quality which fluctuates ' frequently. 2-7 It may be concluded that, at present, water in Renton' s ' Cedar River aquifer is of good quality and is considerably better than that in the Cedar River. Sufficient data do not exist to document any current trends in river water quality, nor does the scope of this report permit development of additional data. 2-8 �; a4 pl0=1 71mo il.4"logg IM-- t plop Pia _ �, ,-�.:... fid� _ - ,- '_'1► �- �� .,•�i1 W -�`r 77M �= ��►-� Ill/ � � �.� .�� � �: �" .�•�ii��.�il�. � �..,,, _ Lam-. 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LL Q D J 0 (n Z O Q O er U Q W � � w CL U 4) �cnU I ' I I I U W I > U. m I J O ' _ ~ J Z Q Q W I ~ W > I ' W X13A/6f NV030 Diz OU- 2 R _< a QO p H >w 0 ` LL _ U Vr cr , O 4 Cr W Z -� W m d N ` Q i 1 z W cc it • .♦ _oLn cin vii i ♦♦ ♦♦ i W rn C Isa ♦♦♦�, i i � avi ♦ ti i� LU , , � � i LL D o ' Y ♦ Z � I ♦ � m LU LL • LU U cnZLL o w LLU U z cc U ' Lu W 0 J LU J ccLU - � >crR 6f3A IY F!VC30 D I I :y i LL z • i m LU i ' U ` LLL ch Z I I =� O r_ Q I _ cr I j — jI ' , ` z z I �� • N1 ; Chapter 3 POTENTIAL CONTAMINANT SOURCES INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses in detail the potential contaminant sources identified by the study. For discussion purposes, the sources are organized into the following general categories: Subsurface These are sources of contamination that originate below the ground surface, such as leakage from a buried tank or pipe- line. Contaminants from subsurface sources may remain en- tirely belowground or they may eventually seep to the surface along the valley walls. ' Surface Contaminants from surface sources originate on or above the ground surface and migrate to the aquifer via infiltration. River River contaminants flow with the surface waters in the Cedar River. They originate as either subsurface or surface sources east of the bedrock narrows, as noted in Chapter 2, or as direct discharges to the river. Transportation ' Contaminants from runoff and accidental spills related di- rectly to transportation are organized into this category. General These sources of contamination can be either subsurface, surface, or river sources but have not been pinpointed to a ' specific site. The potential contaminant sources that are identified with ' specific locations are listed and shown in Figures 2-2 and 3-1. The locations of the City' s wells and city limits are also shown in these figures. EVALUATION PARAMETERS The degree of impact each contaminant source may have on the quality of water produced from the wells is dependent upon many factors. The principal factors are as follows: ' o Chemical content of material 3-1 o Potential quantity involved o Location of contaminant source with respect to the aquifer and the probable direction of groundwater movement o Probability of occurrence o Attenuation, including sorption, chemical pre- .cipitation, filtration, dilution, and biodegrad- ation as discussed in Chapter 2 o Ability to detect occurrence of and direct movement of a spill or leak before contaminant reaches the wells The potential impact that each contaminant source may have on the well field can be estimated by evaluating each of these factors. Table 3-2, found in the summary of this chapter, lists each of the potential contaminant sources , identified in this study and ranks the impact of each. RIVER SOURCES Contaminants from these sources generally originate up the Cedar River valley a minimum of one mile to the east of the wells. Although contaminants in this category may originate on the ground surface or subsurface, they would reach the Cedar River and eventually flow with the surface waters of the river as they enter the shallow upstream end of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer at the bedrock narrows. Also included in this category are direct discharges of raw sewage to the river caused by overflows from two pump stations located west of the narrows. Under normal conditions, it is thought that such contami- nants in the river will not have an adverse impact on the aquifer unless the quality of water in the river is degraded for a long period of time, or unless flooding conditions or excessive well pumping cause the contaminants to move from the river into the aquifer. Septic Tanks According to City of Renton sewer maps, most of the devel- oped areas within the city limits are served with sanitary sewer connections. Generally, areas to the east of Renton' s city limits, are on septic tanks. One area of particular concern that is not sewered is the residential development known as the Maplewood Addition, which is directly south of the Maplewood Golf Course between the Maple Valley Highway and the Cedar River. The entire area is not sewered, al- though approximately one-third of the area is within the city limits. ' 3-2 Each residence is on a separate septic tank. There are approximately 200 residences in the area with 145 -of these in the portion that is outside the city limits. The Seattle Metro Cedar River Trunk interceptor sewer bounds this parcel of land to the north but the development is not connected to it. The development is in a 100-year flood zone according to U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development flood insurance rate maps. Flooding of this area could result in raw sewage being carried down the Cedar River from submerged septic tanks and drain fields. As mentioned in Chapter 2, the normal groundwater flow patterns are generally parallel to the river or from the aquifer toward the river. However, under flooding conditions, this natural flow pattern may be interrupted. Thus, contaminants carried downriver during a period of flooding could reach Renton' s wells. As noted in Chapter 2, water service to the Maplewood Addi- tion is provided by two wells located within the residential ' area. Although test reports indicate water quality meets DSHS requirements, these test results may not represent the water quality when a flood condition exists. In addition, there are numerous other residential develop- ments upstream of Maplewood, even beyond the town of Maple Valley, which are served by septic tank systems. These developments are located both in the Cedar River valley and on the plateaus to the north and south, in varying densities and sizes. Some indication of the extent of such develop- ments appears on the base map (USGS map) used for Figure 2-2, although the map was last updated in 1973. Because of the nature of the soils near the surface in these areas, it has been found that most septic tank systems do not perform satisfactorily after 10 to 12 years of service. King County sanitarians have indicated that the rate of septic tank failures in the entire Cedar River drainage basin probably exceeds 30 percent. According to the RIBCO Water Quality Management Study, Part III, Appendix A, Sewer- age Analysis and Plan, population in the basin between Ren- ton and Landsburg is expected to double to approximately 50 ,000 in the years between 1980 and 2000. 1 The existing Metro Cedar River Trunk interceptor sewer ends just east of Maplewood at the intersection of the Maple Valley Highway and 149th Avenue SE. Extension of this interceptor sewer upriver for a distance of approximately 2. 5 miles is anticipated by 1990. Further extension to the town of Maple Valley is not anticipated until after 1990. Construction is scheduled to begin under a ULID in June 1984 which will connect the developments in the vicinity of the 3-3 1 Aqua Barn Ranch to the Metro sewer. The King County Build- ing and Land Development Department has no knowledge of a proposed commercial development in the vicinity of 140th Place SE at Maple Valley Highway. However, should such development occur, it should also be connected to the Metro sewer. Until Maplewood and other residential developments upstream are connected to sanitary sewers, an increase in coliform count and nutrients (such as those found in commercial fertilizers) from failing septic tank systems can be expected to occur in the Cedar River. Contaminants from septic tanks are among the most serious of the potential contaminants categorized as river sources. Landfills There are two existing solid-waste landfills approximately 7 miles east of Renton within the Cedar River drainage basin. The locations of these sites are shown in , Figure 2-2. The Cedar Hills landfill is operated by the King County Solid Waste Division. Queen City Farms is a private landfill, located directly to the south of the Cedar Hills landfill, that no longer accepts waste for disposal. Because of natural drainage patterns, the majority of sur- face runoff and leachate from those landfills flows into Issaquah Creek rather than into the Cedar River. Typical leachate characteristics include low pH, low dissolved oxygen, high coliform, BOD and COD levels, increased hard- ness, and increased levels of metals, salts, nitrogen and phosphate. All of these characteristics are highly undesir- able in a potable water supply, as well as harmful, if not deadly, to aquatic life in the river. A table of typical leachate characteristics is included in Appendix B. The Queen City Farms site is on the U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency hazardous waste site priority list. Sites included on this list are subject to future study and pos- sible cleanup by the EPA. The EPA has found high levels of contaminants in the groundwater beneath ponds located on the Queen City Farms site. Tests using an organic vapor analyzer have been performed at approximately 40 private well sites in the area encompassing the landfill. The tests indicate that groundwater contaminants at these sites are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCL) set by the EPA. Tests to determine the direction and rate of movement of the contamination plume are continuing at this time. The EPA believes that contaminants that leach from either of these landfill sites would not be at measurable levels once they reached the Cedar River. 3-4 Gull Service Station A Gull service station is located approximately one mile to the east of I-405 along the Maple Valley Highway. This site is located beyond the eastern boundary of the City' s aquifer (the bedrock narrows) as described in Chapter 2. Therefore, product leakage from this site would probably migrate to the surface of the Cedar River and have little, if any, effect on Renton' s aquifer under normal river flow conditions. The contaminants associated with service stations and their potential impact on water quality are discussed in detail in the following section on subsurface sources. Sewage Pump Station Overflows There are two sewage pump stations located within the aqui- fer recharge area that include emergency overflows to the Cedar River. They are the Cottonwood pump station, located north of the river to the east of the Stoneway Concrete plant, and the Falcon Ridge pump station situated south of the bedrock narrows. Emergency overflows typically discharge raw sewage to adja- cent waterways when power failures occur at pump stations or when the influent flows exceed pumping capacities, causing overflow of the wetwell. Details of design and construction of these pump stations were not obtained. It is believed that discharge from these overflows is infrequent and that the resulting contaminants in the Cedar River would continue to flow downstream without adversely affecting the aquifer. Olympic Petroleum Pipelines Olympic Pipeline Company operates two petroleum pipelines that cross the Cedar River just west of the Maplewood Golf Course. These pipelines are 16-inch- and 20-inch-diameter cathodically protected steel. They are buried and carry refined petroleum products. Because the pipelines are located east of the bedrock narrows, it is probable that petroleum product leakage would flow on the surface of the Cedar River without degrading the quality of water in the aquifer. Miscellaneous No point discharges (contaminant sources concentrated at a single point) of any consequence are known to exist upstream in the Cedar River valley. Besides failing septic tank systems, other nonpoint sources not mentioned above which contribute to water quality degradation include urban runoff, horse and cattle pasturage, and logging. 3-5 Urban runoff (storm sewage) is discussed in the Transportation Sources section of this chapter. As urban development in- creases in the river basin, an increase in storm sewage contaminants in the river can be expected. Horse and cattle pasturage is expected to decrease as urban development in- creases. The Aqua Barn, located one mile east of Maplewood, presently has the largest concentration of horse pasturage in the basin. Contaminants from logging, primarily sediments, are not thought to threaten Renton' s aquifer and are more readily controllable than other contaminant sources. SUBSURFACE SOURCES Contaminants that originate below the ground surface, such as leakage from a buried tank or pipeline, are categorized as subsurface source contaminants. Because these sources are out of sight, immediate detection of leakage or impending danger is often difficult and may require special equipment. Contaminants from subsurface sources may remain entirely belowground or, if the source is in the upland area, they may eventually seep to the surface along the valley walls. Service Stations Service stations within the aquifer recharge area pose a , continuous threat to the quality of Renton' s water supply. Leaks from buried fuel storage tanks or piping can release quantities of petroleum product without immediate detection. Even small quantities of petroleum product can contaminate large volumes of water. Harmful components generally found in petroleum products include hydrocarbons, tetraethylead, ethylene-dichloride or ethylene-dibromide, benzene, EDB, and various gasoline detergents. The range of effects that these components may have on water quality covers a broad spectrum. Some components may only produce adverse taste and odors in the water while others may be carcinogenic when ingested. Because most fuel storage tanks and pipes are constructed of steel, they are subject to corrosion. Failure of these vessels at service stations within the Puget Sound area is not uncommon. There have been incidents in the cities of Auburn and Seattle within the past year. Crowley Environ- mental Services, a local firm that specializes in the cleanup of hazardous material spills, reports that they have been directly involved in cleanup activities at 35 to 40 service station sites in the Puget Sound area. They indicate that most of the leaks they have encountered at service stations have been associated with failures of buried piping to the fuel dispensing units rather than failures of the storage tanks. Failure of steel pipes due to corrosion is a common occurrence. 3-6 Leakage of petroleum near the wells could cause serious contamination of the aquifer. Petroleum product would rap- idly migrate vertically through the permeable soil to the water table. The product would then float on the surface of the water table, spread laterally, and could possibly be drawn into the well. Cleanup of petroleum spills is extremely difficult. Total excavation of the contaminated soil is sometimes required to restore groundwater quality. Continuous pumping of a con- taminated well to a waste site may also be required to pro- tect other wells in the vicinity from contamination. Often, additional wells must be drilled to continuously monitor 1 groundwater quality around a contaminated well. Efforts to clean up petroleum contamination can be very expensive and their results are not always successful. Therefore, in addition to the potentially serious health effects, a petro- leum product spill within the aquifer recharge area could have enormous economic consequences. The potential for a major petroleum tanker truck spill during transportation and unloading also exists. This is discussed further in the "Transportation Sources" section of this chapter. Generally, small surface spills of fuel and motor oil drip- pings at service stations in the area are collected by the storm drainage system. Special catch basin traps are normally used to contain these minor spills. Therefore, they are not considered to be a major threat to groundwater quality. Service stations near Well 3 are the most obvious cause for concern. A Texaco station is located approximately 150 feet directly to the north of Well 3 on Bronson Way. This station has four 6,000-gallon gasoline storage tanks, a 550-gallon waste oil tank, and a 1 ,000-gallon heating oil tank. All of the tanks are buried, are of steel construc- tion, and have been in service for nearly 17 years. Buried steel piping on the site connects the storage tanks to a total of six fuel dispensers. The average quantity of gasoline dispensed from this station ' each month is 150 ,000 gallons. Inventory control at this site includes stick gauging the storage tanks on a daily basis and reading the meter on each dispenser. Records are kept on the premises indicating the daily inventory on hand, the quantity of fuel dispensed, and the net gain or loss from inventory. Cumulative records from April 1983 through February 1984 indicate the following: 3-7 o A loss of 307 gallons from the premium unleaded gasoline inventory, representing an average monthly loss of 27. 9 gallons o A loss of 1 ,281 gallons from the regular unleaded gasoline inventory, representing an average monthly loss of 116. 5 gallons ' o A gain of 1, 191 gallons in the regular gasoline inventory, representing an average monthly gain of 108. 3 gallons According to these statistics, the average monthly loss from the total inventory at this site is 36. 1 gallons per month. Losses are not necessarily attributed to leakage. Evapo- ration, temperature variations, pilferage, and limited accu- racy of storage tank gauging practices are all factors to be considered when analyzing petroleum product inventories. A Union Oil station is located approximately 500 feet to the west of Well 3. This facility has two gasoline storage tanks including a 5 ,000-gallon tank that is 25 to 30 years old and a 6,000-gallon tank that is 10 to 15 years old. There are also three 350-gallon diesel fuel tanks and a waste oil tank of undetermined capacity on the site. The average quantity of gasoline dispensed from this station each month is 12,000 gallons. Inventory control includes stick gauging the storage tanks approximately 3 times per week and reading the meters on the dispensers each day. The operator of this facility states that the total quantity of fuel indicated on the dispensers for the last 12 months equals the total quantity of fuel delivered to the site in the same period. An abandoned service station and an Exxon service station are located approximately 1 ,200 feet to the northeast of Well 3 at the intersection of Sunset Boulevard and North 3rd Street. These stations may not be as critical to the safe operation of the well field system as the previously mentioned sites. It is probable that they are located beyond the radius of influence of the wells. Texaco, Inc. , recently filed an application for a new condi- tional use permit from the City that, if approved, would have allowed Texaco to remove its existing facility and install new facilities on the same site. The proposed new facilities included a service station, a car wash, and a convenience store. These plans also included removing the existing buried tanks and installing one 12,000-gallon and two 10,000-gallon gasoline storage tanks. In addition, a , 10 ,000-gallon diesel fuel storage tank was to be installed. 3-8 Each of these tanks would have been constructed of fiber- glass. New buried fiberglass piping would have connected the tanks to a total of 12 fuel dispensers under the proposed plan. This proposal represented a major expansion of fuel storage and dispensing facilities on the site. Marketable product storage would have been increased by 75 percent over present capacities. Fuel dispensers and related buried piping would have been doubled. Texaco has stated that the amount of fuel dispensed from the upgraded facility would remain at the present 150,000 gallons per month. Texaco' s application was denied by the City' s land use hearing examiner, as was their appeal to the city council. According to City records, the denial was primarily due to limited space on the site, which necessitated the use of a public alley in order to ' conduct normal business . A public hearing was held on January 17 , 1984, prior to the decision of the City' s land use hearing examiner. A staff report was prepared prior to the hearing with input from various City departments. The staff report addresses the City' s concern regarding the relationship of the service station to the water supply system. The report notes that Well 3 is approximately 100 feet from the southern border of the service station property and also states that "any spill or contamination of the ground by a leak in the gasoline tanks could result in a major public health hazard. " The close relationship between the well and the existing service station facility is a valid concern. To reduce the risk associated with a petroleum spill, the staff report recommended that Texaco be required to install an electronic leakage monitoring system around the storage tanks. Such a system would provide a means for early detec- tion of a tank leak. Early detection may help in reducing the quantity of petroleum product lost into the ground. Prompt notification of a leak would also allow the City to discontinue pumping operations, thus possibly preventing the product from reaching the water distribution system. An early detection system will not prevent a leak from occur- ring, nor will it guarantee that the product will not reach a well. Such a system will also not reduce the long-term threat of aquifer contamination associated with a service station or eliminate the need to clean up contamination should leakage occur. Concrete Plant The Stoneway concrete plant that is located approximately 1 1 , 100 feet to the east of the City' s wells is a potential source of serious contamination. Petroleum products and 3-9 chemical additives for concrete are stored in bulk quanti- ties on the site. A pond for disposal of concrete slurry is also located on the site. As stated in Chapter 2 , the groundwater in this area probably flows parallel to the Cedar River. Contaminants from this site that infiltrate through the alluvium to the water table would flow in the general direction of the wells. Thus, the entire well field is vulnerable to contamination from this site. Materials stored onsite to be used as concrete additives ' include the following: o Zeecon, which is a water reducing agent made from wood pulp byproducts and is stored in a 5,000- gallon tank o A polymer-base water reducing agent manufactured by Master Builders (MB Pozz 322N) o Approximately 1 ,000 gallons of Master Builders MB AE-10 air entraining agent o Calcium chloride stored in a 2 ,000- to 3,000-gallon aboveground tank o Master Builders 122 HE, which is an accelerator containing calcium chloride in combination with a water reducing agent o A retardant, which is basically a sugar or organic material According to the Master Builders factory in Cleveland, Ohio, the chemical compositions of these admixtures are proprie- tary. However, some information about these products was obtained. The MB Pozz 322N water-reducing agent is primarily a carbohydrate with an organic amine that is also used in soaps. The MB AE-10 air entraining agent is a wood pulp byproduct resin that is neutralized with sodium hydroxide. This particular agent is believed to be water soluble. The MB 122 HE accelerator is a combination of calcium chloride and a carbohydrate water-reducing agent with a trace of an organic amine. From this information, a determination of the impact that , leakage of these materials would have on the water system is not possible. It does appear, however, that these materials are water soluble and biodegradable and may therefore be readily dissolved and diluted to harmless levels. The slurry pond that is located on the site would also con- tain these chemicals; however, they would be significantly diluted. 3-10 Steel tanks containing petroleum products on the concrete plant site include: o A buried 4 ,000-gallon regular gasoline tank o Three buried unleaded gasoline tanks totaling 6 , 000 gallons o Two buried 10 ,000-gallon diesel fuel tanks o A 500-gallon aboveground waste oil tank This facility dispenses approximately 1 , 500 gallons of - diesel fuel per day. Stoneway indicated that in comparison the quantity of gasoline dispensed is relatively low. Inven- tory control consists of stick gauging the storage tanks twice each week. Gauging is done primarily to confirm that there is available space in the tanks to accept fuel deliv- eries. Records for the previous 12 months indicating the quantity of fuel delivered to the site versus the quantity dispensed have been requested from Stoneway by letter. Stoneway indicated verbally that this information would be made available; however it was not received. This infor- mation could be used to calculate the annual and monthly gain or loss from inventory. As discussed previously, storage of petroleum products within the aquifer recharge area poses a major threat to Renton' s water supply. The concerns outlined for the service stations near Well 3 in the previous section also apply to the Stoneway concrete plant. However, leakage from the fuel facilities at the concrete plant could cause serious contamination at all of the well locations, not just one well in particular. Contamination of this magnitude would have disastrous effects on the City of Renton. Contrary to the belief of some, Stoneway' s manager indicates that they do not have plans to relocate their facilities or change their current operations within the next 5 years. He says that a rumor relating to a potential relocation has been circulating for several years. The products listed above are essential to the operation of the concrete plant, therefore, use and storage of these products on the site will continue as long as the plant remains active. Brick Plant The North American Refractories Company brick plant is located south of the Cedar River, approximately 1 ,000 feet to the southeast of Well 8. According to the plant manager, they have two petroleum product storage tanks on the site. These include a 1 ,000-gallon gasoline storage tank and a vertical 100 ,000-gallon aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. 3-11 The gasoline storage tank is buried and of steel construc- tion. It was internally inspected for signs of corrision last year; no specific problems were noted. The diesel storage tank is relatively new, according to the manager. The perimeter of the tank is diked to contain leakage as required by the Uniform Fire Code. The ground surface below the tank is covered with gravel. The maximum quantity of fuel stored in the tank averages around 5,000 gallons. These particular petroleum facilities are not considered to be a major threat to the City' s wells. Because the large storage tank is located aboveground, leakage would be detectable in a timely manner. Also, it is probable that leakage from either of these tanks would surface along the south bank of the Cedar River and flow downstream without affecting the groundwater quality north of the river. In addition to the petroleum products , chemicals used to manufacture fire brick are also stored on the site. These chemicals include sodium silicate solution, trisodium phos- phate, and aluminum sulfate. The sodium silicate solution is stored in a 4 ,000-gallon buried steel tank. It is completely soluble and is some- times used as a coagulant aid in potable water treatment plants. The trisodium phosphate is a dry chemical stored in bags on the site. This chemical is sometimes used in indus- trial and potable water treatment plants to reduce corrosion , and to control scaling. Aluminum sulfate is also a dry chemical that is stored in bags on the site. This chemical, commonly known as alum, is often used as a coagulant aid in water treatment processes. None of these chemicals is harmful in potable water systems in dilute solutions. They are not considered a threat to the Cedar River aquifer. Sanitary Sewers Sanitary sewers within the vicinity of the wells are poten- tial sources of contamination. Raw sewage from a ruptured sewer pipe is a serious threat to public health. Outbreaks of typhoid fever, gastrointestinal infection, infectious hepatitis, and other waterborne diseases are frequently associated with sewage spills. There are relatively few sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the wells. Fortunately, the sewers that do exist are not force mains. Force mains under pressure from a pump or hydraulic head would pose a greater threat to the safety of the aquifer than do the existing gravity sewers. 3-12 Most of the sewers in the area range from 6 to 15 inches in diameter. These City of Renton sewers are located along ' Houser Way and Bronson Way to the north end of Cedar River Park. Abandoned sewer lines also exist within Cedar River Park. These abandoned lines may serve as open conduits, allowing surface contaminants to migrate toward the wells. The largest sewer in the area, however, is the Seattle Metro Cedar River Trunk Section No. 1. It is a 42-inch-diameter line that traverses Liberty Park north of Wells 1 and 2 , continues along the southern and eastern boundaries of Cedar River Park, and extends up the Cedar River valley toward Maple Valley as shown in Figure 3-1 . It is made of concrete pipe and was constructed in 1962 and 1963. The average depth of the pipeline is approximately 10 feet below the ground surface. The pipe was oversized to provide for discharge from future developments up the valley. Because the flows in the pipe are low at present, the current contamination risk is also reduced. As areas east of Renton are developed, flows through this pipeline will increase. Therefore, the impact that failure of this pipe will have on the water supply is also increasing. Concrete sewer pipe is inherently not leak tight. Some infiltration and exfiltration are expected even with a new installation. The existing pipe is 20 years old. As the pipe gets older, the probability of leaks through either the pipe wall or pipe joints will increase; however, no specific leaks are known at this time. Storm Sewers As discussed in Chapter 2 , ground surface slopes and en- closed storm sewers provide pathways for storm water contam- inants to flow toward the aquifer. Surface drainage in the area flows naturally toward the Cedar River valley from the adjacent hillsides. The drainage basins are shown in Figure 2-2 . Typical stormwater has many of the same characteristics as effluent from a secondary sewage treatment plant, except that it often contains higher concentrations of lead, iron, settleable and suspended solids, petroleum products, and 1 coliform organisms. A table of typical stormwater charac- teristics and a comparison with secondary sewage treatment plant effluent is included in Appendix B. Leaks from storm sewers or open drains in the aquifer area pose the same threat of contamination to the aquifer as leaks from sanitary sewers. Although the danger of con- tamination by infectious disease is much reduced, contamina- tion potential by metals and petroleum products is greater than from sanitary sewage. 3-13 Cemetery Sites There are two existing cemeteries on the hill to the north- east of the well field. These are Mt. Olivet and Greenwood Cemeteries. It is probable that groundwater from this area migrates to the well field area. Contaminants in the leach- ate from these sites could include dissolved organics and inorganics and bacterial and viral organisms. Water quality tests on samples taken from the City' s wells indicate that the levels of these contaminants are below DSHS maximum contaminant levels. It is probable that any contaminants leaching from the site are attenuated through filtration and biodegradation. The risk factor associated with aquifer contamination from these sites is therefore believed to be low. Private Fill Sites There are three private fill sites located approximately 3,000 feet to the northeast of the well field. These sites are in the general area between the Mt. Olivet and Greenwood Cemeteries. The individual sites are operated by Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Emma Cugini, and M. A. Segale, Inc. The Mt. Olivet Cemetery fill site is directly to the north of their existing burial grounds. The existing fill mate- rials at this site may include excess or waste soils from construction projects, gypsum board, household appliance frames, and miscellaneous building demolition debris, as well as other materials. It is understood that the fill operations at this site have been temporarily suspended, but they may continue in the future upon renewal of the fill and grading permit. Permits were issued by the City of Renton in 1982 allowing the fill operations at the Cugini and Segale sites. Cugini is permitted to import 150 ,000 cubic yards of fill material and excavate 30,000 cubic yards of gravels. The permit expires in 1987. The fill materials allowed at this site are not defined in the city hearing examiner' s report. The , report notes that this fill and excavation operation will involve approximately 4,000 truckloads of materials. The permit issued to Segale allows a gravel pit area to be , filled with 1, 100,000 cubic yards of materials. The city hearing examiner' s report notes that this fill operation will involve approximately 44,000 truckloads of materials. The examiner' s approval of the fill permit for the Segale site stipulates that: 3-14 "No material may be incorporated in the site which contains soluble poisons or other leachable compounds which have the potential for contaminating the ground- water. " This permit also expires in 1987. The examiner' s estimations of the number of truckloads to complete the work at each of these sites may be low. Even so, close monitoring of all the materials transported to the sites in the 48,000 truckloads cited by the examiner is not possible. The origin and content of all fill material may be unknown. Although one of the above permits specifically precludes the depositing of "leachable compounds, " it is possible that some contaminants such as waste oils and waste household products such as paints, cleaners, and pesticides may be delivered to these sites. Other disposed materials such as the gypsum board, building demolition debris, and household appliance frames may develop leachable compounds. Because of the permeable soil conditions, contaminants from any of these sites could find their way into the aquifer as leachate in the groundwater or surface runoff. SURFACE SOURCES Contaminants that originate on or above the ground surface include herbicides, pesticides , and fertilizers . Urban runoff and accidental spills are also specific types of surface source contamination; however, these are discussed in the "Transportation Sources" section of this chapter. Sprays and Fertilizers Pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers are used in the immediate vicinity of the wells. Entities using these prod- ucts include the City of Renton Parks and Recreation Depart- ment, Washington State Department of Transportation, and Burlington Northern Railroad, as well as private parties for residential maintenance. Table 3-1 notes the products that are known to have been used in the immediate area of the wells and those who have reportedly used them. Also noted on Table 3-1 are the generic chemical names of some of these products, along with toxic designations or comments. The LD or lethal dose 50 noted in the table is defined as the ca5lgulated dose of a substance which is ex- pected to cause death of 50 percent of an entire defined experimental animal population. The experimental animal is noted and the lethal dose is given in milligrams of constit- uent per kilograms of animal body weight. This indicates the relative toxicity of the various products listed. 3-15 I' N N 01 lT \ b o 01E OD Lo II II C' ISI .4 ro m II O 6 H °a LA p A Ln 0 a •.'1 vc ry U .N O X O x ,spG vxb, CD C \ 4J O \ r \ 411 u E v E 01 aci $4 4 1wa o ro � $ o E 0 4) m N 4) N H rv4 a oro 11 m w A E O .4 ►a 1'4n y E a) m ro ro - ro -- 41 o $4 w c $4 o+ it ro 3 p v 44 a v .row rt 0 0Ln 14 9 Ln ❑o tr tg -4 a) of •.1 w N A 41 ri E C It s a ro U to U U M U W .-4 x G .4 x II U b ' N 4.) 41 c w FC c 4J ro c a d •� H 4.) 401 6 40J $44 0 -P Ln 10 10 Ln o v x o o ro M rH-1 RC a E a W a U O 1"I ro 4J a)E 4 u c .-4 a ro E A Q H JwJ ..Uj b b Q 1.4 N a C A aEi ro '0 ro aci N ro ro ro ro ro ro I �1 x ar d 4) A a 4) 4) a) m w 'D 0 4) w L) .c x x o o A A A A .c A - 0 C c 5 p4 u u U w w U u 0 U U U u, •14 U u U w w w 0 O w w w w w m w - a $4 w - •.1 ro ro to H a) .4 to ro w to ro m C m M O ro ro m w a) a) a) .0 4J .c a) a) O a) a) w a) -.I a) 1 w a) a! a) a) m N N U ro U N m C N N N C N m O O N N U 'I C a) a) a) • H •.I w 0 C O a) a) 0 +i O a) c .4 (v a) C m a a a o > o a a o w a a a N c a +4 C a a to C9I a I w 0 ro a E U N 4J 41 41 E # 4J 4J a C 4J 4J 41 E >, 4J a -14 41 4J O O O - •.i O O •.4 O O O O -.i .4 0 1 w O O z 2 'L N A # `L .Z 0 x Z z z U) U 7. C 4-) 7. 2 ZI .i CQ x x x x X x x U d Qx x x X x x m U 3 e O ro 4J x x x x x x x X x x x N 4NJ U 0 U) w •.4 44 4.) 0 w d w b .Ui 0 0 0 0 to o o •1 x 0 o W $4 N w a) w $4 w w w N $4 $4 .4 4JN F N a) w 4J a) ro 34 4J 41 w 4) $4 a w a) 4J 4J a) -.I 0) ro O .4 N c .-1 ..4 a) c c a) C a) U) w .4 c c .-1 4J 2 44 .i N -H •.4 4 N O O N O N N .4 O O .4 N - O .-1 U -ri -.4 • -ffl44 U U •r4 U - 4-) -.4 -.i U U .14 a) a) W -4 7 ?4 H A4 41 . .•4 .••I c -,4 X .14 Lti 0 O w a 10 N C 4) .i A w w x ul w EroE .4 c C V) 10pp v 14 41 a) a) m a) N a) 7 7 a) 7 a) 14 a) a) m 0 a) 3 C X m ^� ^} N O N Q) 4.) 41 a) C 4J $4 $4 4J w 41 0 4J a) 14 w a) ro O •.1 3 rA m 3 f4 to W ca to R4 y p cn 3 m m 3 a U b a w c a c x U .�-I 0 C C C x � 0 4) 0 C H a1 x 0 w •11 O O C W •.4 to U ro a) O .0 4 H ro 1 ro a) O N p, .-4 a) E C 41 A C C X ro W F U7 Z O a m > 0 to 3 w a) 14 a) m 14 •.I 7 •.4 w w -- -� -- w U) 0 to .,i O ro .4 ro w 7 O w 0 a O 0 + N M P4 4N 4 Pa U D m C7 0 04 X O a a a Ul F F - 3-16 These products are approved by the U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency for use by the general public. Generally, this means that, if they are used at the dilution rates and dosages recommended by the manufacturer, they are not pres- ently known to be a serious threat to public health. Lim- ited use of any of these products may not have a measurable effect on local groundwater quality. However, prolonged use of these products or dosages greater than those recommended by the manufacturer may have a detrimental effect on local groundwater quality and hence on water quality in the Cedar River aquifer. The synergistic or combined effect of these chemicals on the environment is uncertain. The chemical industry is con- stantly developing additional organic chemical products for use as herbicides and pesticides. Research to determine the health effects of these products in drinking water in vari- ous combinations and concentrations has not kept pace with their development. Many products commonly used in the past have recently been found to have serious effects on public health, and their use has since been restricted. Future research may show that products commonly used today may also be unsafe. Fertilizers are used by the Parks and Recreation Department on the lawn areas of the parks. Nitrates in fertilizers are poorly attenuated and can therefore be transmitted to the aquifer. The DSHS maximum contaminant level for nitrates is 10 mg/l. Excessive nitrates can affect the ability of blood in the body to carry oxygen. EDB is a chemical that has been used in some areas of the state to control worm festations around berry and potato fields. The use of EDB has recently been restricted by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency because of its harmful effects on the environment. The Washington State Department of Agriculture is currently developing a list of sites within western Washington that may be contaminated due to the use of EDB. According to the Department of Agriculture, there are no sites currently identified within the Cedar River drainage basin where EDB has been used. Water quality analyses on samples taken from the City' s water distribution system indicate that the pesticide levels in city water are well below specified DSHS maximum contami- nant levels (see appendix for sample report) . Nitrates and other fertilizer components are also reported to be well below specified DSHS maximum contaminant levels. TRANSPORTATION SOURCES ' The City' s wells are located near major transportation routes and are therefore subject to contamination from accidental chemical and petroleum product spills. These 3-17 i transportation routes include Interstate 405 (I-405) , State Route 169 (SR 169) , numerous city streets, and the Burlington Northern railroad tracks. There are currently no regulations specifically intended to protect the wells that restrict the types of materials transported in the well field area. The only regulations that are known to exist are Federal Interstate Commerce Commission regulations that restrict the movement of certain substances such as radioactive materials. Chemical and petroleum products are currently transported through the well field area. Normal precipitation runoff may carry contaminants from the roadways that could infiltrate to the aquifer, causing degradation of the City' s water supply. The runoff coeffi- cient for paved areas ranges from 0. 90 to 1. 00. This means that approximately 95 percent of the moisture that falls on paved roadways will drain off either to the surrounding unpaved ground or to a storm sewer system. The runoff co- efficient for unpaved areas with light vegetation, such as the lawn areas of the parks, unpaved roadway shoulders, and embankment slopes, ranges from 0. 10 to 0. 50. Therefore, as much as 90 percent of the runoff moving to unpaved areas could be absorbed by the underlying soils and potentially infiltrate to the aquifer below. Potential runoff contaminants could include motor oil drip- , pings, fuel leakage, tire wear products, and exhaust precip- itates such as lead. Leakage from transport vehicles, such as solid waste transfer station container trucks, could also be a source of potential contaminants. Containment of road- way runoff is therefore critical to the protection of the aquifer. Interstate 405 Interstate 405 is a four-lane limited access freeway which bisects the well field from north to south. Wells 1, 2, and 3 are 250 to 300 feet west of the freeway. Wells 8 and 9 are along the eastern border of the freeway. They are 70 to 80 feet from the pavement edge. I-405 is a major corridor between southern suburban Seattle and the commu- nities east of Lake Washington. Because I-405 is a link between Interstates 5 and 90, as well as a bypass of Seattle and the I-90 tunnels, it is a popular commercial truck route. A potential contamination incident involving a commercial truck occurred in September of 1983. A 1,500-gallon petro- leum tanker truck overturned on I-405 between the north end of the Renton S-curves and SR 169. The tanker was carrying diesel fuel and gasoline. Approximately 500 gallons of 3-18 petroleum product were reported to have leaked from the vehicle. According to the City of Renton Fire Department Incident Report, the spill was contained with temporary - dikes near the accident scene away from the unpaved should- ers. However, some of the product flowed to the paved me- dian strip between the opposing lanes of the freeway where it entered a storm drainage system and was discharged to the Cedar River. Absorbent pads were used on the surface of the river to collect the product at the outlet of the drainage system. Additional product was collected at the mouth of the river by a Boeing Company oil boom. It is not known what fraction of the total quantity of spilled fuel infiltrated into the underlying soil through cracks and openings in the pavement. The spill has not caused measurable effects on the quality of water produced from the wells. Product that did infil- trate underlying soil could possibly result in contamination of the aquifer in the future. The potential for a similar, yet more serious, accidental spill incident exists. The freeway is at a higher elevation than the surrounding topography. The same tanker truck could have overturned on the outside traffic lane and rolled over the embankment. The side slopes of the freeway are not covered with an impervious material. Accidental spills from ' the freeway could infiltrate these exposed slopes, or the level areas at the bottom of the slopes, and cause serious contamination of the aquifer. Drainage from the existing elevated concrete structures over the Cedar River and SR 169 is not plumbed directly to the storm sewer system. Runoff from these structures is chan- neled to downspouts which drain freely to the exposed ground below. This condition represents a potential source of contamination. During a previous resurfacing project on I-405, an asphalt emulsion tack coat was allowed to run into these downspouts and caused pollution of the Cedar River. The ground surfaces under these downspouts are not paved and the shoulder areas of SR 169 under I-405 collect much of the runoff from this overpass structure. Standing water and extremely muddy conditions exist in the shoulder areas dur- ing rainstorms. iMany of the storm drainage catch basins located along the I-405 corridor in the well field area are connected to a 30-inch storm sewer that originates on the hillside to the northeast of the well field. The storm sewer discharges into the Cedar River directly beneath the 1-405 S-curve structure. Contaminants from accidental spills and freeway runoff are discharged directly into the river. Wells 1 and 2 may be vulnerable to contaminants discharged in this area. 3-19 r The existing I-405 storm sewer system also includes open ditches in the area of the exit from northbound I-405 to westbound Bronson Way. Runoff collected by catch basins on the freeway above is discharged to these shallow ditches and is allowed to run across the ground for approximately 50 feet before entering a collection basin. The ditches are shallow and overgrown with vegetation and do not adequately contain runoff. During rainstorms this area becomes sat- urated with contaminated runoff. In a recent storm, the water being discharged from a pipe directly north of SR 169 on the east embankment of I-405 was observed to be gray in color, indicating high concentrations of oil emulsions and other contaminants. Aside from the risk of contamination, the pump station structures over Wells 8 and 9 are also vulnerable to direct impact of vehicles careening from the freeway. The existing ' chain link fence would not withstand the force of a large vehicle which could severely damage the well structure and the equipment inside. The buildings house chlorination facilities in addition to the pumping equipment. Thus, the potential for chlorine leakage also exists during such an accident. The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is currently planning a project which would add a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane in each direction of I-405. A meeting was held with the City of Renton, WSDOT, Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) , the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) , and CH2M HILL to discuss the current and future effects of I-405 on the well field and water quality. The minutes for that meeting are included in Appendix C. An environmental impact statement (EIS) is being prepared by WSDOT to specifically address the effects of the I-405 ex- pansion project on the area between the South Renton inter- change and the Sunset Boulevard interchange. The draft EIS is scheduled to be completed by October or November of 1984. According to WSDOT staff, advertisement for the construction bids is scheduled for 1987. This proposed work may provide the opportunity to incorporate certain well protection safe- guards into the freeway design. According to WSDOT, there are 12 design concepts that are currently being considered. Basically, in the vicinity of the well field these concepts include widening of the existing S-curve structure, relocating the alignment to the , east of the existing roadway, and relocating the alignment to the west of the existing roadway. Various vertical alignment alternatives are being considered with each of these concepts. Alignments relocated to the west or east might conflict with the existing well locations. 3-20 i State Route 169 SR 169, also known as the Maple Valley Highway, is a four- lane roadway north of Wells 8 and 9 and perpendicular to I-405. This highway connects the rural communities east of Renton to the urban portions of King County. Traffic vol- umes along this route are high, especially during morning and evening peak periods. The shoulders along this roadway are wide and unpaved near the wells. As previously dis- cussed, surface runoff from these shoulder areas and acci- dental spills can infiltrate into the ground and cause con- tamination of the aquifer. ' City Streets Wells 1 , 2 , and 3 are bounded by Bronson Way to the north - and Houser Way to the east. Each of these streets is a major arterial. Concrete curbs and gutters, catch basins, and storm sewers collect precipitation runoff on both edges of the paved surface. The major contaminant concern is that of potential accidental spills. As mentioned earlier, there are service stations near the wells in this area. Trucks carrying bulk quantities of petroleum products are certain to travel in this vicinity. Because of the proximity of the I-405 entrances and exits , other types of commercial trucks transporting potential contaminants most probably also use these streets. There are no alternative traffic routes for these vehicles. Burlington Northern Railroad There are two existing railroad lines within the well field area. A north-south line lies between Houser Way and I-405. This line joins with an east-west line south of the Cedar River. The maximum allowable speed of trains on these lines within the city limits is 10 miles per hour. According to a Burlington Northern representative, both of these tracks are used on a limited basis. The track that lies between I-405 and Wells 1 , 2 , and 3 is used primarily to transport goods to and from the Safeway Company in Bellevue. This line may also be used for spur traffic to Boeing, Pacific Car and Foundry Company, and smaller busines- ses west of I-405. Approximately two trains per day use this track six days per week. The tracks that parallel the Cedar River on its south bank are used primarily for transporting timber products to and from the Weyerhaeuser Company mill near Snoqualmie Falls. Approximately four trains per week pass this area south of the wells. This line is also used for spur traffic to the North American Refractories Company brick plant. 3-21 An exact account of all materials transported on either of these tracks is not available without extensive research, according to Burlington Northern. It is conceivable that goods transported to the Safeway distribution center in , Bellevue could include household detergents, sprays, and other toxic substances. Paints, acids , and solvents could be transported to the Boeing and Pacific Car and Foundry , facilities. Burlington Northern has indicated that the City may obtain information regarding the substances transported by submit- ting a formal request. The company will then assign a person from their staff to review the weigh bills associated with the trains using these routes and compile a list of , materials transported. Because of the relatively slow speed limit and the reported ' limited use of these tracks, the risk of a major rail acci- dent is minimal. Further research of the materials trans- ported through the area may reveal, however, that additional restrictions should be imposed. The railroad tracks cross the Cedar River in several places east of Renton. These crossings are all to the east of the City' s aquifer as defined by this report. Accidental spills at these crossings could cause contamination of the Cedar River. Similar to "River Sources" discussed previously in ' this chapter, contaminants in the river would likely, under normal river flow conditions, continue to flow downriver past the well field without affecting the quality of the groundwater near the wells. However, flood conditions or influence from an operating well may cause this natural flow pattern to be interrupted. Should such a spill occur, it is recommended that the City closely monitor the groundwater quality and direction of movement for potential signs of contamination. GENERAL SOURCES , General (nonpoint) sources of contamination are those that are not identified with a specific site at this time. They , could originate as either subsurface or surface sources and could also be associated with river sources. Coal Mines There are numerous existing and abandoned coal mines within the Cedar River drainage basin. Abandoned coal mines have been implicated in numerous groundwater/surface water con- tamination cases in the Midwest and eastern United States. Coal mines pose a contamination hazard because coal was ' deposited under anaerobic, or oxygen deficient, conditions. Mining exposes these deposits to atmospheric oxygen and 3-22 oxygenated water, which will oxidize certain minerals and n other substances present i coal. The most seriousP roblem is usually caused by pyrite (FeS ) a mineral which upon oxidation will release ferric ir9n, sulfate, and hydrogen ions, resulting in acidic drainage from the coal mine. Acidic water could lower the pH of surface waters, endanger- , ' ing aquatic life, or could mobilize certain ions , such as arsenic, which had previously precipitated onto sediments as relatively insoluble hydroxides. Moreover, abandoned mines sometimes serve as convenient disposal sites for unwanted materials. These materials could include hazardous substances. Because of the illegal nature of this kind of activity, it is difficult to assess the location and number of sites that may be involved. Coal mines are generally located in the southeastern portion of ' King County east of the limits of the City' s aquifer. These contaminant sources would be classified as river sources, and the risk associated with the sites would therefore be reduced. Residential Heating Oil Tanks Buried heating oil storage tanks within the recharge area may also have adverse effects on the aquifer water quality. The harmful components of heating oil and the effects on water quality are similar to those stated for fuel storage tanks at service stations. Similarly, the same concerns relative to storage tank construction and corrosion apply. A comprehensive inventory of all home heating oil storage tanks within the recharge area is not possible within the scope of this study. A list of residences that have oil burners within the area could possibly be obtained from fuel oil distributors in Renton; however, the completeness of such a list would be questionable. It is likely that aban- doned heating oil tanks exist in the area in addition to those currently being used. The City may wish to conduct a survey of the residences in the area to determine the location capacity, and age of P Y► g buried heating oil tanks. Such a survey should also con- sider private storage tanks for gasoline or other motor fuels. The risk associated with tanks found within the area could then be evaluated based on the criteria used herein to evaluate other potential sources of contamination. Residential Use and Disposal Improper use and/or disposal of household, garage, and gar- den materials such as paints , solvents, herbicides , pesti- cides, motor oils, and other substances by residential con- sumers may have an adverse effect on the quality of water in 3-23 the City' s aquifer. Disposal of many of these substances in the typical residential customer' s garbage can or at a public solid waste landfill or transfer station is prohibited. Many individuals are unaware of the location of proper dis- posal sites and the ramifications of improper use and/or disposal of these substances. Although illegal, disposal of unwanted hazardous liquids into an adjacent storm sewer ' catch basin or directly onto the ground is common practice. The risks associated with these practices are dependent upon , the substances involved, the distance and direction from the aquifer, and soil conditions. Prevention of aquifer con- tamination from these sources is difficult, and total elimination of the risks associated with these sources would be economically infeasible. Dry Cleaners ' Chemical solvents used in dry cleaning processes are ex- tremely harmful to potable water supply systems. Improper disposal of residual solids removed from dry cleaning equip- ' ment can cause serious contamination of the aquifer. For example, the City of Tacoma has recently been involved in the cleanup of an aquifer because of contamination caused by , dry cleaning solvents. This cleanup operation has been ex- tremely expensive. An investigation of the immediate area surrounding the well field has not identified any dry cleaning establishments. It is probable, however, that there are such businesses within the boundaries of the aquifer recharge area. SUMMARY The potential contaminant sources identified and discussed , in this chapter are listed in Table 3-2. The evaluation parameters discussed at the beginning of this chapter are used to rank each contaminant source according to its poten- tial impact on water quality in the wells. The rankings are defined as follows: o High. This designation indicates that, based on , the single parameter, the contaminant source listed may have a severe impact. o Medium. This designation indicates that, based on the single parameter, the contaminant source listed may have a moderate impact. , o Low. This designation indicates that, based on the single parameter, the contaminant source listed may have a minimal impact. 3-24 ' o Unknown. Insufficient information is known about the contaminant to assign a relative significance to this parameter. The last column in Table 3-2 indicates the overall relative significance of each contaminant source as a threat to the water quality in Renton' s Cedar River aquifer. Protective measures should be implemented to reduce the contamination potential from all sources with a ranking of high and from ' most sources with a ranking of medium. Those sources ranked low in overall relative significance probably do not require additional protective measures at this time. 3-25 ww ww �w ww wr iww ww �w w� ww ww ww ww ww� wr w ww ww w w w Y i .r.. m r 131 _... 405i waw N. O �0 AW 00 V � fTA W N � L/ K< '• v4 0 l< p � O_ O O O 0 0 '0" Sp� � O < � < D � p no m -n o —' O (o m I �i Q n �. d �. _ — (D Cn(D lD CD O 7 n (D' O (D Cn (D n (D CD a CA 773 O3 O ■ ,_ (D C O m .. 0O ° O -0 (D 7 -0 > D CA� (D = _ ❑ w =t 0 k, n .M rn m ru y .� -00 m Zu Ap s 00 �. o j y k.. ar . � 4 x-, s s� a Y. a T 4}, V j CD c a) m F° 0 '' ,` Chapter 4 CONTAMINATION PREVENTION ' INTRODUCTION The consequences of severe contamination of the aquifer could be extremely expensive and complicated. Severe con- tamination in this case means an increase beyond specified maximum contaminant levels of any one or more physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substances in the aq- uifer water. Existing water treatment, limited to chlor- ination, would not be effective in treating most, if any, of the identified potential contaminants. Depending on the nature of aquifer contamination, necessary actions might include one or more of the following: o Cleanup of contaminated aquifer soils by excava- tion and replacement o Isolation of contaminated portion of the aquifer by construction of underground slurry walls or barriers o Diversion of contaminated aquifer water through well field injection of higher quality water or pumping to waste that water removed from existing or new wells in the area o Construction of water treatment facilities to op- erate in conjunction with existing supply facil- ities ' o Abandonment of Cedar River aquifer and existing supply facilities o Location and construction of alternative well fa- cilities in the Maplewood aquifer or other area aquifers (assuming such sources were available and were not already contaminated to the same degree) o Short- or long-term purchase of additional water ' supplies from Seattle Water Department or adjacent water districts, if such supplies were available Preventive measures can be implemented to protect Renton' s ' Cedar River aquifer from future contamination. Potential contamination sources and their relative significance have been identified in the previous chapter. This chapter will discuss and recommend possible methods of eliminating these sources of potential contamination or ways to minimize their effect on the quality of water in the aquifer. General 4-1 j methods of contamination prevention are first discussed, ' followed by methods applicable to specific contaminant sources. Controls and actions that the City of Renton and others can exercise are discussed. Contaminant sources are ' discussed in the same sequence as in Chapter 3. It should be reiterated that the City' s existing well water quality is excellent according to recent laboratory analysis. Therefore, the recommendations outlined in this chapter are preventive rather than corrective measures. , GENERAL METHODS Section 248-54-125, Source Protection, in DSHS' Rules and Regulations (see Chapter 1) could be interpreted to require that the City of Renton "control land of a greater. . . size. . .than is defined by a one hundred. . . foot radius" from ' the existing wells. The City now controls the two parks which generally surround the wells for a distance consider- ably more than 100 feet. However, the City currently has limited control of the I-405 corridor, SR 169 right-of-way, and private properties within the geographic area covering the aquifer. The City has even less control over the remainder of the aquifer recharge area. , Preventive Programs by Others To the extent possible, the City should control land use and activities within the aquifer area. Examples of such con- trol, or lack of it by others, include the City of Issaquah, which has a land use ordinance protecting two wells adjacent to I-90. The City of Spokane is considering protective ordi- nances and sewerage of a low-density rural area outside the city to protect its aquifer. Centralia, Kent, and Federal ' Way all have well supplies (aquifers) within their suburban areas but to date have not developed protective programs. Land Use , Policies that limit land use within the aquifer recharge area offer Renton one of the most effective means of pre- venting aquifer contamination. Such policies include appro- priate zoning to eliminate commercial activities that may degrade the groundwater quality. The pollutant controls for the area near the wells should be similar to those outlined in WAC 248-54-225 (see Chapter 1) for a watershed providing unfiltered surface water supply, wherein all facilities and ' activities are limited to preclude degradation of the water supply. The City of Renton has expressed a desire to establish such a regulated area around the existing well field. The Com- prehensive Land Use Plan adopted by the City indicates that 4-2 much of the land east of the wells and bordering the Cedar River is designated for recreational or greenbelt use. Fig- ure 4-1 illustrates the extent of these recreational and ' greenbelt areas. Powerline rights-of-way and other proper- ties having similar use are also indicated on the figure as greenbelt use. The recreational or greenbelt designations are compatible with the aquifer protection concept. However, there are adjacent commercial land use areas designated by the plan - which may require additional control. These include the areas directly to the north and east of the wells. To maxi- mize protection of the aquifer, it is recommended that com- mercial businesses in these areas be limited to nonpolluting activities. Existing businesses which currently engage in activities that threaten the aquifer include the service station sites near Well 3 and the Stoneway concrete plant east of Cedar River Park. As discussed in the previous chapter, the pe- troleum products stored below ground at these sites are a continual threat to the groundwater quality. The Stoneway plant is especially important because of its location up- stream from the wells. One means of eliminating these sources of potential contam- ination would be for the City to purchase the property where these businesses are located. Although initial acquisition of these parcels would be expensive, commercial or residen- tial developments that are more environmentally compatible ' with the City' s aquifer protection program could be estab- lished on these sites to partially or totally offset the acquisition expenses, or the properties could be converted to additional park use or greenbelts. The political ramifications and the effect of such acquisi•- ' tion on the City' s tax base must be considered by the City. These factors, although important, must be weighed against the potential loss of water supply due to accidental con- tamination of the aquifer. Should contamination of the aqui- fer occur, other sources of potable water are not readily available to meet the current demand. The assurance of future reliability of this water source will be determined ' by a city government that is dedicated toward protecting the well field system. Regional Issues Several regional issues are of particular concern to Renton insofar as protection of the aquifer. These include: ' o I-405 planning and construction 4-3 o I-405/I-90 traffic restrictions , o Continued use of the Cedar Hills landfill for solid waste disposal and the hauling of waste to this site o Land use in the county east of the city limits, including residential, commercial, industrial, or other development and the resulting suburban stormwater runoff , o Sewerage of the outlying rural/suburban areas o Maintenance of minimum stream flows in the Cedar River Some aspects of these issues are discussed in more detail ' later in this chapter. In general, it is recommended that the City of Renton be actively involved in the public debate and resolution of all such regional issues impacting the ' Cedar River aquifer. For example, in the planning process for widening and possi- ble realignment of I-405, the City should take the necessary steps to ensure that all feasible improvements associated with protecting the aquifer from I-405 contaminant sources are included in the final design. The City should have a voice in any decision regarding restriction of hazardous materials transportation through the I-90 tunnels west of Lake Washington. Such a restriction would force the in- creased use of I-405 for transport of these materials. The April 30, 1984, letter from City of Renton to Washington State DOT included in Appendix C is a first step in such active involvement. ' The City should participate in any decisions regarding the continued use of the Cedar Hills landfill and should closely monitor ongoing studies relative to leachate from this site. , The City should also participate in decisions regarding the route that solid waste transport trucks follow through Renton to Cedar Hills. At present these trucks make approx- imately 150 trips per day along SR 169 from the I-405 inter- change. Alternative routes for these trucks should be considered in view of the potential contaminant spills from ' these vehicles. The City should participate in decisions relative to land , use in the developing areas east of the city limits within the Cedar River basin. Such land use will have a signifi- cant impact on stormwater runoff to the Cedar River and on the future need for sanitary sewerage in the area. The City , should work with Metro and other agencies to encourage the extension of sanitary sewers as early as possible. Other 4-4 ' county regulations such as those governing septic tanks, mines , and private disposal sites should receive input from Renton. The maintenance of minimum stream flows in the Cedar River is a concern not only of Renton but also of the State Depart- ment of Fisheries, the Seattle Water Department, the Corps of Engineers, and others. Renton' s interests are best served by maintenance of higher minimum stream flows that tend to dilute the concentration of contaminants in the river and in the aquifer replenishment. Recreational use of the river upstream of the City, as it affects water quality, is also a concern of Renton. The City of Renton could declare the Cedar River aquifer a sole-source supply. Such a declaration, according to the EPA, would prevent the use of federal funds on any project within the aquifer recharge area unless it could be shown that the project would have no negative impact on the aqui- fer. Before declaring the Cedar River aquifer a sole-source supply, the City should carefully consider the merits of such declaration against the possible complications to other city projects or interests. Water Table Monitoring At present there is insufficient information to clearly establish the relative elevation of the water table in the well field area and other parts of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer with the water level in the river. Such information ' would be very useful in confirming groundwater and contami- nant flow paths in the aquifer area. Presently it is not known whether the aquifer is contaminated; all that is known is that no contaminants have yet reached the wells. It is recommended that the City develop a comprehensive wa- ter table monitoring program. Such monitoring should meas- ure water table elevations at all five producing wells, at the adjacent observation wells , and at additional 2-inch observation wells located at key points throughout the aqui- fer area and around the perimeter. Initial observation wells should include several near the service stations and the Stoneway concrete plant; these should be installed as soon as possible. The 2-inch observation wells could also be used to sample groundwater quality routinely or in event of a suspected contamination leak or spill. The water table at each observation point should be moni- tored monthly or at such other time intervals as experience indicates. River level should always be noted for compari- son, as should the duration and rate of pumping at each well preceding the time of water table monitoring. The procedure should note fluctuations in river level due to storm runoff. ' 4-5 I The monitoring program should also permit evaluation of sea- ' sonal fluctuations in the water table and, in particular, should address the impact of low river flows in the summer and occasional flood flows in winter. Special emphasis ' should be given to the relative water levels in Wells 1 and 2 and the river because of the proximity of these -wells to the river. Initially, one year of water table monitoring should be suf- ficient to confirm groundwater flow paths and direction of major recharge. Subsequent monitoring every few years would be useful to determine long-term trends or to monitor im- pacts of changes in pumping rates or river flow rates. Un- til groundwater flow paths are confirmed, it is futile to monitor groundwater quality at points other than the wells. Water Quality Monitoring , It is recommended that the City compare all well water qual- ity data collected within the past 10 years to observe any possible trends in aquifer water quality. Such comparison should continue to be made in the future and may give advance warning of a coming water quality violation. A relatively continuous record of river water quality has been obtained at the sampling point near the Logan Street Bridge (see Appendix A for copy of data from EPA' s STORET system) . However, many of the water quality parameters of interest for potable supplies have not been monitored at this point. In addition, this sampling point is downstream of the aquifer. River water quality here may not represent ' the quality of river water adjacent to the aquifer. The ideal location to monitor river water quality as it may im- pact aquifer water quality is believed to be at the bedrock narrows at the upstream end of Renton' s aquifer. Although it is understood that some water quality sampling has been done near this point by the University of Washington, the extent of the data is unknown. , The RIBCO Water Quality Management Study recommended a per- manent water quality monitoring station at river mile 9. 5, , near Cedar Mountain. The status of this station is unknown. Since Renton' s Cedar River aquifer lies generally between river mile 1. 5 and 2. 5, river water quality from considerably farther upstream is of less value. It is recommended that the City periodically sample river water at the bedrock narrows. Sampling should be as fre- quent as once per month and correlated with river flows. Parameters to be tested monthly should include those normally tested for raw water samples taken at the wells--bacterio- logical and inorganic chemical and physical. In addition, samples should be tested quarterly for trihalomethanes and 4-6 pesticides. It is not believed practical to monitor water quality in tributary streams of the Cedar River. Random river water samples are of little value because they may show one or more abnormally high contaminants at any time because of one-time occurrences. The quality of river water samples should be compared over time to establish any trends. These samples should also be compared with other historical river water quality data and with well water ' quality to establish any correlations. Since movement of water in the aquifer is much slower than movement in the river, trends in river water quality may give advance warning of coming aquifer water quality violation. tDischarge Permits The Cedar River below Landsburg is classified under WAC ' 173-201-045 as a Class A freshwater river. Under the pro- visions of this classification the following water quality criteria must be met when waste is discharged into the water- way by a municipal, commercial, or industrial party: o Fecal coliform organisms shall not exceed a median value of 14 organisms/100 ml, with not more than 10 percent of samples exceeding 43 organisms/ml ' o Dissolved oxygen shall exceed 8. 0 mg/l o The concentration of total dissolved gas shall not exceed 110 percent of saturation at any point of sample collection o Water temperatures shall not exceed 18. 0° Celsius due to human activities. When natural conditions exceed 18. 0° Celsius, no temperature increase will be allowed which will raise the receiving water ' temperature by greater than 0. 3° Celsius o The pH shall be within the range of 6. 5 to 8. 5 with a man-caused variation within a range of less than 0. 5 units o Turbidity shall not exceed 5 NTU over background ' turbidity when the background turbidity is 50 NTU or less, or have more than a 10 percent increase in turbidity when the background turbidity is more than 50 NTU o Toxic, radioactive, or deleterious material con- centrations shall be below those of public health ' significance ' 4-7 o Aesthetic values shall not be impaired by the , presence of materials or their effects , excluding those of natural origin, which offend the senses of sight, smell, touch, or taste ' In addition to these provisions, a waste discharge permit must be obtained by the discharging organization pursuant to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) . These permits are issued by the Department of Ecology. According to WAC 173-201-080, no waste discharge to the Cedar ' River is allowed within the City of Seattle watershed east of Landsburg. The Cedar River is a Class AA freshwater river east of Landsburg. According to a DOE spokesman, a permit ' has been issued to the Seattle Water Department that allows periodic discharges of chlorinated water downstream from their Landsburg facility. The DOE indicates that this is ' the only NPDES permit that has been issued for the Cedar River. According to the DOE, Washington State regulations prohibit ' the issuance of additional discharge permits within the en- tire Lake Washington basin. This includes all of the tribu- taries that feed into Lake Washington. Therefore, the Cedar River and Renton' s aquifer are legally protected from future point source contamination discharges by municipal, commer- cial, and industrial entities. ' Emergency Response Plan Regardless of the precautions the City or others may take to prevent spills of contaminants in the recharge area, such accidents may still occur. The City can minimize the impact that future contaminant spills will have on the aquifer by rapidly responding to contain or clean up these accidental spills. It is possible that immediate action by the City or others could totally avert contamination of the aquifer. ' Although certain state or federal agencies, such as the DOE and EPA, may have the overall responsibility of protecting the environment, the City must take the lead in such sit- ' uations and not rely on others to protect the water supply. The City is familiar with the supply system and the precau- tions necessary to protect it from potential contamination. ' To ensure that response to such accidents is immediate and effective, it is recommended that the City develop an emer- gency response plan specifically directed toward protecting Renton' s aquifer. The plan should clearly delineate the tasks necessary to protect the aquifer from various sources of contamination. The plan should then identify the agen- cies that have the resources to perform those tasks. These agencies could include various city departments as well as 4-8 ' ' county, state, and federal agencies. It is possible that certain private organizations offering specialized services should also be incorporated into the plan. ' The key to such a plan is not necessarily to define who does what, but rather, what needs to be done and what resources ' are available to do it. Obviously, certain tasks may re- quire resources that only one agency can provide. A properly drafted plan will identify those tasks in advance and pro- vide for immediate notification of those specific agencies. The American Water Works Association Manual No. M19, Emer- gency Planning for Water Utility Management, is an excellent ' guide for developing an emergency response plan. The docu- ment not only provides suggestions for protecting against contamination but also offers guidelines to water utilities for dealing with other natural and man-caused disasters. In addition to containment and cleanup of accidental spills, the emergency response plan should include measures to pro- tect nonpolluted wells, should only portions of the aquifer become contaminated. It may be necessary to continuously run the pump in a contaminated well to prevent migration of the contaminant to other wells. The discharge from the contaminated well must not only be isolated from the dis- tribution system in this case, but also be prevented from returning to the aquifer. The quantity of water stored in the City' s reservoirs may be crucial in the event of aquifer contamination. Reservoir ' capacities in a water system are generally determined by the number of service connections, sources of supply in the sys- tem, historical water demands , and water reserved for fire- fighting. The City of Renton currently has six reservoirs with a total capacity of 12. 5 million gallons. As mentioned in Chapter 1 of this report, Renton' s Cedar River aquifer currently provides 85 percent of the City' s total water sup- ply. Loss of this source of supply because of contamination of the aquifer could cause rapid depletion of stored water. The emergency response plan should include procedures to maintain high water levels in the reservoirs when aquifer contamination is suspected. Procedures to limit water demand 1 on an emergency basis should also be included. Use of the broadcast media to notify the public promptly, or the cur- tailment of supplies to large industrial users, might be necessary and should be addressed in such a plan. The steps outlined above are only a few examples of items to be considered when developing an emergency response plan. ' The main consideration is to make those agencies that have the available resources aware of the importance of the aqui- fer to the City and the need to respond in a rapid manner. 4-9 1 j RIVER SOURCE PREVENTION ' Septic Tanks As stated in Chapter 3, contaminants from septic tanks are , among the most serious of the potential contaminants cate- gorized as river sources. Septic tanks located within flood ' zones, potential failure of septic tank systems because of adverse soil conditions, and projected increases in popula- tion densities east of Renton' s city limits are all causes for concern. Connecting residences upstream of Renton' s aquifer to sanitary sewer systems would increase protection of the City' s water supply system. Before an area outside the city limits can be sewered, it must be incorporated into the King County General Sewerage Plan and be declared a "local service area" by the King County Building and Land Development Division. After these steps have been taken, the area is eligible to connect to the Seattle Metro interceptor sewer system. ' The City of Renton currently has an ordinance that prohibits the connection of developments outside the city limits to the City' s sewer system. Although this ordinance may limit the City' s operation and maintenance costs by minimizing the flows and size of the system, it also limits the City' s ability to provide sewer service to the residences east of the well field. The Maplewood Addition residential development has been de- clared a "local service area" and is eligible to connect to ' the existing Metro interceptor sewer north of the develop- ment. It is recommended that the Maplewood area be sewered as soon as possible to protect the aquifer from potential contamination. The proximity of this development to Ren- ton' s aquifer and the possibility of flooding cause these septic tanks to be a threat to the aquifer water quality. Although the Maplewood development is eligible to be sewered, a project has not yet been organized. Funding for such a project is a major consideration. The residents of the de- ' velopment recently decided not to connect to Renton' s water system because they were not willing to impose the financial burden upon themselves. It is likely that the sewerage proj- ect would be more expensive than the previously proposed water project. It may be necessary for the City to sponsor a sewerage proj- ect for the Maplewood area. This may necessitate either annexation of the area into the City or modification of the ordinance prohibiting city sewers outside the city limits. ' 4-10 , Landfills and Solid Waste Disposal As outlined in the previous chapter, groundwater quality monitoring is ongoing at the Cedar Hills and Queen City Farms landfill sites. It is recommended that the City go on record with the EPA and DOE that these monitoring programs ' must be continued. The results should indicate groundwater quality trends and leachate movement patterns from these sites. The trend data should indicate if the groundwater quality is deteriorating and the rate of deterioration. The City should analyze these data as they are made available to determine if additional protective measures must be taken in the future. The DOE has indicated that there is already sufficient leg- islation for protecting groundwater quality in waste disposal regulations. The coal mines and private dump sites are sub- ject to these existing regulations. Enforcement of these regulations is therefore the key to preserving the ground- water quality that the City already enjoys. Additional leg- islation should be drafted that would make individuals who engage in contaminating activities financially responsible for their actions. This legislation should include making them liable for losses suffered by others as a result of their contaminating activities. Sewage Pump Station Overflows It is recommended that the City evaluate the operation and design of the Cottonwood and Falcon Ridge sewage pump ' stations to determine the frequency of overflow discharges and the quantities of raw sewage that may be involved. Safeguards that are often incorporated into the design of ' sewage pump stations to eliminate or minimize overflow of raw sewage include: ' o Duplicate pumps o Backup power supply o Increased wetwell storage capacity o Various alarms including power failure, pump fail- ure and wetwell high level alarms. If it is determined that the pump stations discharge signif- icant quantities of raw sewage to the Cedar River, addi- tional safeguards that may not already be included in the designs should be added. Olympic Petroleum Pipelines Buried petroleum pipelines are generally designed and 1 constructed according to stringent federal guidelines to protect the environment. Aside from completely relocating, 4-11 1 the pipelines out of the recharge area, which is not econo- mically justified nor recommended, there is little the City or others can do to lessen the already minimal risk associ- ated with these installations. Internal pressures should be monitored to detect losses and suspected leakage should be investigated immediately. SUBSURFACE SOURCE PREVENTION ' Service Stations It is recommended that the City impose regulations on the existing service stations in the aquifer area to improve the protection of the aquifer. Recent legislation in California requires that buried storage tanks for hazardous substances be equipped with certain safeguards to protect the environ- ment. California Assembly Bill No. 1362 requires that all underground storage tanks for hazardous substances installed after January 1 , 1984 , comply with certain requirements con- cerning design, construction, monitoring systems, and ' drainage. Petroleum products are included in the category of hazardous substances. The specific designs for new installations in- clude primary containment tanks with corrosion protection and secondary containment capable of intercepting leakage from any portion of the tank to protect groundwater. Moni- toring devices capable of detecting leakage from the primary containment tank are also required for new installations. The legislation also requires that all underground storage tanks installed on or before January 1 , 1984 , have a leakage monitoring system and a means for inspection installed prior to January 1 , 1985. Pending California Assembly Bill No. 3565 would amend this existing legislation to require existing tanks to also have monitored pressurized piping systems, but it would extend the deadline for outfitting to June 1 , 1985. Copies of both Assembly bills are included in Appendix D. Monitoring devices around single-shelled storage tanks will provide for early detection of leakage but will not protect the aquifer from contamination. Because of the gravelly soils in the area of Renton' s wells and the close location of the service stations, the petroleum product could migrate to a well in a short time. Therefore, monitoring devices with single-shelled storage tanks would provide the aquifer with little, if any, protection, and are not recommended. 4-12 Secondary containment structures or double-walled storage tanks would provide the most protection for the aquifer. 1 The California legislation substantiates the fact that the failure of buried storage tanks is a recognized concern. It should be noted that secondary containment around storage tanks does not provide protection against piping failures. Although fiberglass storage tanks and piping are considered to be safer than their steel counterparts because they are resistant to corrosion, they are not free from problems. For instance, in Auburn, a new service station was recently built that used buried fiberglass piping. The piping was successfully pressure tested after installation. Subsequent site work included constructing the concrete islands on which the dispensers were to be placed. ' While placing the forms for the concrete, a worker unknow- ingly drove a steel stake through the top of one of the pipes. The work was completed, and the station was opened ' for business. Approximately 8 , 000 gallons of gasoline were lost before the leak was reported. Product recovery efforts by Crowley Environmental Services proved to be unsuccessful. The fiberglass piping at the Auburn station was subsequently replaced by steel piping. This case also illustrates that even leaks in relatively small-diameter piping can involve large quantities of product and may have an enormous impact ' on groundwater quality. The City of Auburn Fire Department now requires a final pressure test of fuel piping after all construction activity is completed. The City of Renton should also adopt such a policy. The accuracy of service station inventory control practices ' also allows small fuel leaks to go undetected. A small var- iation on the gauging stick can represent a significant quantity of product. According to Texaco, the accuracy of inventory control varies from station to station. Improved inventory control may be a cost-effective means of detecting ' leaks at an early stage. It is understood that currently available automated gauging systems are more accurate than conventional stick gauging methods. It is recommended that the City of Renton adopt an ordinance similar to the California Assembly Bills for the specific purpose of protecting the aquifer from petroleum contamina- tion. The ordinance should require the following protective measures for all service stations in the area within the limits of the aquifer as shown of Figure 2-3: 4-13 o Double-walled tanks constructed on non-corrosive ' material or cathodically protected steel o Secondary containment around all piping, including fuel dispensing and vent lines. The secondary containment should slope toward the storage tanks o Piping constructed of approved non-metallic mate- rials or cathodically protected Schedule 40 steel pipe o Pressure testing of all piping after all construc- tion has been completed o A device to detect product or pressure losses in pressurized product lines o Automated storage tank gauging systems , o Observation wells with a minimum diameter of 2-inches, located at two corners of storage tank ' excavations o Inventory records be maintained and reconciled daily. Records should be made available to the City for inspection o Notification to the City by service station opera- , tors if fuel leakage is identified o Penalties for failure to maintain inventory proce- dures and records It is recommended that all existing service stations be re- quired to comply with this ordinance within the next 2 years. The Gull service station upstream of the aquifer limits should also be required to comply. The two service stations near the northerly limit of the aquifer (Exxon and i abandoned station) should be required to comply with this ordinance if groundwater table monitoring indicates that water in the aquifer could move from the area of these , stations toward the City' s wells. Concrete Plant ' The location of the Stoneway concrete plant with respect to the well field makes containment of potential contaminants stored on that site critical to the safe operation of the City' s water supply system. Contaminants entering the aqui- fer from this site could possibly migrate to any or all of the City' s wells. , 4-14 As recommended above, the City should adopt an ordinance that would require secondary containment and monitoring de- vices around storage tanks for hazardous substances. The definition of hazardous substances in the ordinance should be broad enough to include any liquid or solid substance that could adversely affect the aquifer water quality. The ' California bills refer to other California legislative docu- ments to define hazardous substances. It is clear that pe- troleum products are considered as such; however, further research of applicable California documents may be necessary for a complete definition. In addition to requiring secondary containment and monitor- ing for the buried fuel storage tanks, consideration must be given to the aboveground storage of other substances. The chemical additives stored on the Stoneway site should be ' considered as hazardous to the aquifer unless proven other- wise. Double-walled tanks or containment dikes with an impervious ground cover should be incorporated. The imper- vious ground cover method would require that additional consideration be given to drainage and/or treatment of pre- cipitation runoff. ' Brick Plant The fuel storage facilities at the North American Refrac- tories brick plant are not considered to be a major threat to Renton' s aquifer because of the brick plant' s location on the south side of the Cedar River. However, the ordinance requirements outlined above for the service stations and the concrete plant should also apply to this facility if suffi- cient evidence developed to indicate that contaminants from the brick plant could migrate to the aquifer. ' The chemicals stored on this site are commonly used in pot- able water treatment processes , and therefore specific stor- age requirements to protect the aquifer are not necessary. Sanitary Sewers Relocation of the 42-inch Metro sewer line away from the well field would reduce the contamination hazard. Recon- struction of the pipeline with newer materials that would be less likely to fail or leak would also reduce the risk of potential contamination. However, the present contamination risk that the sewer line poses does not justify the large expense of either of these options. Awareness of the pipeline location and its potential impact on the aquifer will allow the City to be alert for early signs of sewer line failure. Needless to say, if such a failure occurs, immediate response will be critical in pro- tecting the aquifer from contamination. II 4-15 Continued bacteriological testing of raw water from the wells represents the most cost-effective monitoring of this potential contaminant source. Pressure testing of the pipe- line to isolate leaks would be nearly impossible while main- ' taining sewage flows. Monitoring groundwater quality along the pipeline in the ' aquifer area would not be beneficial unless specific leak locations had been identified. The water table is approxi- mately 20 feet below ground while the pipeline is only 10 ' feet below ground. Although small 2-inch-diameter sampling probes could be placed at intervals along the pipeline, the 6,000-foot length of pipeline through the aquifer area makes this impractical. If leaks are found within a limited length of pipeline, the sewer should be repaired, or it could be lined with a PVC insert. Lining of the Metro sewer with an insert for the full 6,000 feet within the aquifer area should be considered in the future as the pipeline ages and becomes more prone to ' leakage. Most of what has been discussed above for the 42-inch Metro sewer is also applicable to the 6-inch to 15-inch City of , Renton sanitary sewers in the aquifer area. The age, condi- tion, depth above or below water table, and other details of these sewers are unknown. Known leaks should be repaired. ' Other options for checking existing sanitary sewers for leakage include TV inspection and smoke testing. Generally, TV inspection will not disclose leaks in the pipe or joints , unless the sewer is below the water table and infiltration into the pipe can be observed. However, major structural damage (cracked or broken pipe) could be observed by TV in- spection. Smoke testing will disclose leaks in sewers only if the sewers are above the water table and the soil is po- rous (gravelly or sandy) and relatively dry (no precipita- tion for some time) . The abandoned sanitary sewers from the government housing complex in Cedar River Park should be completely plugged. , Unplugged, these sewers will serve as conduits toward the aquifer of any contaminants or surface water entering the sewers at other points. These abandoned sewers should be , plugged at all possible locations, if this has not already been done. Storm Sewers Major leaks in storm sewers in the aquifer area should be located and repaired. Methods of leak detection are similar to those discussed for sanitary sewers, except that pressure testing could also be done easily when flows are nonexistent 1 4-16 or can be interrupted. Monitoring for storm sewer leaks in i the aquifer area by water quality sampling adjacent to the storm sewers is not practical. Storm sewage, once collected into storm sewers, should be piped to a river discharge point downstream of Renton' s aq- uifer (as defined in Chapter 2) whenever possible. In par- ticular, any dry wells (sumps into which storm sewers empty) in the aquifer area, whether serving public storm sewers or ' private parking lots, should be eliminated by piping to other storm sewers. Contaminants should be prevented from entering storm sewers ' whenever possible. Oil traps at service stations, for exam- ple, should be inspected periodically by the City to ensure good working order. Even frequent sweeping of streets is ' effective in reducing contamination of stormwater flow. In specific cases, connection of a storm sewer source to the sanitary sewer to provide treatment of the flow might be ' more desirable than continuing to pipe the source to the storm sewer and ultimately the river. Separate treatment of storm sewage by oil skimming and sedimentation in a deten- tion pond is not considered feasible, except possibly in the ' case of runoff from I-405, discussed later in this chapter. There are few if any storm sewers on the plateau area (pri- marily lower Maplewood) north of the Cedar River. Permeable soils in this area allow percolation into the ground of run- off from streets. Future land use in this area is expected to be primarily residential. Served with sanitary sewers, such residential use is not expected to be a major source of potential contaminants. Therefore, it is believed that the stormwater runoff disposal by percolation into the ground 1 will continue to be acceptable as the area develops, and that construction of an extensive storm sewer system is not essential to protection of the City' s aquifer. 1 Besides saving the cost of storm sewer construction, what- ever natural recharge of the aquifer occurs from this source will be beneficial. At this time there is no evidence that ' the contaminants originating from residential sources in the area would not be attenuated satisfactorily in the subsoils. If future water quality monitoring near the river narrows indicates that storm water percolation here is endangering the river water quality, and if water table elevation mon- itoring at the aquifer indicates movement of water from the river to the wells, then the need for storm sewers in this area should be reconsidered. i 1 4-17 Cemetery Sites , The contamination risk associated with the existing cemetery sites is believed to be minimal because of the small quantity and probable attenuation of contaminants that may leach from those sites. Relocation of the cemeteries to eliminate these sources of potential contamination is not feasible. , It is understood that current burial practices at both these sites include the use of concrete vaults to prevent the ' ground from collapsing around excavations. These vaults also provide a means for containing potential contaminants. Water quality analysis data from the City' s wells indicate , that the levels of contaminants thought to be associated with the cemetery sites are below the DSHS maximum contami- nant levels. Monitoring trends of both primary and secon- dary chemical and physical contaminants at the wells would indicate if the levels of these contaminants are increasing. The City may wish to perform additional water quality tests on water samples obtained closer to the cemeteries to deter- mine if the level of groundwater contaminants increases nearer the sites. This information may be useful in determining if additional remedial actions, such as more , stringent burial practices, are necessary. Private Fill Sites ' The possibility of harmful wastes being improperly disposed at the three fill sites cited in Chapter 3 is a serious con- cern. It is recommended that of these fill operations be ' controlled so that the City is assured that. no materials containing soluble poisons, paints, cleaners, waste oils, or other leachable compounds , are incorporated into these fills. The fill operators should be bonded and be made responsible for monthly reporting to the City of materials incorporated into the fill, results of leachate monitoring, , and for costs of subsequent cleanup if required. It is also recommended that the City perform periodic spot checks of these sites to enforce ordinance and permit requirements. SURFACE SOURCE PREVENTION ' As discussed in Chapter 3 , contaminant sources that are or- , ganized into the surface source category in this report are limited to sprays and fertilizers. Urban runoff and acci- dental spills are also specific types of surface sources. However, prevention techniques related to these types of , surface sources are detailed in the Transportation Source Prevention section of this chapter. 4-18 i ' Sprays and Fertilizers The use of pesticides , herbicides, and fertilizers by pri- vate parties is not believed to be a major threat to the aquifer because of the limited quantities that may be in- volved. The EPA and the Department of Agriculture generally ' regulate the use of these products. Many of the existing regulations are intended to protect the environment includ- ing groundwaters. Imposing and enforcing additional re- strictions on the general public would probably not be cost effective or feasible. Because the wells are located within City parks, the City ' has direct control over the use of sprays and fertilizers in the immediate area surrounding the wells. Limiting the use of sprays and fertilizers within the City parks and other ' public areas near the wells is the most effective means of protecting against these sources of contamination. Mechani- cal methods of weed and brush control are recommended in- stead of chemicals near the well buildings. It is not recommended that the use of fertilizers in the Parks be discontinued altogether; however, some products may ' have less impact on water quality than others. Products that are nearly insoluble in water should not be used. These products are not readily decomposed or broken down and ' therefore will tend to accumulate in the underlying soils with repeated dosages. It is recommended that a park maintenance procedure management ' plan be developed. This plan should identify chemicals that should or should not be used within the parks. The plan should also include records of when chemicals are used and ' the quantities involved. The types of shrubs and trees used for future landscaping within the parks and along the freeway should also be considered in the plan. Some varieties of plants require less maintenance with chemicals than others. WSDOT indicates that they have a list of sensitive areas where they avoid using sprays. The area adjacent to the well field is not currently on this list. The City should request that spraying along the right-of-way near the wells be discontinued or limited. WSDOT may in turn require an ' agreement with the City which would delegate any necessary mechanical maintenance work to the City. It is recommended that the City contact WSDOT regarding this matter. Burlington Northern does not have a listing of areas that may be sensitive to sprays. According to a Burlington Northern representative, they contract out their right-of- way brush maintenance with spraying contractors. The con- tractors are licensed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. It is the responsibility of the contractor to research sen- sitive areas and take the necessary precautions. 4-19 The City should sh Burling- ton on record by sending a letter to Burling , ton Northern explaining the importance and sensitivity of the well field area, and the consequences of contamination. The City should request that Burlington Northern avoid the use of chemical sprays near the well field. TRANSPORTATION SOURCE PREVENTION , Interstate 405 It is recommended that surface runoff from all paved areas of I-405 which drain toward the aquifer be collected in storm sewers and piped to the river downstream of the aqui- fer. The existing catch basins at the I-405/SR 169 inter- , change are presently connected to the 30-inch storm sewer. Where surface drainage now flows across unpaved shoulders, as is the case under the elevated structure at the inter- , change, these shoulders should be paved to limit infiltra- tion into the ground. Drainage from the elevated structure and roadway to the north of the interchange should be piped to the storm sewer. The 30-inch storm sewer should be ex- tended downriver beyond Wells 1 and 2 . The distance down- river should be determined by monitoring water table elevations as discussed previously in this chapter. All drainage from the elevated structure downspouts above the river and south of the river should be collected in a storm sewer and piped downstream as well. ' Additional consideration should be given to separation of I-405 storm sewage from other storm sewage in the 30-inch sewer. This would facilitate separation of oils and pos- sibly other contaminants from I-405 storm sewage in a deten- tion basin prior to discharge to the river. The costs and difficulties of successfully operating such separation fa- , cilities are recognized. The facilities would, however, be useful in containing an accidental spill from I-405 and pre- venting contamination of the river and Lake Washington. Any ' separation facility should be sized appropriately to contain a large tanker truck spill. Another alternative that should be considered further is , discharge of I-405 storm sewage to a sanitary sewer for treatment. The risk of receiving explosive materials is recognized, however. , Construction of jersey barriers or similar walls with gut- ters along the edges of all traffic lanes or paved shoul- ders, including the on- and off-ramps, is recommended to prevent vehicles from spilling contaminants down the pervi- ous side slopes toward the aquifer. These barriers would also protect the Well 8 and 9 buildings from impact by out- , of-control vehicles from I-405. 4-20 iOther means of containing spills could include covering the slopes beyond the paved shoulders with an impervious material to prevent infiltration of potential contaminants into the ' ground. A polyethylene or plastic sheet material covered with topsoil was considered, but suitable anchorage of the topsoil mass may be difficult. Asphalt paving on the slopes would also provide an effective protection against contami- nant infiltration but would not present an attractive ap- pearance. Construction of the barriers described above, 1 while continuing the present grassed and planted surfacing on the side slopes, appears to be the best alternative. A paved trough or invert should be constructed at the toe of ' the slopes to divert surface runoff and any spilled materials to the storm sewer system and away from the well field. Toward this end, the City is including certain site work in ' the construction package for the Well 9 pump building. This site work will provide an access road to the pump building around the north corner of the park. The road will be ' slightly elevated above the surrounding grade of the park to act as a barrier to surface runoff from the I-405 embankment and SR 169. All runoff on the I 405/SR 169 side of the ac- cess road will be directed to catch basins and storm sewers ' away from the well field. The proposed freeway improvements for I-405 should include all of the above features to protect the well field from traffic-related contamination. Special consideration should be given to the protection of the well field during construction of I-405 improvements. Construction activities will disturb the vegetation and other existing protection features such as gutters and storm sewer ' connections . Contaminated runoff material may be more fre- quently discharged into the soils above the aquifer. Con- struction equipment refueling, oil changing, and lubrication should be done within containment areas away from the well field. The City of Renton should be actively involved in alterna- tive evaluations and design decisions for I-405 improvements that relate to well field protection. Protection of the well field should be specifically addressed in the environ- mental impact statement being prepared by WSDOT for these improvements. SR 169 (Maple Valley Highway) The use of jersey barriers with gutters along the north and south paved shoulders of SR 169 from the I-405 interchange ' east to the bedrock narrows is recommended wherever possi- ble. This will control runoff from the paved roadway and limit the spread of contaminants from an accidental spill. All roadway runoff should be collected into storm sewers and discharged to the river downstream of Wells 1 and 2 . 4-21 although not as effective, discharge of this storm sewage to , the river upstream of Wells 1 and 2 is preferable to not containing and collecting the runoff at all, as is presently done. Another alternative, also not as effective, would be ' to contour the ground along the south side of SR 169 with a paved shoulder and ditch invert near the south right-of-way line. All runoff from the roadway, including that piped , from the north side of the road, could be collected in the paved ditch and piped to the river. Accidental spills be- yond the paved ditch might still occur. ' Limitations on materials hauled by truck traffic on SR 169 may be impractical since SR 169 is the major traffic arte- rial east of Renton. Additional safeguards in the manner in , which these materials are hauled (the solid waste transfer trucks, for example) might be implemented to prevent or re- duce the chances of spillage. , City Streets One method of preventing potentially hazardous spills from , occurring on City streets around the well field would be to limit commercial truck traffic. This would limit the number of vehicles hauling large quantities of potential contami- nants through the area. Service stations adjacent to the wells require periodic bulk shipments of petroleum products. Use of these streets would still be necessary for these lo- cal deliveries, as long as these businesses remain in the area. However, through truck traffic should be rerouted where feasible. The City should restrict the types of , materials hauled by commercial truck traffic in the area around the wells. We understand that the City' s Public Works Director has the authority to establish such traffic restrictions although there is no City legislation of record regarding this matter. WSDOT has indicated that no additional on- and off-ramps are ' included in the planned improvements for I-405. Traffic patterns on City streets adjacent to the aquifer are related to existing I-405 access. These patterns cannot be changed because alternative traffic routes do not exist. Total re- , striction of truck traffic on these streets may severely disrupt commercial activity in the adjacent area. The best alternative for prevention of contamination from , the City streets appears to be that of collecting all sur- face runoff (storm sewage) and contaminant spills to the extent possible. Street surfaces should be kept in good repair and shoulder areas where necessary should be paved to prevent or limit infiltration of materials from the surface. All runoff should be piped to the river, downstream of Wells 1 and 2 whenever possible. 4-22 Railroad Due to the relatively slow speed of trains traveling within ' the city limits and the limited use of the tracks near the wells, the probability of a major rail accident affecting water quality is low. ' The City should express a concern directly to Burlington Northern regarding spillage of materials. The company may be able to take special precautions to protect the well field, such as making sure that tracks are properly maintained. As discussed previously in the Emergency Response Plan section of this chapter, awareness of the sensitivity of the area ' may also improve the response of Burlington Northern and others should an accidental spill occur. ' It is possible that the tracks paralleling the Cedar River on the south bank may be abandoned by Burlington Northern in the future. According to a Burlington Northern representa- tive, this matter is being studied but a final decision re- garding abandonment is not expected in the near future. The City should stay abreast of any information regarding this potential abandonment. Future acquisition of this right- of-way by the City would provide direct control over its use. With direct ownership, the City could establish a rec- reation greenbelt along the south bank of the river to mini- mize the exposure of the wells from potential contaminating activities. ' GENERAL SOURCE PREVENTION Coal Mines As stated in Chapter 3, there are many unknowns associated with the possible use of abandoned coal mines as waste dis- posal sites. Some of these unknowns include the location and number of sites that may be involved, and the types and quantities of substances being disposed. The risk associ- ated with these sites is believed to be low. Therefore, aside from being aware that these potential contaminant ' sources may exist, no specific actions by the City are recommended. Residential Heating Oil Tanks The contamination risk associated with residential heating ' oil tanks is believed to be low, however, the City may wish to conduct a survey of the residences in the aquifer re- charge area to determine the location, capacity, and age of buried heating oil and private motor fuel storage tanks. 4-23 1 The risks associated with the leakage from tanks found within , the area could then be evaluated, and a program for prevent- ing contamination from this source could be developed if necessary. , Residential Use and Disposal It is recommended that the City sponsor or actively partici- pate in an education program to inform the public of the potential consequences of continued disposal of materials ' such as paints, waste oils, insecticides , pesticides, and poisons at the landfill sites, residential sites, or other unapproved locations. The public should be informed of the locations where these materials can be disposed of in a , proper manner. Continued dumping of potential contaminants into the landfills may cause future water quality problems for the City. The program could include special educational inserts to be sent with monthly garbage collection, sewer, or water billings. The City could also establish convenient collection centers for the public to drop off materials that are undesirable at transfer stations or landfills. This would help eliminate the illegal dumping of these materials onto the ground or , into the storm sewer catch basins. Dry Cleaners ' The disposal practices of any dry cleaning businesses located within the aquifer recharge area should be monitored to deter- mine if additional safeguards are necessary. These safe- , guards may include more stringent enforcement of existing regulations or the enactment of additional controls to set greater penalties for improper disposal of chemical solvents. ' CONCLUSIONS Potential contaminant sources have been identified from in- formation furnished by the City and from supplementary sources where possible. Methods of contamination prevention have been discussed and recommendations made in specific ' cases, particularly for those sources of potential contamin- ation believed to be of greatest threat to aquifer water quality. No guarantee is made that all existing contaminant sources have been identified. Additional contaminant sources may be ' identified in the future, as well as additional or improved methods of contamination prevention. The City of Renton, with the help of DSHS, DOE, WSDOT, Metro, , and other agencies, should implement the recommended contami- nation prevention measures as soon as feasible to protect the existing high quality of Renton' s Cedar River aquifer. 4-24 ' Progress toward implementation of these measures should be reviewed after one year to determine whether the City is in fact staying ahead of the potential contamination problem. ' One option to protection of the existing well field which the City should consider is that of relocating the City' s wells upriver. The Renton Parks Department has considered purchase of the Maplewood Golf Course. The Golf course, together with the King County Park Department land and other sparsely populated lands for several miles upstream of the Golf Course could provide Renton with an aquifer which is better protected than the existing well field area. However, several major questions must be resolved prior to such a move. These include: o Is the aquifer in the Cedar River Valley near the Maplewood Golf Course suitable for development of major wells which could supply Renton' s water needs? o Are the water rights presently held at the exist- ing well field transferrable to the new location? o Is the groundwater quality in this area suitable for municipal supply without treatment, except chlorination? ' o Could all of the property in the valley necessary for protection of the new aquifer be obtained, or the land use thereon controlled? Land use up the ' valley might be controlled, for example , by pur- chase of development rights through the King County Farmlands Preservation Act. o Would the cost of drilling new wells, constructing new pump buildings and chlorination facilities, ' and constructing a major transmission line into Renton be justified? o Could such a relocation (aside from constructing the transmission line) be done one well at a time to minimize near-term expenditure? o Could the ownership of lands, or rights to locate ' wells in the area, and protection of the area from contamination, be secured now to allow relocation ' of City wells in the future? As first steps toward the goal of eventual relocation of wells, the City should initiate a separate study to consider the following: 4-25 o Explore the aquifer area to determine its geologic , and hydrologic value as a municipal water source. Such exploration might include the drilling of several test wells, which could be capped for fu- ' ture use. Such exploration should also determine water quality. o Purchase the Maplewood Golf Course, or establish ' an option to purchase it, or obtain permission to drill exploratory or permanent wells on it. o Investigate the other questions posed above to determine whether relocation of the wells is eco- nomically and politically feasible. ' I 4-26 ■w ww �w w� w w ww w w r w ww w w� w w w w w . ,,, I I I �� . cc R....., ...%�. , ..'' .1- ., I - ... ... .... � m, 0! "� ��,�� [� , �,� I 4 4���:, I ... ,� , , o� ��;� i ,;, .. .. I. . „.. a. .. �. 11 �' P lff�l , ��f:��Q� '• �� •. o �� � .,��. ....... sj�i* ff — .. ,, • ... www: _ ,. . 1 _ J))Y I Ill (� .. �i :: : ..... .111� ' "'_ ."�' "h.. o m t ...M _ � ` � , m � „ » � Z �r *� % ��, .' _ � ... . 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G /� -H b ca \ ,a r I C O a) 44 �/ D r 1 $4 /� a) 00 co ca • x J >, 04r1 " .J r 1 > E a) D, O to _ ,.) v) u z 14 oo H —4 • V D, N -Hv "i z v cA T 1-4 Ca L to O U) +-1 U r1 O L F4 -W H W41 rl a N Ir A G N 41 •rq N G H H w " a) U b r1 L G rl r1 () U) I •r1 'z' pG $4 G G G r1 F4 i 4 ca rq r-I r 1 r-1 >4 O O W O O a) b b 4 O O H U ca co 00 O w G U) H pr .o rl p G 7•+ r-1 O 41 r-1 JJ •14 G Q) N CO ca a u x u H u w z u H a H ou " 3 a I 1 AT am test im. 4900 9TH AVENUE N.W., • SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 98107-3897 • 208/783-4700 ANALYSIS REPORT CLIENT: City of Renton DATE RECEIVED: 10/4/83 REPORT TO: 800 Edmonds Avenue N. Renton, WA 98052 DATE REPORTED: 10/18/83 Laboratory Sample No. 71442 MCL Client Identification 9:00 Well 9 Renton PH 6.0 --- Arsenic (mg/1) <0.001 0.05 . Bariiun (mg/1) <0.25 1.0 Cadmitun (mg/1) 0.0001 0.01 Chromium (mg/1) <0.001 0.05 Iron (mg/1) <0.05 0.3 Lead (mg/1) 0.003 0.05 Manganese (mg/l) <0.03 0.05 _ Mercury (mg/1) <0.0002 <0.0002) O.OU2 Selenium(mg/1) <0.002 0.01 Silver (mg/1) <0.0003 0.05 Sodium (mg/l) 5.7 5.6� Hardness (mg/l as Ca003) 56.7) 56.7 Conductivity (µhms/cm) 170. 700. Turbidity (NI'U) 0.36 1.0 Color (color units) <5. 15. i Fluoride (mg/1) <0.10 2.0 _ Nitrate + Nitrite (mg/l as N) 0.38 10.0 *Washington State drinking water Maximlun Contaminant Level allowed. REPORTED BY John Blunt JMS:bc RESULTS OF ANALYSIS Date: Lab Sample Identification Number Test or Residue Results Units MRL o,r eEJUTDA) emA,C,QidE< �flul ooa�. ,�,yFiUo X s� ,s'� �✓D PFB . 'Oro C�NT.O�iVE2°� O,eC Paul. seoAj Al A �ioB •Oso A,C /�Sf� /G•9 i°�6 /•o <; R AND f7/KrI�F'�ft RriO. tr - I t rP` id IQ. t�t��C � ANA t a S:..r (T/LVGItT1VY 1/Vr'7 E OOLLECTEf? COUNTY 21 AM 13 PM TYP&, G s"TE -COMPI.E } i t SPEC*lc tOCMWWWRE> E TE (is,kftehan tap*AMtoW lin statkw, M1 y F4' u v e( N. r t T a •tom * _ ' .�► Filtered ` Untreatstta�il �t 3. t tiON or REPAIRS Com SBSAMIPLE is A CHECK sAM PM RE If MPN E�tL +11t A all, MF yr r" TNTC ,e .. T FECAL, u- a M - I N' t FOR DR! st3t�1� i ` LAB NO. ,.' AM 170E RfAfft1lED j^' I A SEATTLE WATER DEPARTMENT 1983 A'rL:AL WATER ANALYSIS OF CEDAR 6 TOLT WATER SUPPLIES Samples Collected: Prepared by October 11, 1983 Fater Quality Laboratory Seattle Water Department Cedar Distribution Area: South of Lake Washington Ship Canal. 1509 South Spokane Street Tolt Distribution Area: North of Lake Washington Ship Canal. Seattle, Washington 98144 (206) 625-4305 Results given in milligrams per liter, i.e. , parts per million (ppm) , except as noted. _ - WASHINGTON STATE BOARD OF HEALTH CEDAR TOLT _WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS MAXIMUM CONTAMINANT LEVEL DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION *Primary Standards Arsenic, Total, pg/l. . . . . . . . 50.0 <3 <3 Barium. . . . 1.0 <0.04 <0.04 . . . . . . . . . . . Cadmium, pg/1 10.0 <0.05 <0.05 Chromium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.05 <0.01 <0.01 ^l_oride. . . . . . . . . . . . . . u G.95 0.49 Lead, jug/l. 50.0 <3 <1% tMercury, Total, pg/1. . . . . . . . 2.0 <1 <1 Nitrate-Nitrogen. . . . . . . . . . 10.0 .08 0.11 tSelenium, pg/l . . . . . . . . 10.0 <5 <5 . . . Silver, µg/1. . . . . . . . . 50.0 <2 <2 Turbidity, NTU. . . . . . . . . . . 1.0t 0.65 0.55 **_Secondary Standards Chloride. 250.0 3.8 3.5 Color, standard units . . . . . . . 15. 8 11 Copper1.0 <0.01 <0.01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iron. 0.3 .02 0.07 Manganese, pg/l . . . . . . . . . . 50.0 2;1 4 Residue, Total Dissolved. . . . . . 500.0 46 30; Sulfate . . 250.0 2.1 2.5 • • • • . • . • • • . • Zinc, pg/1. 5000.0 <4 <4 Non-Regulated Standards Alkalinity, Total (as CaCO3). N/A 19.0 11.5 Alkalinity, Bicarbonate (as CaCO3). N/A 19.0 11.5 Aluminum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A <0.03 <0.03 Calcium (as CaCO3) • • • • • • . . . N/A 22.3 11.3 Carbon Dioxide, free (calculated) . N/A 1.2 0.8 Hardness (as CaC031 (calculated) . NIA 27,4 13.1 Hardness, grains per gallon (calc.) N/A 1.60 0.77 Magnesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A 1.23 0.41 pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A 7.55 7.50 Phosphorus, Tot. Ortho.-PO4, pg/l . N/A 4 2;5 Silica, Reactive. . . . . . . . . . N/A 9.7 5.6 Sodium. N/A 1.84 4.62 Specific Conductance, µmhos . . . . N/A 66..7 44.3 Tannin-Lignin (as Tannic Acid). . . N/A <.03 0.08 Temperature, OC N/A 14;� 16 *Primary standards: Water supplier subject to public notification if standard exceeded. **Secondary standards: Water supplier not subject to public notification if standard exceeded. tAnalysis performed by Laucks Testing Laboratories, Inc. , Seattle, Washington. tAs measured at point of intake to distribution system. µg/l - Micrograms per liter. < - Less than. 1 SEATTLE WATER DEPARTMENT WATER ANALYSIS CEDAR AND TOLT RIVERS (1) Landsburg, Cedar River (2) Lake Youngs near Intake (3) Cedar Distribution at S. Forest Street & Airport Way S. SAMPLES COLLECTED: (4) Tolt Regulating Basin near Intake (5) Tolt Distribution at N.W. 122nd Street & 1st Avenue N.W. October 11, 1983 Results is in milligrams per liter i.e. arts per_giveng P P p million, except as noted Cedar Tolt (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 23.1 19.2 19.0 Alkalinity, Total (as CaCO3). . . . . 6.4 11.5 23.i 19.2 19.0 Alkalinity, Bicarbonate (as CaCO3). 6.4 11.5 <0_03 <0.03 <0.03 Aluminum. <0.03 <0.03 -- <3 Arsenic, Total, pg/1. . . . . . . . . -- <3 <.04 <.04 <.04 Barium. . . . <.04 <.04 <.05 <.05 <0.05 Cadmium, pg/1 . . . . . . . . . . . . <0.05 <0.05 19.5 19.4 22.3 Calcium (as CaCO3). . . . . . . . . . 7..9 11.3 0.95 0.7 1.2 Carbon Dioxide, free (calculated) . . 1.2 0.8 0.65 2.5 3.8 Chloride. 0.55 3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 Chromium. <0.01 <0.01 -- -- 8 Color, standard units . . . -- 11 <.01 <.01 <.01 Copper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <.01 <.01 <0.1 1.01 0.95 Fluoride. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <0.10 0.99 24.6 24.5 27.4 Hardness (as CaCO3) (calculated) . . . 9.9 13.1 1.47 1.43 1.60 Hardness, grains per gallon (calc.) . 0.58 .77 <.01 <.O1 .02 Iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .06 .07 <� <� <I Lead, pg/1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . <� <h 1.23 1.23 1.23 Magnesium .46 .41 <1- <1_ 2'h Manganese, pg/1 . . . 5- 4 . . • • • . • • <1 *Mercury, Total, pg/1. <1 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 Nickel. • . . , , , , , <0.01 <0.01 0.12 0.08 0.08 Nitrate-Nitrogen. . . . . . . . . . . 0.15 0.11 7.80 7.80 7.55 pH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10 7.50 iavS hurl TVL. Ortho -F0Pg/1 1 0.26 0.26 0.27 Potassium 0.18 0.19 39 41 46 Residue, Total Dissolved. . . . . . . 17 30� -- -- <5 *Selenium 1. . __ p8/ <5 10.3 9.7 9.7 Silica, Reactive. . . . . . . . . 5.4 5.6 <1 <1 <1 Silver, pg/1. . . • • . • . • • <1 <1 1.89 1.81 1.84 Sodium. 0.95 4.62 57.1 59.9 66.7 Specific Conductance, µmhos • • .. . . 23.9 49.3 25h 24 26 Strontium, pg/1 . . . . . . 8'h 10 I1.9 2.15 2.1 Sulfate 7..4 2.5 0.09 0.04 <.03 Tannin-Lignin (as Tannic Acid). . . . .29 .08 OC 9 13h 14h Temperature, C . . . . . . . . . . . 13h 16 0.2 0.45 0.65 Turbidity, NTU. . . . . . . . . . . . 0.6 0.55 <4 <4 <4 Zinc, µR/1. <4 <4 *Analysis performed by Laucks Testing Laboratories, Inc. , Seattle, Washington. K9/1 - Micrograms per liter. < - Less than. 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N F< wED,0 W d F 1 EZ J �•Z Z H O r < l O W W " O DL O QL •"t LL. NCVS N.+r P1 > WP N O J �J Zr- \PtnJJ pcnl�<d Yr- 7 Z 2 Z Z X00 ,� rtsP �.+ •«mwwL W¢OU OOS OZ I O I I I U •+•+4.9 P.-P-J 0OO d•-�i N«+1.1N h W •<v�ZO mr1O•-�J«ot►-HOP hOO I OOOU (Y R cc c Z U�nn c.+C7 7 tr V a 7 Z n o LL LLI S P C t"LL r .W W 0 e-�'+f M n r P Cs r.•a , K UN< a,P P1•+LLtd W 0.+ -IN aI�mROO �^t•0Na�"'� I']m OC'+U V r YOJ [�pC•t'fOOOOf•1tn0raa10a.o as r On W M<=.• Hz.• OOC�OO']�7�'17OA'-1Ot'7o N r V r d d N \•+i O v V v 0 0 0 0 V V O v 0 0 0 0 APPENDIX B LANDFILL LEACHATE AND STORM RUNOFF CHARACTERISTICS I TYPICAL LEACHATE CHARACTERISTICS* (Sanitary Landfills) Cedar Kent Kent Hillsl Highlands Highland 3 4 Parameter F.C.R. F.C.R. Miller California Fungaroli pH 5.8-6.2 6.0-6.9 6.3-6.5 6.0-6.5 3.7-8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 0-0.1 0-2.1 0 Total Coliform (M!N) 23-1,600 8-2,400 7,000-17,500 BOD 1,150-7,000 820-7,300 1,010-2,240 21,700-30,300 COD 1,760-8,870 1,240-8,940 1,250-3,095 800-50,700 Total Solids 916-2,045 Suspended Solids 48-311 13-26,500 Volatile Solids 341-1,103 Alkalinity (CaCO3) 548-1,571 730-9,500 Total Hardness (KCO3) 480-750 890-7,600 200-5,500 Calcium 110-192 240-2,330 Magnesium 214-333 64-410 Total Nitrogen 31-447 26.4-124.0 Organic Nitrogen 1.5-30.5 2.4-564 8-482 Ammonia - N 12.2-102.2 .22-480 2.1-177 Nitrate - N 0.9-2.4 .20-2.50 ' Total Phosphate 0-0.1 0-20 .36-.72 .3-29 2-130 Ortho-Phosphate 0-.16 Total Iron 27.7-143.8 6.5-220 .12-1,640 Sodium 85-1,700 127-3,800 ' Potassium 28-1,700 Sulfate 16-35 84-730 20-450 Sulfide 2 Chloride 0-65 96-2,350 47-2,340 Copper 0-0.026 2.4-3.6 0-7.6 Zinc 0-0.017 0.03-129 Nickel 0.1-0.6 0-0.81 Chromium 0-0.3 Mercury 0-0.0004 Lead 0.03-0.12 0.01-0.319 0 1Food, Chemical and Research Laboratories, Inc. 2Miller, Joseph R. , "Characteristics of a Sanitary Landfill Leachate and Its Treatability in an Aerated Lagoon," a Master's thesis, University of Washington 1971. A study conducted at the City of Seattle's Kent-Highlands landfill. 3California State Water Pollution Control Board. Report on the investigation of leaching of a sanitary landfill. Publication No. 10, Sacramento, 1954. 4"Pollution of Subsurface Water by Sanitary Landfills." United States Environmental Protection Agency, Solid Waste Management Research Grant EP-000162, Drexel University, Pennsylvania, 1971. *Source: Report on Environmental Management for the Metropolitan Area, Part III, Water Quality, December 1974, prepared for the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) and the River Basin Coordinating Committee (RIBCO) by Stevens, Thompson & Runyan, Inc. COMPARISON: CHARACTERISTICS OF STORM RUNOFF AND SECONDARY SEWAGE EFFLUENT* Secondary Mean Concentrations in Urban Runoff l Effluent from View View South South Lake High- Municipal Parameter Ridge 1 Ridge 2 Seattle Center Hills Lands Sewage Treatment 2 Temperature (C) 13.1 12.9 14.8 13.3 14.6 10.7 Conductivity (umbo/cm) 125 136 134 99 51 132 Turbidity (JTU) 30 37 47 18.7 15 22 DO (mg/1) 8.6 8.9 8.5 9.5 9.6 9.4 BOD 30 30 19 15 8.5 8.0 25 COD (mg/1) 95 97 95 70 68 57 70 Hexane Ext. (mg/1) 12 16 14 11 7.3 8.5 Chloride (mg/1) 7.7 12 12.2 6.6 5.3 7.5 45 Sulfate (m/1) 17 18 26.1 18 7 18 Organic N (mg/1) 2.6 3.5 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.4 7 Ammonia N (mg/1) 0.32 0.48 0.32 0.32 0.19 0.09 10 Nitrite N (mg/1) 0.11 0.12 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 -- Nitrate N (mg/1) 0.67 0.72 0.83 0.64 0.51 0.76 3 as NO3+NO2-N Hydrolyzable P (mg/1) 0.45 0.40 0.24 0.17 0.24 0.35 10 Ortho P (mg/1) 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.05 0.12 0.10 -- Copper (mg/1) 0.040 0.056 0.10 0.081 0.076 0.12 0.07-0.50 Lead (mg/1) 0.44 0.32 0.25 0.40 0.27 0.08 0.10-0.30 Iron (mg/1) 2.4 2.0 2.1 0.75 0.39 0.44 0.10-0.40 Mercury (mg/1) 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004 0.0008 0.0003 0.0068 0.01 Chromium (mg/1) 0.025 0.009 0.010 0.074 0.010 0.010 0.02-0.15 ' Cadmium (mg/1) 0.005 0.004 0.005 0.004 0.004 0.004 0015 Zinc (mg/1) 0.18 0.12 0.43 0.24 0.082 0.008 0.20-0.40 Settled Solids (mg/1) 51 84 60 40 40 68 Suspended Solids (mg/1) 85 112 80 73 54 98 25 TDS (mg/1) 134 125 170 89 72 101 __ Total Coliform (Org./100 ml)3 28,000 26,000 4,200 1,600 37,000 1,600 Fecal Coliform (Org./100 ml)3 3,600 1,200 30 370 1,400 370 200 1Metro, "Appendix C, Storm Water Monitoring Program," Part II, RIBCO Runoff and Basin Drainage Study, October 1974. 2Based on effluent concentrations normally expected from Secondary Treatment, modified to reflect higher concentrations measured at Renton STP for 1971. 3Median. *Source: Report on Environmental Management for the Metropolitan Area, Part III, Water Quality, December 1974, prepared for the Municipality of Metropolitan Seattle (Metro) and the River Basin Coordinating Committee (RISCO) by Stevens, Thompson & Runyan, Inc. i ' APPENDIX C MEETING MINUTES AND CORRESPONDENCE WITH WSDOT I ' MEETING MINUTES Date : March 20 , 1984 Location: City of Renton Municipal Building ' Attendance: Art Storbo CH2M HILL 453-5000 Jim Dingfield CH2M HILL 453-5000 ' Ron Olsen City of Renton 235-2631 Bob Bergstrom City of Renton 235-2631 Dale Wirkkala WSDOT 464-5462 Harold Morgan WSDOT 233-2304 III , David Dye WSDOT Ralph Nichols WSDOT 233-2386 George Stahl City of Renton ' Bob McCormick Dept. of Ecology 885-1900 Moe Batra DSHS 464-7672 ' Subject: Renton Well Field Protection Study Effects of I-405 on Wells and Water Quality Art Storbo started the meeting by describing the study which CH2M HILL is currently conducting. The study is to identify the well field recharge area, identify potential well field contaminant sources, and recommend ways of preventing con- tamination of the well field. The purpose of the meeting was to specifically address the impact Interstate 405 cur- rently has or may have in the future on the well field. ' Accidental spills of chemicals and petroleum products from the freeway was labeled as the major concern. Normal surface runoff carrying oils and other contaminants was also addressed. ' Physical impact from out of control vehicles, although not on the subject of contamination, was also mentioned as being a concern. The significance of the well field to the City was stressed. The five wells adjacent to the freeway produce approximately 85 percent of the City' s total water supply. Art described the aquifer and sources of recharge. In addition to recharge i from the river, surface water from the area surrounding the well field infiltrates through the soils to recharge the aquifer. It was also mentioned that the City does not have other comparable sources of water available to them. CH2M HILL is currently designing the pump station for Well No. 9 and anticipates incorporating possible improvements in that construction project to prevent contamination from I-405. Dale Wirkkala described the status of the I-405 expansion project and briefly outlined what the project will include. There are currently 12 different alternatives that WSDOT is considering to add High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes to the ' I-405 corridor. Basically the alternatives are: o Widen the existing S-Curve structure , o Relocate the alignment to the east of the existing roadway o Relocate to the west of the existing roadway ' Included in each of these alternatives are various vertical , alignment alternatives. Alignments relocated to the west or east might conflict with existing well locations. The option of doing nothing at all was also mentioned as a possibility. ' WSDOT has an open house scheduled for April 25 , 1984 to discuss these alternatives with the public. It is hoped that after the open house some of the options can be eliminated. Dale pointed out that it is possible that additional alternatives ' may be suggested by the public. An environmental impact statement (EIS) is being prepared by WSDOT for the area of the freeway from the South Renton interchange to Sunset Blvd. ' The draft EIS is scheduled to be completed by October or November of 1984 . Advertisement for construction is scheduled for 1987. ' Bob Bergstrom brought up the subject of hauling hazardous materials on I-405 through the Renton area. The City is concerned that hauling these types of material through the , I-90 tunnels may be banned in the future thus increasing the volume of this kind of traffic through Renton. The WSDOT representatives at this meeting stated that they are not ' directly involved with the I-90 corridor and were therefore unable to provide input on this subject. Harold Morgan stated that he would discuss the issue with others at the DOT to find out what plans were being considered for I-90 and get , comments back to the City. The City verbally requested to be involved in the planning process on regional issues such as this that may directly impact the City. The City is also concerned about solid waste hauling decisions that are being made by others that may directly impact the groundwater quality in the well field area. The City of Seattle, King County, and Snohomish County are all considering hauling all of their garbage to the Cedar Hills landfill east of Renton. It is estimated that 150 transfer station container trucks could pass through the Maple Valley interchange at I-405 each day. ' Control of freeway surface drainage was discussed in detail. The WSDOT representatives thought that Jersey barriers could be incorporated into the freeway design along the shoulder to divert drainage to the freeway storm drain system. They indicated that they would look at the area after the meeting , to determine if interim barriers could be used to divert runoff to the existing storm drain system. It was pointed out that due to Interstate funding require- ments, the City should submit a formal request for any im- provements the City may wish WSDOT to consider. The City indicated that WSDOT can expect a letter in the future from them. ' WSDOT anticipates resurfacing I-405 through Renton this summer. Bob Bergstrom pointed out that last time this was done the tack coat ran into the storm drain system and polluted the Cedar River. WSDOT will address this concern to prevent a ' similar incident. The location of the northbound exit to Highway 169 with respect ' to Well No. 9 is a concern of DSHS. Redesign of exits and on-ramps is not anticipated. The City will include this issue in their letter to WSDOT. Collection of surface runoff from the interchange is a major concern. The possibility of declaring the well field as a sole source of water supply was discussed. Bob McCormick thought that ' this may cause federal funding problems for the City on other projects. The issue was discussed to consider whether such a declaration could force WSDOT to make certain freeway improvements or possibly imposing traffic restrictions on types of materials hauled through the area. WSDOT requested a copy of the draft Well Field Protection Study Report when it is complete. It was agreed that the City would provide a copy to them. jmn/se551511 OF PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT RICHARD C. HOUGHTON • DIRECTOR 0 MUNICIPAL BUILDING 200 MILL AVE. SO. RENTON,WASH.98055 % 206 235-2569 0 9gTEO SEPI&111�P April 30 , 1984 (BARBARA Y. SHINPOCH MAYOR Washington State Department of Transportation 6431 Corson Ave . S . Seattle , WA 98108 ATTENTION : Mr . R . Bockstruk SUBJECT. Protection of Renton Cedar River Aquifer from Potential Contamination Related to Interstate-405 Gentlemen : This letter is written as a followup to our meeting of March 20 , 1984 , at Renton City Hall , In that meeting , also attended by representatives of DSHS , DOE , and CH2m Hili , We discussed the following : Background and purpose of our current Well Field Protection Study WSDOT plans and schedule for improvements to 1 -405 Ways to prevent potential contamination of the well field from 1 -405 sources The City of Renton depends upon the Cedar River aquifer adjacent to 1 -405 for almost 85 (eighty-five) percent of its potable water supply . No comparable sources of potable water are available . The City has for many years enjoyed high-quality water from this source . ' However, it has recently been recognized that the Cedar River aquifer is vulnerable to contamination from many sources . One of the principal sources is 1 -405 . The City of Renton intends to protect and preserve existing water quality in the aquifer . It is our wish to be actively involved in regional decisions regarding transportation of hazardous materials on ' 1 -405 , State Route 169 , and related state highways . This would include assessment of impact on 1 -405 traffic caused by a proposed ban on transportation of hazardous materials through the 1 -90 tunnels west ' of Lake Washington . The City hereby requests that WSDOT carefully consider the following Items in developing plans for improvements ( expansion and realignment) ' of 1 -405 through Renton from South Renton to Sunset Boulevard . i -2- Siting of 1 -405 and on-/off-ramps relative to exist- ing well field facilities Containment of all surface runoff including that from accidental spills An oil /containment trap in the storm sewer between 1 -405 and the discharge to the Cedar River Location of the discharge point downriver from the well field impact barriers ( Jersey barriers or other means ) along the soutside freeway lanes and on-/off-ramps to prevent accidental spills beyond the pavement limits and to prevent physical damage to well field buildings from out-of-control vehicles Paving of shoulder areas and collection of surface runoff beyond the paved areas within the right-of-way The City would like to be involved in evaluation of alternatives related to the above items . We request that protection of the well field and aquifer be specifically addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement currently being prepared by WSDOT . The City also requests that the following interim Improvements be Implemented by WSDOT prior to the planned expansion of 1 -405 in 1987 : Jersey barriers along the east shoulder of 1 -405 from the north end of the S-curve structure to the bottom of the northbound offramp at SR169 to protect Wells 8 and 9 from impact and to direct surface runoff to existing WSDOT storm drains ' Piping of storm flows in 1Ieu of continued use of overland (surface) ditches such as that observed In the northeast corner of the 1 -405/SR169 inter- change to prevent infiltration of contaminated storm water Asphalt surfacing of runoff areas such as the gravel ( dirt) shoulders under the overpass at SR169 to prevent infiltration of contaminated Installation of a piped collection system on the existing downspouts from the elevated structure over and south of the Cedar River , to discharge to the river , preferably downstream of Wells I and 2 storm water i r -3- Prevention of runoff or infiltration to the ground of asphalt tack coat when resurfacing the S-curve pavement this summer The City plans to recontour the northwest corner of Cedar River Park to prevent entry of runoff from 1 -405 . This work will be included in our Well 9 construction scheduled for this summer . Separate correspondence on storm sewer improvement in this area has been and will be directed to you during design and construction of this work . The City also requests that WSDOT place the well field area on your list of sensitive areas where spraying of herbicides and pesticides is prohibited or limited . A draft of our Well field Protection Study Report will soon be completed by our consultant , CH2M Hill . We will forward a copy of the draft report to you for review and comment . We appreciate your concern for Renton ' s well field and anticipate that we can work together to develop adequate well field protection measures which are mutually satisfactory . Please call me if you have any questions . Sincerely, Barbara Y Shin poch Mayor Enclosure : Map cc : Mr . Moe R . Batra , DSHS Mr . Dale Wirkkala , WSDOT Mr . Robert McCormick , DOE (Redmond ) Mr . 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