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Comprehensive PlanCITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS MAYOR  Denis Law  CITY COUNCIL  Ed Prince, Council President  Randy Corman  Don Persson  Marcie Palmer  Greg Taylor  Armondo Pavone    Ruth Pérez   Terri Briere (Councilmember: 2000‐2014)  CHIEF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER  Jay Covington  PLANNING COMMISSION  Kevin Poole, Commission Chair  Martin Regge, Commission Vice Chair  David Fleetwood  Angelina Benedetti  Michael Chen  Michael Drollinger  Roxanna Johnson   Michael O'Halloran  Nancy Osborn  COMMUNITY & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  C.E. “Chip” Vincent, Administrator  Cliff Long, Economic Development  Director  Jennifer Henning, Planning Director  Vanesssa Dolbee, Planning Manager  Angie Mathias, Senior Planner (Project  Manager)  Elizabeth Higgins, Senior Planner  Rocale Timmons, Senior Planner   Paul Hintz, Associate Planner  Kris Sorenson, Associate Planner  Adriana Abramovich, GIS Analyst  Judith Subia, Administrative Assistant  CITY ATTORNEY  Larry Warren, City Attorney  Alex Tuttle, Assistant City Attorney  Stephanie Rary, Paralegal  COMMUNITY SERVICES  Terry Higashiyama, Administrator  Leslie Betlach, Parks Planning & Natural  Resources Director  Karen Bergsvik, Human Services Manager  Kelly Beymer, Parks & Golf Course Director  Terry Flatley, Urban Forestry & Natural  Resources Manager   PUBLIC WORKS  Gregg Zimmerman, Administrator  Doug Jacobson, Deputy Administrator  Lys Hornsby, Utility Systems Director  Jim Seitz, Planning & Program Supervisor  Abdoul Gafour, Water Utility Engineering  Manager  Bob Hanson, Transportation Design  Engineering Supervisor  David Christensen, Wastewater Utility  Engineering Manager  Ron Straka, Surface Water Utility Engineering  Manager  CONSULTANTS  BERK & Associates, Inc.,  Lisa Grueter & Kevin  Gifford  Transpo Group, Larry Toedtli  Henderson, Young & Co., Randy Young    Provide a safe, healthy, vibrant community Promote safety, health, and security through effective communication and service delivery Facilitate successful neighborhoods through community involvement Encourage and partner in the development of quality housing choices for people of all ages and income levels Promote a walkable, pedestrian and bicycle- friendly city with complete streets, trails, and connections between neighborhoods and community focal points Provide opportunities for communities to be better prepared for emergencies Promote economic vitality and strategically position Renton for the future Promote Renton as the progressive, opportunity- rich city in the Puget Sound region Capitalize on opportunities through bold and creative economic development strategies Recruit and retain businesses to ensure a dynamic, diversified employment base Nurture entrepreneurship and foster successful partnerships with businesses and community leaders Leverage public/ private resources to focus development on economic centers Support planned growth and influence decisions that impact the city Foster development of vibrant, sustainable, attractive, mixed-use neighborhoods in urban centers Uphold a high standard of design and property maintenance Advocate Renton’s interests through state and federal lobbying efforts, regional partnerships and other organizations Pursue transportation and other regional improvements and services that improve quality of life Balance development with environmental protection Building an inclusive informed city with opportunities for all Improve access to city services, programs and employment, and make residents and businesses aware of opportunities to be involved with their community Build connections with ALL communities that reflect the breadth and richness of the diversity in our city Promote understanding and appreciation of our diversity through celebrations and festivals Provide critical and relevant information on a timely basis and facilitate two-way dialogue between city government and the community Meet service demands and provide high quality customer service Plan, develop, and maintain quality services, infrastructure, and amenities Prioritize services at levels that can be sustained by revenue Retain a skilled workforce by making Renton the municipal employer of choice Develop and maintain collaborative partnerships and investment strategies that improve services Respond to growing service demands through partnerships, innovation, and outcome management Renton Business Plan 2018–2023 GOALS The City of Renton, in partnership and communication with residents, businesses, and schools, is dedicated to:MISSION Providing a safe, healthy, welcoming atmosphere where people choose to live Promoting economic vitality and strategically positioning Renton for the future Supporting planned growth and influencing decisions that impact the city Building an inclusive informed city with opportunities for all Meeting service demands through high quality customer service, innovation, a positive work environment, and a commitment to excellence Renton: The center of opportunity in the Puget Sound Region where families and businesses thrive VISION RENTON. AHEAD OF THE CURVE. CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  VISION 1  LAND USE ELEMENT 3  Table LU‐1:   Growth Targets 3  Figure LU‐1:  Regional Growth Centers and Manufacturing/Industrial Centers 3  Figure LU‐2:  City of Renton Comprehensive Plan Land Use Map 10  TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT 16  Figure T‐1:  Arterial Streets Map 20  Table T‐1:  Growth Targets 25  Table T‐2:  LOS/Concurrency Program 27  Figure T‐2:  State Freight Routes in Renton 29  Table T‐3: Summary of 2015‐2035 Transportation Costs 33  Table T‐4: Summary of 2015‐2035 Transportation Revenues 33  HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT 36  Table HHS‐1:  2006‐2031 Growth Targets: Extended to 2035 38  Table HHS‐2:  2012‐2035 Growth Targets: Adjustments for Growth 2006‐2012 38  Table HHS‐3:  Estimates of Existing Households by Percentage of Area Median Income 38  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELEMENT 46  PARKS, RECREATION, NATURAL AREAS, AND TRAILS ELEMENT 48  COMMUNITY PLANNING ELEMENT 50  Figure CP‐1:  Community Planning Areas Map 51  UTILITIES ELEMENT 52  Figure U‐1:  Utilities Planning Relationships 52  Figure U‐2:  City of Renton Water System Service Area 54  Figure U‐3:  City of Renton Sewer System Service Area 56  Figure U‐4:  City of Renton Surface Water Service Area and Drainage Basins 60  CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT 72  Table CF‐1:  Levels of Service 74  SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT 78  GLOSSARY i  APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS xiii  APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH xix  APPENDIX C: LAND USE ASSUMPTIONS AND UTILITY PLANS xxv  APPENDIX D: INCORPORATED DOCUMENTS xxvii  VISION CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 1 VISION - The center of opportunity in the Puget Sound Region where businesses and families thrive - These words from the Renton Business Plan represent the City’s Vision of itself now and in the future. The image of a thriving, opportunity-rich community takes form as different elements of that Vision come into focus:  A sustainable city that promotes economic vitality, environmental quality, social equity, and resiliency;  A community that is healthy and safe, that has cohesive, well-established neighborhoods and a growing variety of housing to match the diversity of the population with its various needs and wants;  A working town with a full spectrum of employment opportunities for all economic segments, regardless of education, age, gender, or ethnicity;  A regional center for active and passive recreation that features 1access for all to a healthy river, a clean lake, abundant trees, and clear mountain views to enhance the experience; and  A well-connected place that builds cohesive networks, in the form of: partnerships that enhance community resources; transportation and recreation facilities that connect through trails, sidewalks, and streets; and local business, volunteer, and neighborhood organizations that bring people together. RELATIONSHIP TO THE GMA AND VISION 2040 The State of Washington adopted the Growth Management Act (GMA) in 1990. This legislation requires comprehensive plans to include specific elements; obligates cities to adopt implementing regulations and counties to develop Countywide Planning Policies (CPP’s) to address issues of a regional nature. King County’s CPPs ensure consistency for addressing issues that cross jurisdictional boundaries within the County. In addition to the GMA and CPP’s, the multicounty planning policies of Vision 2040 greatly influence the content and policies of comprehensive plans. Developed by the Puget Sound Regional Council, Vision 2040 is the long-range growth management, environmental, economic, and transportation plan intended to guide future employment and population growth for the central Puget Sound region. The content, analyses, goals, and policies of Renton’s Comprehensive Plan were developed in conformance with the GMA, King County’s Countywide Planning Policies, and Vision 2040. RENTON WITHIN THE REGION Renton’s city government, business community, and residents are infused with a passionate belief that this is the best place to be. There is also the will, desire, and resources to nurture the qualities that make it great and to make it even better in the future. At the center of Renton’s Vision is the underlying principle that urban living provides both choice and balanced opportunities for employment, housing, recreation, health, goods, and services. As Renton grows beyond a community of 100,000 residents, development patterns will continue to shift from traditional suburban forms to more urban forms. Regional growth continues to shape Renton’s landscape and the City has a responsibility to ensure adequate land capacity to allow expansion and diversification of its employment and economic base, as well as its housing stock. Policies encourage maximum land efficiency and strive for development that is more intense than typical suburban prototypes. Future residential and commercial growth is directed to the City Center and to mixed- use areas that already exist throughout the City. Expansion of Renton’s employment and economic base will continue through redevelopment in the City VISION PAGE 2 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Center and the Valley. The development of small business and industry in Renton will also diversify and strengthen the local economy. Renton’s City Center is located at the hub of commerce and transportation networks and designated as a Regional Growth Center for employment and housing. A revitalized Downtown that functions as a 24-hour living, working, and entertainment area will emerge through planning for a balance of residential, commercial, and office uses with a distinctive, local identity. Development north of Downtown, near the Landing, will contribute to the vitality of the City Center by serving regional needs for shopping, entertainment, housing, and employment. Outside of the City Center in areas currently dominated by commercial strip development, higher density mixed-use development will establish neighborhood-scale living, working, and entertainment nodes, such as the Sunset Area of the Renton Highlands. Mixed-use centers and neighborhood nodes will reduce transportation impacts within the City by allowing residents to work and shop close to where they live, as well as, provide alternatives to single-occupant vehicle trips. While new multi-family and mixed-use housing in the City Center and established neighborhood nodes will help to accommodate housing growth, single-family housing stock will grow through infill development. Single-family infill development also allows for the necessary densities to provide services at the edge of the urban area. Renton is proud of the diversity of its population and requires a full-range of housing types to accommodate people of different ages, incomes, and ethnic groups. Housing Renton’s growing population will require approaches that allow for a variety of housing types, maintain the ability to provide high levels of service, and ensure a high quality of life in Renton’s new and established neighborhoods. One of the ways to sustain quality of life and respond to the diverse needs of the community is through community planning. The City is divided into ten geographically distinct community planning Areas. Through the Community Planning process, residents, businesses, and other stakeholders develop a local vision and establish policies that address issues of growth, quality of life, design, and capital improvements as they affect the Community Planning Area. Meeting and working together can also help to build community connections and strengthen neighborhood cohesiveness. Beyond local needs, there are City goals to enhance the character of the City and improve overall quality of life. Renton is a safe, healthy, and attractive community that promotes good design, abundant tree cover and landscaping, and civic art. Neighborhoods are well-maintained and have strong ties that have been nurtured through the City Neighborhood Program. Quality parks and open space meet the recreational needs of residents. Trails, bike paths, sidewalks, and transit tie neighborhoods together and make it possible to travel without a car. Renton enjoys high levels of service in all areas and the cost of implementation is shared in an equitable manner. There is an abiding commitment to protect, restore, and enhance environmental quality because the many natural features of the City are deeply appreciated by its residents. Renton participates in regional efforts to improve sustainability and, at the local level, make it easier for businesses and residents to pursue environmentally friendly methods by which to live and work. Policies, plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, support the use of renewable resources and energy, and increase access to locally grown food, make a difference in the health of Renton’s residents and makes the community more resilient when faced with natural or human-made disasters. The City of Renton’s Vision is ambitious and far- sighted; it is the underlying structure for the Comprehensive Plan, the Renton Business Plan, and all other plans and strategies made by the City. LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 3 LAND USE ELEMENT - Guiding future growth and development to ensure our community flourishes - DISCUSSION Under the Growth Management Act (RCW 36.70a) Renton has an obligation to meet the demands of local and regional growth. Managing growth is not an endeavor that Renton takes on alone. The Puget Sound Regional Council’s VISION 2040 establishes goals and policies that tie the region together and support people, prosperity, and the environment. Through the Countywide Planning Policies, King County jurisdictions further define their roles in accommodating growth using sustainable and environmentally responsible development practices. Renton’s Comprehensive Plan outlines the ways that these goals and policies combine with our unique community Vision to be the center of opportunity where families and businesses thrive. MEETING DEMANDS OF GROWTH GOALS Goal L-A: Comply with the Countywide Planning Policies established by the Puget Sound Regional Council and the Countywide Planning Policies adopted by King County. Goal L-B: Continue to build Renton’s Regional Growth Center consistent with VISION 2040 to provide compact, pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use development to meet the demands of population and employment growth, while reducing the transportation related and environmental impacts of growth. Goal L-C: Ensure sufficient land capacity to meet the growth targets, as shown in Table L-1. Goal L-D: Meet regional and local obligations to provide essential public facilities through collaboration with other jurisdictions when possible. Goal L-E: Promote annexation where and when it is in Renton’s best interests. POLICIES MEETING DEMANDS OF GROWTH Policy L-1: Support uses that sustain minimum employment levels of 50 employees per gross acre and residential levels of 15 households per gross acre within Renton’s Growth Center. Accommodate approximately 2,000 households and 3,500 jobs from the City’s Growth 2035 Targets within the Growth Center. Policy L-2: Support compact urban development to improve health outcomes, support transit use, maximize land use efficiency, and maximize public investment in infrastructure and services. Policy L-3: Encourage infill development of single- family units as a means to meet growth targets and provide new housing. Policy L-4: Consider surplus public property for other public uses before changing ownership. Policy L-5: Use a public process when siting essential public facilities. Table L-1: Growth Targets Housing Target Employment Target 2012-2035 Growth Target per 2014 Buildable Lands Report 14,050 28,755 Growth Capacity Estimated 2012 BLR and Land Use Element Update 15,351- 16,741 26,090- 31,076 LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 4 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Policy L-6: Site and design essential public facilities to be efficient and convenient while minimizing impacts on surrounding uses. Facilities should be sited on an arterial street where there is good access to transportation, including transit service and where parking requirements are appropriate to the use. If the use is people intensive, it should be in a Center, compatible with surrounding uses, and collocated with other uses when possible. Policy L-7: Coordinate with King County to ensure land development policies are consistent in the Potential Annexation Area. Policy L-8: Support annexation where infrastructure and services allow for urban densities, service providers would be consolidated, and/or it would facilitate the efficient delivery of services. Policy L-9: Consider the fiscal impacts for each proposed annexation. PLANS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  King County Countywide Planning Policies  Vision 2040 and the Countywide Planning Policies  Auto Mall Improvement Plan Figure L-1: Regional Growth Centers & Manufacturing/Industrial Centers LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 5 PLANNING FOR THE EFFICIENT USE OF LAND DISCUSSION To meet and exceed Renton’s targets for housing and employment growth land use must be organized efficiently, consistent with the community’s vision. Concentrated growth in housing and employment will occur in Growth Centers, increasing the intensity of activities in these districts to create a lively, vibrant, urban environment. Outside of the Growth Centers, residential areas will provide for a range of housing types and lifestyle options that are served by mixed- use commercial development nodes that provide daily goods and services. Additional opportunities to grow employment and maintain an industrial and manufacturing base are in the Employment Area. GOALS EFFICIENT USE OF LAND Goal L-F: Minimize risk associated with potential aviation incidents, on the ground and for aircraft occupants. Goal L-G: Pursue transition of non-conforming uses and structures to encourage development patterns consistent with Renton’s land use plan. Goal L-H: Plan for high quality residential growth that supports transit by providing urban densities, promotes efficient land utilization, promotes good health and physical activity, builds social connections, and creates stable neighborhoods by incorporating both built amenities and natural features. Goal L-I: Utilize multiple strategies to accommodate residential growth, including:  Development of new single-family neighborhoods on large tracts of land outside the City Center;  Development of new multifamily and mixed-use in the City Center and in the Residential High Density and Commercial Mixed Use designations; and  Infill development on vacant and underutilized land in established neighborhoods and multifamily areas. Goal L-J: Develop well-balanced, attractive, convenient Centers serving the City and the region that create investment opportunities in urban scale development, promote housing close to employment and commercial areas, reduce dependency on automobiles, maximize public investment in infrastructure and services, and promote healthy communities. Goal L-K: Provide an energetic business environment for commercial activity providing a range of service, office, commercial, and mixed-use residential uses that enhance the City’s employment and tax base along arterial streets and in Centers. Goal L-L: Transform concentrations of linear form commercial areas into multi-use neighborhood centers characterized by enhanced site planning, efficient parking design, coordinated access for all modes of transportation, pedestrian linkages from adjacent uses and nearby neighborhoods, and boulevard treatment. Goal L-M: Strengthen Renton’s employment base and economic growth by achieving a mix of industrial, high technology, office, and commercial activities in Employment Areas. Goal L-N: Sustain industrial areas that function as integrated employment activity areas and include a core of industrial uses and other related businesses and services, transit facilities, and amenities. Goal L-O: Support the Auto Mall to concentrate auto and vehicular related businesses and increase their revenue and sales tax base for the City and to present an attractive environment for doing auto- related business. LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 6 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN POLICIES EFFICIENT USE OF LAND Policy L-10: Meet or exceed basic aviation safety concerns and reduce potentially negative impacts from normal airport operations by restricting land use, prohibiting airspace obstacles and noise- sensitive land uses, and by requiring aviation easements within the Airport Influence Area. Policy L-11: Encourage non-conforming uses to transition into conforming uses or relocate to areas with compatible designations. Policy L-12: Identify potential areas for rapid or temporary housing in case of emergency or natural disaster. Policy L-13: Enhance the safety and attractiveness of the Automall with landscaping, signage, and development standards that create the feeling of a cohesive business district. PLANS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Airport Layout Plan Update  Airport Compatible Land Use Program  Airport Master Plan RENTON LAND USE PLAN Renton’s Land Use schema identifies six types of land uses: Residential Low Density, Residential Medium Density, Residential High Density, Commercial Mixed Use, Employment Area, and Commercial Office Residential. Each of these land uses has designated zones that detail the types of land uses allowed in those zones. The table below identifies the six land use designations and the zones that implement each land use designation. Policies for each designation and implementing zone follow. Residential Low Density (RLD) Policy L-14: Residential Low Density – Place lands constrained by sensitive areas, those intended to provide transition to the rural area, or those appropriate for larger lot housing within the Residential Low Density (RLD) land use designation to allow for a range of lifestyles.  Resource Conservation Zone – Zone lands with significant environmental constraints, which are not appropriate for urban development, lands suitable for environmental conservation or restoration, and lands used for agriculture or natural resource extraction for Resource Conservation (RC). RC zoning is allowed in the Residential Low Density and Employment Area land use designations.  Residential-1 Zone – Lands with significant environmental constraints, which may have the potential for development at a level of intensity that is compatible with that environment, or lands that provide urban separators should be zoned for Residential-1 (R-1). R-1 zoning is allowed in the Residential Low Density land use designation.  Residential-4 Zone – Zone lands suitable for large lot housing and suburban, estate-style dwellings compatible with the scale and density of the surrounding area Residential-4 (R-4). R-4 zoning is allowed in the Residential Low Density land use designation.  Residential Manufactured Home Park Zone – Lands with existing manufactured home parks as established uses should be zoned Residential Manufactured Home Park (RMH). RMH zoning is allowed in the Residential Low Density, Residential Medium Density, and Residential High Density land Use designations. LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 7 Residential Medium Density (RMD) Policy L-15: Residential Medium Density – Place areas that can support high-quality, compact, urban development with access to urban services, transit, and infrastructure, whether through new development or through infill, within the Residential Medium Density (RMD) designation. Within the RMD designation, allow a variety of single-family development, with continuity created through the application of design guidelines, the organization of roadways, sidewalks, public spaces, and the placement of community gathering places and civic amenities.  Residential-6 Zone – Zone lands Residential-6 (R-6) where there is land suitable for larger lot development, an opportunity for infill development, an existing pattern of single-family development in the range of four to eight units per net acre, and where critical areas are limited. R-6 zoning is allowed in the Residential Medium Density land use designation.  Residential-8 Zone – Zone lands Residential-8 (R-8) where there is opportunity to re-invest in existing single-family neighborhoods through infill or the opportunity to develop new single-family plats at urban densities greater than four dwelling units per acre. R-8 zoning is allowed in the Residential Medium Density land use designation. Growth and Center’s Designations and Zoning Residential High Density (RHD) Policy L-16: Residential High Density – Designate land for Residential High Density (RHD) where access, topography, and adjacent land uses create conditions appropriate for a variety of housing unit types, or where there is existing multifamily development. RHD unit types are designed to incorporate features from both single family and multifamily developments, support cost-efficient housing, facilitate infill development, have close access to transit service, and efficiently use urban services and infrastructure. Land designated RHD is where projects will be compatible with existing uses and where infrastructure is adequate to handle impacts from higher density uses.  Residential-10 Zone – Zone lands Residential-10 (R-10) where there is an existing mix of single family and small-scale multifamily use or there are vacant or underutilized parcels that could be redeveloped as infill and are located within ¼ mile of public transit service and a major arterial. R-10 implements the Residential High Density land use designation.  Residential-14 Zone – Zone lands Residential-14 (R-14) where it is possible to develop a mix of compact housing types in areas of approximately 20 acres or larger in size (may be in different ownerships) or are within or adjacent to a Growth CenterThe zone functions as a transition zone between lower intensity residential and higher intensity mixed use zoning. R-14 implements the Residential High Density land use designation.  Residential Multi-Family Zone – Zone lands Residential Multi Family (RMF) where there is existing (or vested) multifamily development of one-acre or greater in size. Expanded RMF zoning should only be where access is from a street classified as a Principal arterial, Minor arterial, or Collector, and where existing multi-family is abutting at least two property sides. RMF zoning implements the Residential High Density land use designation.  Commercial Neighborhood Zone – Zone lands Commercial Neighborhood (CN) that provide goods and services on a small-scale to a surrounding residential neighborhood and that front on a street classified as a Principal arterial, Minor arterial, or Collector. Expanded CN zoning should only be where there is opportunity to provide small limited-scale commercial opportunity to the immediately surrounding residential community that would not result in an increase in scale or intensity, which would alter the character of the nearby residential neighborhood. The CN zone implements the Residential High Density land use designation. LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 8 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Growth and Center’s Designations and Zoning Commercial Mixed Use (CMU) Policy U-17: Commercial Mixed Use – Place areas with established commercial and office areas near principle arterials within the Commercial and Mixed Use (CMU) land use designation. Allow residential uses as part of mixed-use developments, and support new office and commercial development that is more intensive than what exists to create a vibrant district and increase employment opportunities. The intention of this designation is to transform strip commercial development into business districts through the intensification of uses and with cohesive site planning, landscaping, signage, circulation, parking, and the provision of public amenity features.  Commercial Arterial Zone – Zone lands Commercial Arterial (CA) where a historical strip pattern dominates, characterized by large surface parking in front of buildings, long blocks oriented to automobiles, and an incomplete street grid. CA zoning should be located within one-quarter mile of transit, provide employment, and allow mixed-use development. CA zoning implements the Commercial Mixed Use and Employment Area land use designations.  Center Downtown Zone – Zone Land Center Downtown (CD) within downtown Renton that is appropriate for the widest mix of uses, is served by transit, and is suitable for intensive urban use within a pedestrian environment. The Center Downtown zone is intended to revitalize the area by creating a vibrant, urban center in Renton’s historic downtown core. Surface parking is discouraged in this zone, except as a land bank. CD zoning implements the Commercial Mixed Use land use designation.  Center Village Zone – Zone lands Center Village (CV) that are characterized by an existing commercial and multi-family core served by transit and set in the midst of suburban patterns of residential developmentor in Renton’s downtown. CV zoned lands are suitable for redevelopment into compact urban development with a pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use center, and community focal point. The zone is intended to revitalize an area, creating a vibrant, urban center where surface parking is discouraged. CV zoning implements the Commercial and Mixed Use designation.  Urban Center Zone – Zone lands that are located within Renton’s Designated Regional Growth Center, if there is a potential for the creation of dense employment, destination retail, recreation, or public gathering space with the Urban Center (UC) zone. The Urban Center zoned areas have large parcels of land with the potential for large scale redevelopment opportunities that will create a mixed-use retail, employment, and residential center. UC zoning implements the Commercial Mixed Use land use designation.  Commercial Office Zone – Zone large parcels of land, that are highly visible from arterials or highways and located on existing or planned transit routes, for Commercial Office (CO) if they contain, or are suitable for medium- to high-intensity office use. Limited residential mixed-use development is allowed in close proximity to select transit services. This zone implements the Commercial Mixed Use and Employment Area land use designations. LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 9 Employment Area (EA) Policy L-18and industrial uses such as office, industrial, warehousing, and manufacturing, with access to transportation networks and transit, within the Employment Area (EA) land use designation. Employment Areas provide a significant economic development and employment base for the City. Maintain a variety and balance of uses through zoning that promotes the gradual transition of uses on sites with good access and visibility to more intensive commercial and office uses.  Light Industrial Zone – Zone property Light Industrial (IL) where it is appropriate for very low- intensity manufacturing and industrial services. Uses and potential impacts of uses in this zone are fully contained within their buildings. This zone implements the Employment Area land dse designation.  Medium Industrial Zone – Zone property Medium Industrial (IM) where it is intended for manufacturing, processing, assembly, and warehousing. Outdoor storage of some materials may be allowed. Uses and potential impacts of uses in this zone are contained within the property or project site. This zone implements the Employment Area land use designation.  Heavy Industrial Zone – Zone property Heavy Industrial (IH) where it is intended for high-intensity fabrication, processing of raw materials, bulk handling and storage, or heavy construction and transportation. Such uses may require significant outdoor area in which to conduct operations and isolation or buffering from other uses may be necessary to help control potential impacts. This zone implements the Employment Area land use designation. Commercial Office Residential (COR) Policy L-18: Commercial Office Residential – Place areas that are located near a significant amenity, such as a waterfront, are near major transportation or transit routes, and are comprised of one or more large tracts of vacant or underutilized land in the Commercial Office Residential land use designation and zone. This land banking designation is intended to transform properties into compact, mixed-use developments that act as City gateways, through master planning and coordinated design. LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 10 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Figure L-2: City of Renton Comprehensive Plan Land Use Map LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 11 PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND ENSURING NATURAL RESOURCES FOR THE FUTURE DISCUSSION Sustainability recognizes that natural systems are essential to providing both economic needs and quality of life and that actions of today have an impact on the environment which impacts the future. The quality of Renton’s land, air, and water affect the health and resiliency of everyone in the community. GOALS PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT Goal L-P: Minimize adverse impacts to natural systems, and address impacts of past practice where feasible, through leadership, policy, regulation, and regional coordination. Goal L-Q: Support commercial and hobby agricultural uses such as small farms, hobby farms, horticulture, beekeeping, kennels, stables, and produce stands that are compatible with urban development. Goal L-R: Maintain extractive industries where their continued operation does not impact adjacent residential areas, the City’s aquifer, or critical areas. Goal L-S: Maintain Urban Separators to provide visual and physical distinction to the edges of Renton, protect critical areas, and provide a transition to the rural area. Goal L-T: Create a functioning and exemplary urban forest that is managed at optimum levels for canopy, health, and diversity. Goal L-U: Preserve, protect, and enhance the quality and functions of the City’s sensitive areas including: lakes, rivers, major and minor creeks, intermittent stream courses and their floodplains, wetlands, ground water resources, wildlife habitats, and areas of seismic and geological hazards. Goal L-V: Protect the natural functions of 100 year floodplains and floodways to prevent threats to life, property, and public safety associated with flooding hazards. Goal L-W: Reduce the potential for damage to life and property due to abandoned coal mines, and return this land to productive uses. Goal L-X: Support and sustain educational, informational, and public involvement programs in the City over the long term in order to encourage effective use, preservation, and protection of Renton's resources. Goal L-Y: Protect clean air and the climate for present and future generations through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the individual, household, and community levels, and promote efficient and effective solutions for transportation and development. Goal L-Z: Promote regional air quality in coordination with the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency and the Puget Sound Regional Council, consistent with the Countywide Planning Policies, through its policies, methodologies, and standards. POLICIES PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT Policy L-20: Recognize the importance of fresh food in improving health and building community resilience, and encourage local food by allowing cultivation and sale of vegetables, herbs, flowers, or similar crops in residential areas, as an accessory use and/or home occupation and allow community gardens on private property, vacant public property, and unused rights-of-ways. Root vegetables, Credit: City of Renton LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 12 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Policy L-21: Apply conditional use permits, or other approvals as appropriate, for extractive industries including timber, sand, gravel, or other mining to ensure that potential impacts are confined, limited, or mitigated. Policy L-22: Designate Urban Separators on lands characterized by individual and interconnecting natural features, critical areas, open space, parks, agricultural areas, and water features and by areas that provide a logical and easily identifiable physical separation between urban communities or with the rural area. Policy L-23: Promote urban forests through tree planting programs, tree maintenance programs that favor the use of large healthy trees along streets and in parks, residential, commercial, and industrial areas, programs that increase education and awareness, and through the protection and restoration of forest ecosystems. Arbor Day Tree Planting, Credit: City of Renton Policy L-24: Manage urban forests to maximize ecosystem services such as stormwater management, air quality, aquifer recharge, other ecosystem services, and wildlife habitat. Policy L-25: Educate the community about sustainable neighborhood concepts as part of planning processes to build support and understanding for future policy and regulatory changes. Policy L-26: Utilize education and outreach programs to inform the public and build support for initiatives promoting sustainability, health, and emergency preparedness. Policy L27: Manage water resources for multiple uses including recreation, fish and wildlife, flood protection, erosion control, water supply, energy production, and open space. Policy L-28: Minimize erosion and sedimentation in and near sensitive areas by requiring appropriate construction techniques and resource practices, such as low impact development. Policy L-29: Protect the integrity of natural drainage systems and existing land forms, and maintain wildlife habitat values by preserving and enhancing existing vegetation and tree canopy coverage to the maximum extent possible and by restoring hydrological flows and improving the condition of shorelines. Policy L-30: Maintain or increase the quantity and quality of wetlands. Development activities shall not decrease the net acreage of existing wetlands. Policy L-31: Protect buffers along wetlands and surface waters to facilitate infiltration and maintain stable water temperatures, provide for biological diversity, reduce amount and velocity of run-off, and provide for wildlife habitat. Policy L-232: Emphasize the use of open ponding and detention, vegetated swales, rain gardens, clean roof run-off, right-of-way landscape strips, open space, and stormwater management techniques that mimic natural systems, maximize water quality and infiltration where appropriate, and which will not endanger groundwater quality. Policy L-33: Acquire the most sensitive areas such as wetlands, flood plains, and wildlife habitat for conversion to parks and greenbelts. Pursue an overall net gain of natural functions and values by enhancing sensitive areas and providing incentives LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 13 Policy L-34: Ensure buildings, roads, and other built features are located on less sensitive portions of a site when sensitive areas are present. Policy L-35: Re-establish self-sustaining fisheries resources in appropriate rivers and creeks through habitat improvement projects that encourage and enhance salmonid use. Policy L-36: Land uses in areas subject to flooding, seismic, geologic, and coal mine hazards should be designed to prevent property damage and environmental degradation before, during, and after construction. Policy L-37: Emphasize non-structural methods in planning for flood prevention and damage reduction. Policy L-38: Dredge the Cedar River bed within the existing engineered channel as one method of flood control. Policy L-39: Provide information for and participate in informing and educating individuals, groups, businesses, industry, and government in the protection and enhancement of the quality and quantity of the City's natural resources and to promote conservation. Heron at Black River Riparian Forest, Credit: City of Renton Policy L-40: Coordinate with the Puget Sound Air Pollution Control Agency and the Puget Sound Regional Council to develop policies, methodologies, and standards that promote regional air quality. Policy L-41 Conduct all City operations to minimize adverse environmental impacts by reducing consumption and waste of energy and materials; minimizing use of toxic and polluting substances; reusing, reducing, and recycling; and disposing of waste in a safe and responsible manner. Policy L-42: Encourage environmentally friendly construction practices, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Built Green, Salmon Safe, and Living Building Challenge. Policy L-43: Support and implement the Mayor’s Climate Protection Agreement, climate pledges and commitments undertaken by the City, and other multi-jurisdictional efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, address climate change, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, and other impacts to global conditions. Policy L-44: Recognize that a sustainable community requires and supports economic development, human health, and social benefit, and makes decisions using the “triple bottom line” approach to sustainability (environment, economy, and social equity). PLANS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Hazard Mitigation Plan  Clean Economy Strategy  Urban and Community Forestry Development Plan  Growth Management Policies, Puget Sound Clean Air Agency  Making Our Watershed Fit for a King – WRIA 9 Salmon Habitat Plan, King County  Lake Washington/Cedar/Sammamish Watershed (WRIA 8) Chinook Salmon Conservation Plan, King County  May Creek Basin Action Plan, King County  Lower Cedar River Basin and Nonpoint Action Plan, King County PROMOTING A SAFE, HEALTHY, AND ATTRACTIVE COMMUNITY LAND USE ELEMENT PAGE 14 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PROMOTING A SAFE, HEALTHY, AND ATTRACTIVE COMMUNITY DISCUSSION Community design includes those elements or features that provide for visual identity and evoke the character of the city, creating a sense of place. Community design influences quality of life for people who live, work, learn and play in the city. A safe, healthy, and attractive community recognizes and acknowledges the natural setting and the unique features of a community. GOALS SAFE, HEALTHY, AND ATTRACTIVE COMMUNITY Goal L-AA: Maintain the City’s cultural history by documenting, recognizing, and protecting its historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural sites. Goal L-BB: Maintain a high quality of life as Renton grows by ensuring that new development is designed to be functional and attractive. Goal L-CC: Support and sustain programs in the City to encourage effective use, preservation, and protection of Renton’s resources. Goal L-DD: Maintain and promote Renton as a center for arts and culture where traditional and contemporary arts thrive and creative industries are cultivated. Emerging, by Hai Ying Wu, Credit: City of Renton Goal L-EE: Build neighborhoods that promote community resiliency through healthy lifestyles, active transportation, proximity to goods and services, access to local fresh food, environmental sustainability, and a feeling of community. Goal L-FF: Strengthen the visual identity of Renton and its Community Planning Areas and neighborhoods through quality design and development. POLICIES SAFE, HEALTHY, AND ATTRACTIVE COMMUNITY Policy L-45: Identify and catalog historic, cultural, and archaeological resources on an on-going basis and as part of project specific review. Policy L-46: Preserve and incorporate historic and archaeological sites into development projects. Policy L-47: Accommodate change in a way that maintains Renton’s livability and natural beauty. Policy L-48: Address privacy and quality of life for existing residents by considering scale and context in infill project design. Policy L-49: Maintain existing, and encourage the creation of additional, places and events throughout the community where people can gather and interact. Allow for flexibility in public gathering places to encourage place-making efforts and activities. Policy L-50: Respond to specific site conditions such as topography, natural features, and solar access to encourage energy savings and recognize the unique features of the site through the design of subdivisions and new buildings. Policy L-51: Include human-scale features such as pedestrian pathways, quality landscaping, and public spaces that have discernible edges, entries, and borders to create a distinctive sense of place in neighborhoods, commercial areas, and centers. Policy L-52: Orient buildings in developments toward the street or a common area, rather than toward parking lots. LAND USE ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 15 Gateway Sign, Credit: City of Renton Policy L-54: Protect public scenic views and public view corridors, including Renton’s physical, visual and perceptual linkages to Lake Washington and the Cedar River. Policy L-55: Preserve natural landforms, vegetation, distinctive stands of trees, natural slopes, and scenic areas that contribute to the City’s identity, preserve property values, and visually define the community and neighborhoods. Policy L-56: Complement the built environment with landscaping using native, naturalized, and ornamental plantings that are appropriate for the situation and circumstance and provide for respite, recreation, and sun/shade. Policy L-57: Provide complete arranged as an interconnecting network or grid. Locate planter strips between the curb and the sidewalk in order to provide separation between cars and pedestrians. Discourage dead-end streets and cul- de-sacs. Policy L-58: Encourage signage that guides and promotes business without creating visual clutter. Implement sign regulations that balance adequate visibility for businesses while protecting Renton’s visual character. Policy L-59: Balance the need for appropriate lighting levels for safety and security to avoid light intrusion and glare impacts, and to preserve the night sky. Policy L-60: Improve the appearance of parking lots through landscaping and screening. Policy L-61: Promote environmentally friendly, energy-efficient development, including building and infrastructure. Policy L-62: Create a supportive environment for cultural activities and the arts. Renton Film Frenzy Curvy Awards, Credit: City of Renton Policy L-63: Collaborate with schools, businesses, and faith-based groups to promote healthy lifestyles through education, activity, and nutrition. Policy L-64: Design buildings with provisions for evacuation in case of all types of emergency events. PLANS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Disaster Recovery Plan  Parks, Recreation, and Natural Areas Plan  Arts and Culture Master Plan TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 16 TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT - Linking growth and transportation and accommodating all users - DISCUSSION Ownership, control, development and maintenance of public rights-of-way are primary functions of city government. Transportation investments shape development patterns that, in turn, influence the economic health, safety, and character of a community. The design, construction, and maintenance of city streets, roads, sidewalks, trails and other transportation facilities impact all Renton residents, employees, and visitors. For many decades, transportation problems have been seen primarily as engineering problems with engineering solutions. As a result, transportation planning has been primarily concerned with the construction of new facilities – mostly roads but also transit, airport, and rail facilities – and has relied on gas taxes to fund the construction. However, our current transportation challenges are different. The facilities built in preceding decades are reaching the end of their design life and require maintenance, rehabilitation, or retrofitting. Securing revenue for transportation investments is increasingly difficult as the purchasing power of gas tax revenue has eroded steadily over time along with the increasing difficulty of generating greater revenue through taxes. The public’s concerns about transportation issues have also expanded beyond cost and mobility to include neighborhood impacts, sustainability, and accommodations for all types of users. There is growing demand for alternatives to single-occupancy vehicles and reducing the impacts of transportation on the environment. While specific responsibility and authority for transportation choices is divided amongst various governments and agencies, users expect local and regional transportation facilities to function as a unified system. Achieving that requires coordination with federal, state, regional, county, and municipal stakeholders and decision makers. Renton has been designated a Core City by the Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC). A Core City contains a regionally designated growth center – Renton’s Urban Center encompassing Boeing, The Landing, and Downtown Business District – serves as a key hub for the region’s long-range multimodal transportation system, and also provides major civic, cultural, and employment centers. Downtown Transit Center, Credit: City of Renton This Transportation Element assists the City of Renton in coordinating transportation and land use planning within its municipal boundaries, guides development of a multimodal system that provides transportation choices for all users, and facilitates interjurisdictional coordination of transportation related projects. This element is consistent with Puget Sound Regional Council’s VISION 2040 and Transportation 2040. This Transportation Element includes goals and policies addressing the following topics:  Framework and General Goals  Maintenance, Management and Safety  Transportation Demand Management Transportation planning seeks to “protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development.” Federal Highway Administration. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 17 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN  Street Network  Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation  Transit and High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV)  Transportation Options and Mobility  Growth Strategy, Land Use, and Transportation  Level of Service Standards, Design, and Concurrency  Freight  Airport  Finance, Investment, and Implementation  Intergovernmental Coordination FRAMEWORK GOAL STATEMENT Coordinate transportation investments with the pace of growth and land use development patterns to ensure Renton maintains an efficient, balanced, multimodal transportation system. GENERAL GOALS AND POLICIES The following goals and policies are applicable in all transportation decisions. Policies specific to particular transportation topics are covered elsewhere in this element. GOALS Goal T-A: Continue to develop a transportation system that stimulates, supports, and enhances the safe, efficient and reliable movement of people, vehicles, and goods. Goal T-B: Balance transportation needs with other community values and needs by providing facilities that promote vibrant commerce, clean air and water, and health and recreation. Goal T-C: Maintain, preserve, and extend the life and utility of transportation investments. Goal T-D: Reduce the number of trips made via single occupant vehicle. Goal T-E: Apply technological solutions to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Goal T-F: Promote and develop local air transportation facilities in a responsible and efficient manner. Goal T-G: Establish a stable, long-term financial foundation for continuously improving the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of the transportation system. POLICIES Policy T-1: Develop a connected network of transportation facilities where public streets are planned, designed, constructed, and maintained for safe convenient travel of all users – motor vehicle drivers as well as, pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit riders of all ages and abilities. Policy T-2: Implement a multimodal level of service that maximizes mobility, is coordinated with level of service standards of adjacent jurisdictions, and meets concurrency requirements. Policy T-3: Develop a transportation system that preserves and protects natural resources and complies with regional, state, and federal air and water quality standards. Policy T-4: Support electric vehicle infrastructure in all areas except those zoned for resource use or those areas designated as critical areas. Policy T-5: Support transportation modes and technologies that are energy-efficient and improve system performance. City Maintenance Crew, Credit: City of Renton TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 18 MAINTENANCE, MANAGEMENT, AND SAFETY The design, construction, operation and maintenance of the transportation system impacts long-term use and safety for all users. Safety planning and mitigation, including strategies for protecting the transportation system from disasters, includes multidisciplinary efforts that can significantly improve the livability of our community. POLICIES Policy T-6: Establish essential maintenance, preservation and safety improvements of the transportation systems as a high priority. Policy T-7: Ensure maintenance and preservation of the transportation systems are high priorities in resource allocations. Maintain and preserve the transportation system mindful of life-cycle costs associated with delayed maintenance. Policy T-8: Develop and coordinate prevention and recovery strategies and disaster response plans with regional and local agencies to protect the transportation system against major disruptions. Policy T-9: Optimize the performance of the transportation network and improve efficiency and safety for various travel modes through signal timing coordination, signal retiming on a regular basis, maintenance and capital replacement programs, and other operational improvements of existing and planned transportation facilities. TRANSPORTATION DEMAND MANAGEMENT Transportation Demand Management (TDM) focuses on more effectively using existing and planned transportation capacity, ensures compatibility with planned uses, helps accommodate growth consistent with community character and land use objectives, offers alternatives to Single Occupancy Vehicle (SOV) travel, and serves to mitigate impacts and better meet mobility needs. Reducing trip-making, dispersing peak period travel demand throughout the day, and increasing transit usage and ride sharing are significantly less costly means of accommodating increased travel demands than constructing new or widening existing transportation facilities. Reducing the number of trips made via single occupant vehicles is also an effective way of reducing automobile-related air pollution, traffic congestion and energy use. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can be used to apply technological solutions to problems such as congestion, safety, and mobility. Substantial investment in ITS – such as signs and internet sites providing real time feedback on travel times and alternatives – continues in the Puget Sound Region. The City is currently developing plans to implement an Adaptive Signal Control System (ASCS) along the SW 43rd Street/Carr Road/Petrovitsky Road corridor as was installed on Rainier Avenue S. Adaptive signal control systems adjust the timing of intersection stop lights (green, yellow, red lights) to accommodate changing traffic patterns and ease traffic congestion (FHWA 2015). The location and supply of parking is an integral part of the local transportation system and TDM strategies are important to commerce and private enterprise. Inadequate parking can increase congestion on streets as people circle and look for available spaces. Too much parking can deter use of alternative travel modes, including transit. A proper balance needs to be achieved between parking supply and demand. Providing for “right size” parking ratios based on a district’s land use intensity and access to transit is important to community character and mobility, and can help reduce total costs of development. Satellite parking with shuttle services and collective structured parking are potential physical methods for managing and increasing the parking supply. For example, Boeing currently utilizes shuttle service to the plant from off-site parking areas. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 19 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Opportunities to reduce SOV travel are particularly found in Renton’s mixed use centers. Regional plans call for Regional Growth Centers such as Renton’s to work towards reducing SOV shares. In 2014, PSRC estimated the following work trip mode shares in Renton’s Regional Growth Center as of a 2010 base year (percentages are rounded):  SOV: 82%  HOV: 9%  Walk and Bike: 3%  Transit: 7% POLICIES Policy T-10: Implement transportation demand management (TDM) programs to reduce disruptive traffic impacts and to support mixed-use development, commercial centers, and employment areas. Policy T-11: Through investments in non-motorized facility connections, collaboration with transit providers, and commute trip reduction programs with employers, encourage a reduction in drive alone work trip shares to below 75% by 2035 within the Regional Growth Center. Policy T-12: Invest in and maintain Renton’s Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program coordinated with other agencies. Policy T-13: Incorporate TDM measures such as priority parking places for HOVs and convenient, direct pedestrian access from transit stops/stations in site design and layout for all types of development. Policy T-14: Educate employers about their commute trip reduction obligations under the City of Renton’s Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Ordinance and CTR Plan. Policy T-15: Regularly review and refine parking ratios to account for existing parking supply, land use intensity, and access to transit. Policy T-16: Encourage shared and structured parking in downtown Renton to achieve land use and economic development goals as expressed in the City Center Community Plan and to coordinate parking for the benefit of the district businesses and residents. STREET NETWORK INVENTORY Federal and State highways such as I-405, SR-900 (Sunset Boulevard), SR-169 (Maple Valley Highway), SR-515 (Benson Highway), and SR-167 (Rainier Avenue) are integral elements of Renton's arterial system, as well as, routes for regional commuters. These five interstate, freeway, and state highways converge in central Renton within a half mile radius of each other. This results in a complex traffic flow as regional and local trips interact within a relatively short distance. Local arterial streets link commercial, industrial, and residential neighborhoods to the freeways and state highways. Within neighborhoods, local access streets provide internal circulation and connections to the arterials. Local access streets primarily provide direct access to abutting land uses and are designed to discourage through traffic. Arterials in the City of Renton are divided into three classifications that are used to identify appropriate uses, establish eligibility for road improvement funding, and define appropriate street design standards:  Principal Arterials – streets and highways that connect major intra-city activity centers and have high traffic volumes and relatively fast vehicle speeds. The focus is on through travel instead of property access.  Minor Arterials – streets that provide links between intra-city activity centers or between principal and collector arterials. Minor arterials carry moderately high traffic volumes and vehicle speeds are typically lower than principal arterials.  Collector Arterials – streets that distribute traffic between local streets and principal or minor arterials and provide circulation within commercial, industrial, or residential areas. The collector system distributes traffic to local streets to support property access. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 20 Figure T-1: Arterial Streets Map TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 21 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Generally, local access streets include all public streets not classified as principal, minor, or collector arterials. A conceptual arterial map is shown in Figure T-1. Annually, the City adopts an Arterial Streets map displaying the three arterial categories above. The City hereby incorporates by reference its Arterial Streets Map dated August 4, 2014, Resolution 4222, or as thereafter amended, into this Transportation Element. The City has adopted more specific street classifications in the Renton Sunset area. The transportation element seeks to balance local and regional mobility needs. The following policies and priorities address issues related to the street network as a system, the physical design of individual roadways, traffic flow, and traffic operations control. The intent is to reduce the amount of traffic on City streets that has neither an origin nor destination in the City of Renton while providing reasonable levels of traffic flow and mobility for users of the local street system. POLICIES Policy T-17: Work with the State and neighboring jurisdictions to provide capacity on regional transportation systems and to reduce regional traffic on local streets. Policy T-18: Increase the person-carrying capacity of the Renton arterial system by encouraging modes that allow more people per vehicle and by discouraging single occupancy vehicle usage. Policy T-19: Adopt and implement street standards based on assigned street classification, land use objectives, and user needs. Policy T-20: Arrange the street network in a grid pattern to the extent possible. Connect internal development networks to existing streets and avoid cul-de-sacs and dead end streets. Policy T-21: Support vacating streets when they meet the criteria in Renton Municipal Code, Chapter 14, Vacations. Policy T-22: Review new developments fronting on state highways in the City in accordance with WSDOT access standards for state managed access highways. PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION Investments in the non-motorized components of the City’s transportation system enhance the quality of life in Renton, improve walking and bicycling safety, support healthy lifestyles, and support pedestrian and bicycle transportation modes as alternatives to the use of automobiles. Non-motorized facilities serve commuters and recreational users. INVENTORY The City's existing non-motorized transportation system is comprised primarily of roadside sidewalks. These facilities provide safe non- motorized mobility for pedestrians and cyclists outside of business districts. Within business districts, sidewalks are restricted to pedestrians. Many streets were constructed before the existing code requiring sidewalks was enacted; as a result, numerous local and arterial roadways are currently without sidewalks. Some notable walkway deficiencies exist along sections of Maple Valley Highway (SR-169), Puget Drive, and Talbot Road South. The City of Renton Comprehensive Citywide Walkway Study (March 2008) addresses the sidewalks and walkways within the City and identifies a priority roster to construct "missing" sidewalk/walkway sections throughout the City. In addition to sidewalks, Renton has combined bicycle/pedestrian facilities along Logan Avenue and portions of Garden Avenue North and North 8th Street, and striped bicycle lanes on portions of SW 16th Street, Oakesdale Avenue SW, Duvall Avenue NE, and NE 4th Street. The Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan (2009) lists routes that have been identified as important bicycle transportation elements. The City of Renton Parks, Recreation, and Natural Areas Plan (November 2011) provides an in-depth description of proposed walking, bicycle, and TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 22 mixed-use trails. By nature, these types of trails are primarily used for recreational purposes and supplement the City's non-motorized transportation system; their development should be encouraged. FUTURE PLANS Renton's existing transportation system is oriented towards accommodating cars, trucks, and buses rather than pedestrians or bicycles. The policies and priorities of this section provide guidelines for reevaluating the existing system and making incremental improvements in the City’s walking and biking environment. More facilities are also needed for bicycle storage and parking in shopping areas, employment centers and in public places. Specific recommendations on improvement projects are included in the Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan (May 2009) and hereby incorporated by reference into this Transportation Element. Cedar River Trail, Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan 2009 POLICIES Policy T-23: Coordinate transportation planning activities with the Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan and the Parks, Recreation, and Natural Areas Plan. Policy T-24: Enhance pedestrian and bicycle movement and safety by: 1) Providing adequate separation between non- motorized and motorized traffic; 2) Separating foot and bicycle traffic when possible, but giving preference to foot traffic when necessary; 3) Improving arterial intersection crossings for non-motorized users; 4) Minimizing obstructions and conflicts that restrict the movement of non-motorized users; and 5) Providing convenient access to all transit stops and transit centers. Policy T-25: Develop and designate appropriate pedestrian and bicycle commuter routes along minor arterial and collector arterial corridors. Policy T-26: Ensure provision of safe and convenient storage and parking facilities for bicyclists. Policy T-27: Promote non-motorized travel not only as a viable means of transportation but as an important method for maintaining overall health and fitness. TRANSIT AND HOV As Renton’s population continues to grow, there is a greater need to move people efficiently on the local roadway network. A well-managed, attractive, and convenient transit system reduces traffic demand by encouraging the use of alternatives to single- occupancy vehicles, for trips within the city limits and for trips to regional destinations. The following policies and priorities seek to maximize the use of transit and other alternatives to single-occupancy vehicles in Renton. INVENTORY The Downtown Renton Transit Center is the hub of transit service in Renton. The Transit Center acts as both a destination and a major transfer center. Bus service in Renton is currently provided by King County Metro and Sound Transit. Metro provides internal city routes and regional service. Local transit service includes RapidRide, buses, shuttles, and Dial-a-Ride (DART). The RapidRide F-line connects The Landing and Boeing plant with Downton Renton, Tukwila, SeaTac, and Burien. It connects with the regional Sounder (commuter rail) and Link Light Rail systems. As of TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 23 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 2014, Renton has over 1,100 park and ride spaces located throughout the community to serve local commuters. High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, available to buses and vehicles with two or more occupants, currently exist north and southbound on Interstate 405 and SR-167. HOV queue jump lanes are provided at some interchange ramps in Renton. Rainier Avenue has business access and transit only (BAT) lanes. FUTURE PLANS VISION 2040 and Transportation 2040 call for channeling future growth into regional growth centers such as Renton and providing transit links between centers. Transit investments are critical to providing local and regional trip alternatives to single-occupancy vehicles. Transit service and facility improvements are needed to support and encourage increased transit use in the City of Renton. Renton has been and will continue to work with King County Metro and Sound Transit to develop transit system service improvements (e.g., new routes, increased frequency) and capital investments (e.g., signal queues, park and ride facilities) to adequately serve Renton’s developing residential and employment areas. Specific transit service improvements and facilities are needed to support Renton’s role as a regional center. The City hereby incorporates by reference: 1) King County Metro’s Strategic Plan for Public Transportation 2011-2021, or as thereafter amended, and 2) Sound Transit’s Sound Transit 3 (ST3) Plan as adopted by the agency in 2016, or as thereafter amended. The City is very supportive of Sound Transit’s proposal to add Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) to the I-405 corridor, including direct HOV ramps at a new interchange at NE 8th Street. Planned HOV facility investments, such as HOV lanes or intersection queue jumps, are planned in several Renton corridors and direct access HOV interchange ramps are planned at the following locations between 2015 and 2020:  SW 43rd Street/Carr Road/Petrovitsky Road Corridor Improvements: Implement Adaptive Signal Control System (ASCS) along corridor which also will support transit operations. The system may be expanded to include transit signal priority if King County Metro would provide a BRT route to the corridor.  NE 3rd/NE 4th Corridor Improvements: Implement projects at locations along this arterial corridor to improve traffic operations including revising/adding turn lanes, access management, and traffic signal modifications. Projects will upgrade pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Project to consider transit signal priority enhancements and queue jump lanes to improve transit reliability.  NE Sunset Boulevard (SR 900) Corridor Improvements from I-405 on the west to the east City limits: Reconstruct arterial to enhance pedestrian and bicycle facilities and transit facilities/develop street to latest adopted Principal Arterial street standards. The City is also discussing extension of BRT to this corridor, which would connect the Sunset Area with The Landing, Boeing, and other employment centers.  Grady Way Corridor Improvements from Lind Avenue to Main Avenue: Reconfigure traffic lanes and add turn lanes and other traffic signal improvements to enhance traffic operations and transit reliability. These HOV investments will improve transit travel time, accessibility, and reliability and contribute to a reduction in congestion and pollution by providing an attractive alternative to the single occupant vehicle. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 24 POLICIES Policy T-28: Work with other jurisdictions and transit authorities to plan and provide frequent, coordinated and comprehensive transit service and facilities in residential and employment areas. Policy T-29: Support direct HOV ramps to/from I- 405 in the vicinity of The Landing (NE 8th) per the City Center Community Plan. Policy T-30: Work to improve the frequency and reliability of transit serving Renton’s Downtown and promote the Downtown Transit Center as part of a regional high capacity transit system. Policy T-31: Increase transit service and access in commercial and mixed use corridors and nodes. Policy T-32: Coordinate transit, bike, and pedestrian planning efforts and evaluate opportunities to leverage investments for the benefit of more users. Policy T-33: Construct improvements and implement actions to facilitate the flow of HOV’s into, out of, and through Renton. Policy T-34: Support exclusive freeway/arterial HOV facilities that improve transit travel times by enabling buses to bypass congestion. Policy T-35: Allow park-and-ride facilities in appropriate locations subject to design considerations. TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS AND MOBILITY As described in Renton’s Community Needs Assessment (2014) and Housing Element, lack of mobility creates obstacles for individuals and families to access the services they need. Lack of mobility and transportation services can limit a household’s ability to obtain basic goods and services, receive medical or dental care, commute to a job, and maintain employment. Current barriers to mobility in Renton include:  Uneven access to public transit, with limited options for those who do not live Downtown, do not commute during peak travel times, or who need to travel within Renton (instead of between Renton and other destinations in the region). The most vulnerable groups include low-income households that are unable to afford vehicle ownership, as well as, residents who are unable to drive.  Elderly residents and others with personal physical mobility issues also face the challenge of not being able to walk longer distances to and from a bus stop, further limiting their opportunities to use public transit.  Many of the pedestrian and bike routes connecting Renton’s residential areas with basic services are unsafe, which further limits transportation alternatives for households without an automobile. F-Line Rapid Ride, Credit: City of Renton POLICIES Policy T-36: Invest in connection of non-motorized facilities across Renton. Provide improvements at intersections to improve safety and comfort of pedestrians and bicyclists. Policy T-37: Support transit agencies’ investment in transit service to Renton neighborhoods within and beyond Downtown. Policy T-38: Develop a connected transportation system that provides opportunities for mobility of people with special needs. GROWTH STRATEGY, LAND USE, AND TRANSPORTATION Renton has been designated a Core City and has a Regional Growth Center called the Renton Urban Center. Renton’s adopted Urban Center boundary includes two primary sections: the northern portion TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 25 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN borders Lake Washington and emphasizes mixed use and regional employment, including Boeing’s Renton Plant and The Landing, a retail and residential development; the southern portion of the center includes the downtown core and adjacent residential area. The City is obligated to meet the 2031 Growth Targets contained in the King County Countywide Planning Policies, and much of its growth capacity is in mixed use zones such as the Central Business District (CBD). The City must also estimate its growth to the year 2035 to provide the required 20- year planning period under GMA. Table T-1 shows the City’s growth targets, capacity, and transportation model assumptions. Table T-1: Growth Targets Housing Target Employment Target 2012-2035 Growth Target per 2014 Buildable Lands Report 14,050 28,755 Growth Capacity Estimated 2012 BLR and Land Use Element Update 15,351-16,741 26,090-31,076 Transportation Model Assumptions 16,741 31,076 Sources: King County, Puget Sound Regional Council, BERK Consulting 2014 The City has tested the future land use, desired mode split, and planned transportation improvements in the City’s transportation model. The model results show that the projected growth can be supported by the City’s planned improvements, and the City’s level of service policies (see Policy T-48) can be met. The model tested Renton’s planned growth and improvements in the context of regional growth and networks consistent with Puget Sound Regional Council’s VISION 2040 and Transportation 2040 plans. Testing Renton’s planned growth and improvements shows the following summary model results in selected corridors:  SW 43/Carr/Petrovitsky Corridor: Planned physical improvements to intersections and lanes together ASCS, and the LOS E Mitigated designation per policies, are appropriate.  Grady Way: Planned improvements would improve operations even in areas of projected continued congestion.  156th Avenue NE Corridor: Three lanes should suffice through 2035 modeled conditions. The 142nd/156th intersection with a signal and turn lanes are projected to work well.  SR 169: Interim improvements are possible and desirable at SE 5th at SR 169, such as striping/signing/operations changes. The State’s Route Development Plan improvements, included in the Renton Transportation Element list of projects (Appendix A), are needed.  Houser Way at Lake Washington Boulevard: Projects 3 and 5 (Appendix A) would address projected traffic.  192nd Extension over SR 167: This new road would likely pull traffic off of the SW 43rd overcrossing of SR 167, but would not eliminate the need for widening the overcrossing. More detailed transportation analysis of planned improvements would occur through the design process. POLICIES Policy T-39: Provide multimodal transportation improvements that support land use plans and are compatible with surrounding land uses. Policy T-40: Plan, design, and operate streets to enable safe and convenient access and travel for all users including pedestrians, bicyclists, transit riders, and people of all ages and abilities, as well as, freight and motor vehicle drivers, and to foster a sense of place in the public realm with attractive design amenities. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 26 Policy T-41: Plan for land use densities and mixed- use development patterns that encourage walking, biking, and transit use in designated areas. Policy T-42: Continue to implement the following design guidelines in Renton’s Regional Growth Center:  Encourage a mix of complementary land uses.  Encourage compact growth by addressing density.  Link neighborhoods and connect streets, sidewalks, and trails.  Complete missing links and connections in the pedestrian and bicycle systems.  Integrate activity areas with surrounding neighborhoods.  Locate public and semipublic uses near Renton’s transit center(s).  Design for pedestrians and bicyclists.  Provide usable open spaces such as the Renton Piazza, Burnett Linear Park, Cedar River Trail, and others.  Manage the supply of parking.  Promote the benefits of on-street parking.  Reduce and mitigate the effects of parking. Policy T-43: Prioritize multimodal transportation investments in Renton’s Growth Urban Center. LEVEL OF SERVICE STANDARDS, DESIGN, AND CONCURRENCY Transportation concurrency – ensuring the programs, projects, and services needed to serve growth are in place when or soon after growth occurs – is a key requirement of the Washington State Growth Management Act (GMA). The City established the following objectives for its multimodal concurrency system:  Meet requirements of GMA and be defensible  Be meaningful to measure transportation system versus development  Be simple to explain  Be simple and cost efficient to implement and monitor  Incorporate other travel modes  Be receptive to various TDM and parking strategies  Consider the potential for different standards for different parts of the City  Help fund/implement multimodal transportation improvements  Provide a basis for interjurisdictional coordination on transportation Following a review of different systems and methods, the City developed a multimodal LOS and concurrency system for the following modes of travel meeting the objectives:  Motor vehicles (single and multi occupancy)  Transit  Non-motorized (bicycle and pedestrian) The multimodal LOS system addresses the following scales: 1) citywide, 2) community planning area, and 3) development level. The primary component of the system is a plan- level estimate of person trips by mode based on the land use forecasts. Person trips are the number of persons making trips by various modes of travel. Bicycle and pedestrian trips typically involve one person, thus one person trip. But motor vehicles often have more than one occupant. For example, if the average vehicle occupancy was 1.3, and a concurrency service area (like a community planning area) had 1,000 p.m. peak vehicle trips, the person trips would be 1,300. Similarly, if a transit vehicle carries 65 passengers, there would be 65 person trips. Using person trips provides a common metric for use in concurrency and also assessment of transportation impacts or mitigation fees. To ensure that growth is occurring in a pattern and intensity proposed by the Land Use Element, the person trips could be tracked by consolidated Community Planning Areas that share a common circulation system and that do not place undue administrative burden. The last component of the LOS program is at a development scale. Applicants for development TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 27 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN would need to provide an analysis of the effect of their proposed development on safety, operations and local access considering a measurement of delay per vehicle of LOS D or LOS E mitigated using Highway Capacity Manual definitions. See Table T-2 for a description of the key steps in the LOS/Concurrency system. LOS standards guide the types of street, pedestrian, bicycle, and transit improvements needed to meet planned levels of growth. The list and map of planned transportation system improvements are presented in Appendix A. The transportation system’s quality of design, sensitivity to human needs, and integration with the surroundings impact the City’s urban character and quality of life. Transportation improvements should be designed accordingly. Table T-2: LOS/Concurrency Program Program Component or Characteristic Attributes Person Trips Person trips are the number of persons making the same trip in the same mode of travel. Using person trips provides a common metric for use in concurrency and also impact or mitigation fees. Multimodal Levels of Service Person trips will be calculated for the following modes of travel:  Motor vehicles (single and multi-occupancy)  Transit  Non-motorized (bicycle and pedestrian) Multiple Service Areas The City will monitor trip banks to specific service areas, such as consolidated Community Planning Areas, that reflect differences in transportation opportunities, needs and capacities, as well as, differences in existing and future land uses. However, the City will determine system needs and collect fees at a citywide scale in order to preserve the City’s flexibility to prioritize projects, and to avoid creating smaller accounts that do not collect enough to fund any projects before the legal deadlines to spend the money or refund it. Trip Calculator, Fee Calculator, Trip Bank Applicants will provide the type(s) of land uses they will develop, and the number of units they propose for each type (i.e., # of apartments, or # of square feet of retail, office, etc.). The Trip Calculator will convert the applicant’s data to the number of person trips in their service area using trip generation rates. The trip calculator results will be used for concurrency by comparing the applicant’s person trips to the balance available in the trip bank for each mode. The trip calculator results will be used for fee calculations by multiplying the applicant’s person trips for each mode times the fee per trip for each mode. Multimodal Mitigation Fees A separate SEPA-based mitigation fee schedule will collect each applicant’s proportionate share of their direct impact on the other modes of travel. Strategies such as TDM and parking can earn credits that reduce the mitigation fees. Safety, Operations, and Local Access Analysis Applicants for development will be required to submit an analysis of the effect of their proposed development on safety, operations and local access using guidelines outlined in the City of Renton Policy Guidelines for Traffic Impact Analysis for New Development. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 28 POLICIES Policy T-44: Ensure adequate transportation facilities are in place at the time of development approval or that an adopted strategy is in place to provide adequate facilities within six years. Policy T-45: Ensure that new development contributes its fair share of the cost of transportation facilities, programs and services needed to mitigate growth related transportation impacts. Policy T-46: Maintain a multimodal level of service that maximizes mobility, is coordinated with level of service standards of adjacent jurisdictions, and meets concurrency requirements. Policy T-47: Incorporate multiple transportation modes in concurrency determinations. Policy T-48: Apply the following multimodal LOS standards at a citywide level, community planning area level, and development level: A. Citywide Person Trips: Based on the City’s land use and growth strategy, establish a citywide level of person trips by mode, and support each mode with capital improvements and programs. The general mode categories include: motor vehicle trips, transit trips, and non-motorized trips. B. Community Planning Area Trips: Through the concurrency review process, track person trips by the following areas to monitor if growth is occurring in relation to the Land Use Element and planned Transportation and Capital Facility Plan investments. If growth is occurring in a different pattern than planned, consider the effect on operational LOS and determine if the Comprehensive Plan land use, LOS or capital investments should be amended. 1. West Hill/City Center/Cedar River Community Planning Areas 2. Valley Community Planning Area 3. Talbot/Benson/Fairwood Community Planning Areas 4. Kennydale/Highlands/East Plateau Community Planning Areas 5. Adopted planned action areas: Track vehicular trips per City-adopted Planned Action ordinances C. Operational LOS: Through the SEPA review process, apply the following operational LOS standard at intersections that could be impacted by a proposed development: 1. Arterials and Collectors: Except as listed in C.2, apply a standard of LOS D. 2. Alternative Arterial and State Route LOS: Apply a standard of Level of Service E Mitigated for the following:  Specific Corridors: Carr Road, Logan Avenue, Rainier Avenue, Grady Way, SR 900 and SR 515.  Centers: Renton Urban Center and Center Village  For the above Corridors and Centers, congestion should be mitigated (such as increasing transit or other modes) when p.m. peak hour LOS falls below LOS E. Policy T-49: Encourage development that can be supported by transit and other non-single occupant vehicle modes. Policy T-50: Design transportation facilities to fit the neighborhood context. Apply urban design principles. Policy T-51: Support continued development of the 27th/Strander Corridor into Tukwila. FREIGHT Safe and efficient movement and distribution of goods is important for attracting and retaining businesses in the City of Renton. INVENTORY Truck and rail freight are important to the regional and local economy. The Washington State Freight Mobility Plan, hereby incorporated by reference, identifies T1 freight corridors (those carrying more than 10 million tons per year), T2 freight corridors TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 29 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN (carrying 4 to 10 million tons per year), and other freight routes within the City that are important to the state economy. Figure T-2 identifies the state designated freight routes. The City has a system of truck routes for trucks weighing over 26,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. In accordance with the City’s truck route ordinance, trucks needing to make deliveries off of the designated truck routes are required to take the most direct arterial route to/from one of the designated truck routes and to combine multiple trips off designated truck routes when feasible. The truck route ordinance does not apply to the operation of school buses or public transit on designated routes, garbage trucks, city maintenance vehicles, or emergency vehicles. Freight rail service is currently available to several industrial and commercial areas of the City. Existing rail lines bordering the City of Renton include the Union Pacific (UPRR) and Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad (BNSF) main line tracks between Seattle and Tacoma. The BNSF main line runs in a north- south direction and is located along the City of Renton's western city limits, separating Renton from the City of Tukwila. The BNSF main line carries a considerable volume of freight service, as well as passenger service. Two spur lines provide intermittent, as-needed freight service from the main line to the Renton Valley industrial area (southwest Renton) and the Container Corporation of America plant in the Earlington industrial area. The BNSF 18th Subdivision Branch Line splits from the BNSF main line at the Black River Junction, and continues through Downtown Renton and the North Renton industrial area before continuing along the east side of Lake Washington and terminating in south Bellevue. Spur tracks off of the branch line provide freight service to the Earlington industrial area in west central Renton. Two spur tracks serve the North Renton industrial area north of Downtown Renton. The UPRR mainline track, located 200 to 300 feet west of the BNSF mainline and Renton's City limits, also runs in a north-south direction. The UPRR mainline is a single track, carrying a somewhat lower level of freight-only service. Figure T-2: State Freight Routes in Renton TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 30 The infrequent use of the spur tracks and branch lines within city limits results in minimal disruption to vehicular traffic movement in Renton. Future land use development is not anticipated to result in a significant increase in rail freight service in Renton. The following policies and priorities seek to balance the needs of freight (trucks and trains) with the needs of other users of the local street network. Policy T-52: Work with local, regional, state, and federal agencies to address regional freight needs and mitigate local impacts. Policy T-53: Maintain and improve freight access to and from Renton industrial areas. Policy T-54: Minimize the impact of freight traffic on transportation facilities and general traffic circulation. Policy T-55: Limit heavy through truck traffic to designated truck routes. Policy T-56: Support railroad crossing improvements that minimize maintenance and protect the street surface. Where warranted, provide protective devices, such as barriers and warning signals, on at-grade crossings. AIRPORT The Renton Municipal Airport is a major general aviation airport and a designated Reliever Airport for SeaTac International Airport in the Federal Aviation Administration’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. Both federal and state governments recognize its importance as part of the transportation system and require the City to protect and maintain it so that it can be used safely. Renton's Airport is more than a transportation facility. It is a vital element to Renton's commercial and industrial economy, providing aircraft services, manufacturing support, flight training, and other airport activities. The airport is a self-sufficient enterprise fund within the City’s operations. Seaplane at Renton Municipal Airport, Credit: City of Renton According to the 2012 WSDOT Aviation Economic Impact Study, four airports in Washington State account for the greatest economic impact: The most significant overall finding is that the statewide economic impacts attributable to airports are substantial, but heavily concentrated in just four facilities - the three major Boeing activity centers (Paine Field, Boeing Field, and Renton Municipal) and Sea-Tac, which is the principal commercial airline hub in the state and ranked 17th nationally in terms of annual enplanements. Combined, they account for 91% of total jobs and 95% of total statewide output attributable to individual airport activity. Each of these facilities is estimated to support at least 10,000 jobs and more than $5 billion of economic activity. INVENTORY The Renton Municipal Airport is owned by the City of Renton. The Airport consists of approximately 165.5 acres; it has one runway with two parallel taxiways. The runway, running southeast to northwest, is 5,379 feet long and 200 feet wide. It is equipped with medium intensity runway lighting, Runway End Identification Lighting (REIL), and Precision Approach Path Indicators (PAPI). Taxiways are lighted, there is a rotating beacon, a windsock, and a non-directional radio beacon. The Federal Aviation Administration operates a contracted Air TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 31 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Traffic Control Tower year round during established hours (generally 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.). The Renton Airport serves general aviation demand (aviation uses except scheduled commercial passenger airlines) generated by Renton, Boeing, and other communities generally within a 30- minute drive. Aircraft services available at the Airport include aircraft maintenance and service, fuel, flight instruction, aircraft charter and rental, and aircraft storage. Fixed Base Operators (FBO's), which are aviation-oriented businesses offering a variety of services and products to aircraft owners and operators, provide these services to the aviation public. Contiguous to the Renton Airport is the Will Rogers- Wiley Post Memorial Seaplane Base which, during the summer months, is one of the busiest seaplane bases in the Northwest. The Renton Municipal Airport is a Landing Rights Airport, with US Customs services available for both floatplane and wheeled aircraft arriving by water or by land. FUTURE PLANS The Airport Layout Plan establishes future development and improvement priorities and timelines that will yield a safe, efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable public facility with capacity for the future air transport needs of the City of Renton and the Puget Sound region. The number of aircraft and the number of operations are projected to grow only modestly in the coming decades; however, the region has a large unmet need for hangars for aircraft storage. The airport has begun a comprehensive Master Plan update scheduled to be completed in the spring of 2016. POLICIES Policy T-57: Acknowledge that there are certain impacts to the community associated with the existence of the Renton Municipal Airport, such as noise generation, but that these impacts have historically been accepted by the community in exchange for the economic and transportation- related benefits and the civic prestige that are also associated with the Airport. Policy T-58: Recognize the regional significance of the Airport for economic development. Policy T-59: Maximize available space on the Airport site for uses that require direct access to taxiways and runways. Policy T-60: Continue operation of the Airport as a Landing Rights Airport. Policy T-61: Recognize the benefit of Airport access for emergency medical and disaster response in the community. Policy T-62: Promote and develop Airport facilities and services for all wheeled and float-equipped aircraft, owners, pilots, and passengers in a manner that maximizes safety, efficiency, and opportunity for use. Policy T-63: Lease Airport property for aviation- related uses that create jobs and expand the City’s tax base. Policy T-64: Maintain the northern shoreline of the Airport as the only major publicly-owned seaplane access and protect its use for that purpose. Policy T-65: Develop appropriate land use plans and regulations for structures and vegetation within the Airport’s runway approach zone. FINANCE, INVESTMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION This section contains details of transportation revenue sources that the City can reasonably expect to receive during the life of the transportation plan. Revenue sources contained in the Financial Program vary widely in terms of the amounts available and the types of projects for which they may be used. In most cases, individual transportation projects are funded by a combination of funding sources, reflecting the fact that transportation projects have multiple purposes and serve multiple beneficiaries. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 32 TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS Appendix A: Transportation Improvement Projects and Programs, summarizes the City of Renton’s identified multimodal roadway system improvements needed to address capacity and operational issues based on the forecast travel demands. The project table and map, which constitute Appendix A, include a project number for reference. The table is generally organized by Community Plan Area, starting with the Kennydale Planning Area in the north part of the City. In addition, the table includes programs covering pedestrian and bicycle travel consistent with the City’s other adopted plans, such as the Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan. Programs covering preservation, traffic operations and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), safety, and transportation project development are also included. Without programs addressing these items, the City’s existing infrastructure will be less efficient and ultimately will cost more to reconstruct transportation facilities. Key improvements from other agencies including Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), Sound Transit, King County, and adjacent cities are also included in the list to illustrate the interdependence of Renton’s transportation element within the regional and sub-regional framework. To better support use of alternative travel modes, most of the identified roadway improvements include facilities for pedestrians, and others also include improvements for bicycle travel and improving transit service reliability. The roadway projects focus on improving traffic safety and operations along major corridors. These include adding turn lanes (including center, two-way left- turn lanes) and upgrading traffic signals at major intersections. These include projects along Lake Washington Boulevard, Sunset Boulevard, Grady Way, Carr Road/Petrovitsky Road, and 116th Avenue SE. In addition to the listed corridor projects, the traffic operations and ITS program provide for adjusting the traffic signal phasing and operations at signals throughout the city. The only project that adds additional travel lanes for a significant distance is the widening of Monster Road between Oakesdale Avenue and Martin Luther King Jr Way (SR 900). This project completes the 4/5 lane arterial corridor and would be constructed in partnership with King County. The Transportation Element also incorporates improvement projects from Community Plans and other planning studies. These include the plan to convert the one-way roadways in downtown Renton to two-way operations to support the vision identified in the City Center Community Plan. In addition, the Transportation Element includes the key transportation improvements identified in the Sunset Area Community Planned Action Study, and the Benson Hill Community Plan. TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM COSTS In emphasizing multiple travel modes, this plan requires resources to be spread and balanced among all modes. Many of the identified improvement projects address multiple travel modes in an integrated manner. The City of Renton cost of funding the transportation improvement projects and programs described in previous sections for the next 21 years (2015-2035) is estimated at approximately $617 million (2015 dollars). In addition, the City’s Transportation Element relies on WSDOT, Sound Transit, King County Metro and other agencies to fund and implement regional and sub-regional transportation improvement projects, as identified in Appendix A. Ongoing transportation planning work will include continued refinement of the 20- year transportation plan and costs. As shown in Table T-3, $422 million (68%) of the City’s transportation costs are for multimodal transportation improvement projects in key corridors throughout the City. Pedestrian, bicycle, and trail projects are estimated to cost $102 million based on the current plans. The remaining $93 million is needed to fund ongoing operations, TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 33 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN including street overlays, system preservation, traffic signal, signs, implementation of ITS, and overall administration and development of projects. Table T-3: Summary of 2015-2035 Transportation Costs Type of Project Costs (1,000s) Roadway Projects $ 422,000 Non-Motorized Projects and Programs $102,000 Preservation, Safety, ITS, and Project Development Programs $93,000 TOTAL Costs $ 617,000 INVENTORY OF FUNDING SOURCES Having established a 20-year transportation funding level of $617 million, an annual average funding level of approximately $30 million would be needed to fully implement the Transportation Element by 2035. Sources of revenue to provide this annual funding need are identified on TableT-5. The forecast revenues are based on historical data extrapolated out to 2035. From existing transportation revenue sources, the City would be expected to generate $240 million from 2015-2035. This is approximately 40% of the total estimated costs of the 21 year list of transportation projects and programs. Table T-4: Summary of 2015-2035 Transportation Revenues Existing Revenue Sources Costs (1,000s) Grants $119,000 Business License Fees $52,000 Fuel Taxes $51,000 Transportation Impact Fees and Sidewalk Mitigation Payments $18,000 TOTAL Revenues $240,000 Existing revenues are not able to keep pace with transportation costs for several reasons. They include:  Declining revenue available from several existing sources, such as the half-cent gas tax and grants;  Transportation needs and costs growing faster than available revenues;  Local, state, and federal requirements on transportation improvements lengthening the design process and increasing cost;  Increased needs for preservation of the existing infrastructure;  Additional focus on incorporating complete streets concepts into transportation projects which adds costs due to right-of way and street standards;  The undetermined potential for new funding sources; and  The continued inability of regional agencies to address regional transportation needs. Ongoing transportation planning work will include a review and update of current revenue sources to reflect federal, state, and regional decisions regarding these revenue sources. Should the City’s transportation funding approach result in shortfalls, the City will reassess its land use plan, level of service standards, and funding strategies, accordingly. To help address this shortfall in funding, the City is considering two new funding sources and potential future modifications to the existing Transportation Impact Fee (TIF) program rates.  Transportation Benefit District (TBD) – The City is evaluating the potential for establishing a TBD, as allowed under State law. Without a vote of the City residents, a TBD could be based on a $20 assessment on the Motor Vehicle Excise Tax (MVET). This could generate over $30 million over the life of the plan if implemented starting in 2016. State law allows the City to enact up to a $100 MVET through a vote of residents. A $100 MVET could raise $8 million a year if TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 34 approved. The City would likely target the TBD to help provide more consistent funding for preservation of the transportation system and possibly some key non-motorized projects.  Non-motorized concurrency Impact Fee – The City’s current TIF program is focused on improvements that add capacity to roadways and streets that serve growth, consistent with State law. With the increased focus on completing key segments of the sidewalk, bicycle, and trails system, the City is considering a supplemental mitigation fee that would cover those modes. This mitigation payment would be integral to the multi-modal concurrency program. Specific rates and projects/costs are yet to be fully defined and would be adopted as part of a subsequent change to the City’s existing concurrency requirements (RMC 4-6-070). Preliminary estimates suggest such a program could generate approximately $8 million for separate pedestrian, bicycle, and multi-use trail projects. The costs of the non-motorized projects would not overlap with costs included in the impact fee program.  Transportation Impact Fee – The City revised its TIF in 2011. As part of that update, the City set the TIF rate per new PM peak hour trip well below the maximum rate developed in the Rate Study (Rate Study for Impact Fees, City of Renton). With adoption of the 2015 Transportation Element and project list, the City will need to review and update the TIF program and ordinance to be internally consistent. At that time, the City could choose to set the TIF rates at a higher (or lower) level, which could affect the ability to complete the growth-related street and roadway projects. This Element provides a summary of six and 20-year transportation system proposals (see Level of Service Standards, Design, and Concurrency) needed to support the land use plan. The City has developed a six-year Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) that details projects and funding by year for 2015-2020, and is hereby incorporated by reference. The full 20-year multimodal project list, summarized in Appendix A, is also incorporated by reference. POLICIES Policy T-66: Ensure the transportation system funding and implementation program supports land use policies and distributes transportation costs equitably. Policy T-67: Pursue federal, state and local sources of funding (e.g. loans, matching funds) for transportation improvements in an efficient and equitable manner. Policy T-68: Use business license fees and impact fees charged to new development to fund growth related traffic improvements. Policy T-69: Coordinate equitable public/private partnerships to help pay for transportation improvements. Policy T-70: Seek opportunities for multi- jurisdictional cooperation to fund transportation improvements (e.g. joint transportation mitigation systems or funding mechanism) to address impact of growth outside municipal boundaries on the City’s transportation system. Policy T-71: Expedite implementation of transportation projects that protect neighborhoods against the impacts of through traffic, improve HOV flow, increase transit service, and enhance pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Policy T-72: Reassess the Land Use Element, Level of Service standard, and funding strategies if probable funding falls short of meeting existing needs and to ensure that the Land Use Element, transportation plans, and financing plan are coordinated and consistent. Policy T-73: Evaluate establishing a Transportation Benefit District (TBD) as allowed under State law. TRANSPORTATION ELEMENT PAGE 35 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN INTERGOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION A significant amount of travel that occurs in Renton is regional in nature – with either the origin or destination (sometimes both) outside city limits. Effectively managing flow within and through the City requires extensive coordination with neighboring jurisdictions, transit service providers, and regional, state, and federal entities. POLICIES Policy T-74: Develop and maintain relationships between Renton and other agencies and local jurisdictions for cooperative planning of common transportation improvements. Policy T-75: Continue to coordinate Renton's Transportation Element with adjacent jurisdictions' transportation and land use goals, countywide policies, regional land use and transportation plans, and statewide goals outlined in the GMA. Policy T-76: Pursue strategies to address inconsistencies (i.e. interlocal agreements) and adjust Renton’s Transportation Element, as needed. DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Appendix A: Transportation Improvement Projects and Programs HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 36 HOUSING & HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT - Working to provide opportunity for those with need - DISCUSSION This Element states Renton’s housing and human services goals and policies, guides Renton’s approach to creating opportunities for the physical development of housing over the long term, and also directs Renton’s human services activities to increase the social and economic well-being of individuals and families. Housing variety, location, and affordability influence a household’s ability to access jobs, schools, and services. Human services can help support households to find and maintain stable and healthy dwellings and to meet economic, health, and social needs. HOUSING This Element provides housing goals and policies intended to meet the Growth Management Act’s (GMA) housing goal: “Encourage the availability of affordable housing to all economic segments of the population of this state, promote a variety of residential densities and housing types, and encourage preservation of existing housing stock.” HUMAN SERVICES The goals and policies related to Human Services are integrated with Housing goals and policies, because housing and human service needs are often intertwined. Human Services are programs and strategies that:  Support vulnerable or at risk individuals and families in times of need,  Address the social conditions that make people vulnerable or put them at risk, and  Foster an effective and efficient system of services. Human Services that meet basic human needs and promote safe and healthy communities can be represented on a continuum, from prevention of problems, including crime, to assuring basic survival, to assistance in becoming self-reliant. While optional under GMA, addressing Human Services in the Comprehensive Plan allows Renton to guide its Human Services programs to best meet community needs in an efficient and effective manner. SUMMARY OF HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICE NEEDS The goals and policies in this Element are based on the Renton Community Needs Assessment for Human Services and Housing, December 2013 (Community Needs Assessment). Brief discussions of housing and human service needs are provided, but the full analysis of the Community Needs Assessment should be consulted for information required by the GMA. Key findings of the Community Needs Assessment indicated the following housing and human service needs: AVAILABLE QUALITY HOUSING  More rental units for very low-income households;  Opportunities for upward mobility by promoting ownership housing for first-time homebuyers; and  More safe, energy efficient, and healthy housing for low and moderate income households. NEIGHBORHOOD OPPORTUNITY  Improved mobility and transportation options;  More high quality out-of-school time opportunities for youth; and  Increased access to affordable, quality early childhood education The Community Needs Assessment identifies two broad values to guide the delivery of housing and human services: equity and dignity. HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT PAGE 37 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY  Support for adults who face barriers to employment; and  Access to living-wage jobs and career advancement BASIC NEEDS FOR FAMILIES  Improved access to quality food; and  Day and night shelters that offer a range of services for homeless families HEALTH AND WELLNESS  Better access to health and dental care for low-income residents;  Early childhood health screenings and parenting support; and  More mental health and substance abuse services HOUSING VARIETY AND OPPORTUNITY Renton has a diverse housing stock with a wide range of unit types and prices. This includes new and older single-family homes of all sizes, flats, townhouses, semi-attached houses, low- and mid- rise apartments and condominiums, and high- density mid-rise apartments in Sunset and the Growth Center. Renton also has a strong sense of community, and many established neighborhoods organized around schools, parks, and other institutions. In addition to established neighborhoods, where infill development has been increasingly common, Renton has newly developed neighborhoods close to its southern and eastern edges, and emerging mixed-use residential neighborhoods in several of its commercial centers. Renton continues to have a supply of vacant, underutilized, and re-developable land in its neighborhoods and mixed-use centers, offering many opportunities for growth. The City is obligated to meet its 2031 Growth Targets contained in the King County Countywide Planning Policies. The City must also estimate its growth to the year 2035 to provide the required 20-year planning period under GMA (i.e., 2015-2035). Table HHS-1 shows the City’s projected land use assumptions related to housing for a period 2006-2035, while Table HHS-2 provides an adjustment for growth that has already occurred between 2006 and 2012. The Tables demonstrate that the City’s land supply is consistent with 2035 growth targets. The Land Use Element allocates land use designations in a methodical manner to facilitate a range of housing types that will meet the 2035 growth targets. By providing for housing variety, Renton:  Recognizes that housing needs change over a person’s life cycle. Renton’s housing supply should be diverse and consist of a variety of styles and price ranges to serve all residents.  Improves mobility. Placing housing where there is a variety of transportation modes or increasing the allowed density in areas that are served with public transportation can improve the viability of transit and provide better access to employment, recreation, and other services for all households.  Meets special housing needs. Renton has a population that is aging, has disabilities, is homeless, or has other special needs. A variety of housing choices allows persons and households with special needs to have access to stable and supportive housing choices. Equity is when social, economic and political opportunities are not predicated on a person’s age, appearance, citizenship or national origin, employment classification, ethnicity, gender, gender identity or gender expressions, language, marital status, race, religion, faith or spirituality, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, veteran status, and visible or invisible disabilities. HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 38  Creates opportunities for households to gain upward mobility. There is a gap in housing for households with low incomes, as well as, a lack of housing options for households that can afford entry-level home ownership. Creating a better balance between dwellings serving different households creates opportunities for upward mobility such as by promoting ownership housing for first-time homebuyers. Homeownership has been, over time, a significant source of wealth accumulation despite the recent Great Recession.  Provides for stable housing. Very low-income households may be sharing housing units affordable to higher incomes because there are not enough rentable dwellings affordable to households with very low-incomes. Until more housing stock that promotes upward mobility is available and frees up lower-cost units, City policies can promote forms of shared housing and accessory dwelling units, which can be both a source of affordable housing and housing stability by providing income for homeowners to help them meet their mortgage obligations or to age in place. Table HHS-1: 2006-2031 Growth Targets: Extended to 2035 Housing Target 2006-2031 Target 14,835 Annual increment over 25 years 593 Add 4 years to get to 2035 2,372 2035 Growth Target 17,207 Source: Prepared by BERK and The Transpo Group Table HHS-2: 2012-2035 Growth Targets: Adjustments for Growth 2006-2012 Housing Target Renton: 2012-2031 Growth Target, King County Buildable Lands Report 11,706 PSRC Land Use Targets 2031-2035, 4 years addition 2,344 2012-2035 Growth Target 14,050 Growth Capacity Estimated 2012 15,351 Difference: Capacity - Target 1,301 Source: Prepared by BERK and The Transpo Group HOUSING AFFORDABILITY AND SPECIAL NEEDS HOUSEHOLD INCOME The King County Countywide Planning Policies require jurisdictions to analyze housing affordability according to income groups benchmarked against King County’s median income for all households. More specifically, the policies define housing need groups based on income thresholds equal to 30%, 50%, and 80% of the County’s Area Median Income (AMI). Countywide Planning Policies direct Renton, other cities, and King County to work collectively to meet low- and moderate-income housing needs countywide. At both a collective and individual level, Renton is to address the housing needs for households earning very low incomes (30% of AMI or less), as this is where the greatest need exists. Table HHS-3 identifies the 2012 and 2013 countywide share of households, and Renton’s share of households that meet the income levels. Table HHS-3: Estimates of Existing Households by Percentage of Area Median Income Percent of Area Median Household Income Countywide: 2012 King County Countywide Planning Policies Countywide: 2013 Community Needs Assessment Renton: 2013 Community Needs Assessment Under 30% (very low) 12% 13% 15% 30 - 50% (low) 12% 11% 14% 50 - 80% (moderate) 16% 16% 19% 80% and above 60% 60% 52% Total 100% 100% 100% Sources: King County, Countywide Planning Policies 2012; Community Needs Assessment based on 2007-2011 ACS and ESRI; BERK, 2013. Dignity refers to the experience of receiving housing and human services. To treat someone with dignity is to treat them as being of worth, in a way that is respectful of them as valued individuals. HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT PAGE 39 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Based on this information:  Renton has somewhat higher proportions of its households in the very low, low, and moderate income housing need categories; and  Renton’s proportions of middle and upper income residents are lower than King County. COST-BURDENED HOUSEHOLDS Many households in Renton are spending more than 30% of their income on housing, and therefore are considered “cost-burdened.” Due to the high percentage of income spent on housing, these households may have difficulties meeting other household necessities including food, medicine, clothing, and transportation needs. A vast majority of households (82.5%) earning under $35,000 (generally low- and very low-income households) are spending more than 30% of their income on housing. A greater proportion of renting households earning under $35,000 per year are cost-burdened than owner-occupied households. See the Community Needs Assessment for additional detail. Glennwood Townhomes, Credit: City of Renton SPECIAL NEEDS HOUSEHOLDS Persons who may require housing with particular design or support services include, but are not limited to, the homeless, large households, those living with a disability, and older adults including those who live independently and those requiring some sort of living assistance. Many special-needs households also require affordable housing choices. Homeless: This special needs population has an acute housing need, yet there are significant data gaps and gross undercounts. In the 2011-12 school year, the Renton School District identified 341 students who met the legislative definition of homeless. The one-night unsheltered homeless counts in Renton show unsheltered homelessness in the City ranging from 71-84 persons over the last four years. However, not all areas are searched and many homeless persons do not want to be seen. Beyond the number estimated above, there are likely individuals and families that are improvising with camping, sleeping in their cars, rotating around weekly “motels,” and spending nights in someone’s spare room or couch, with no fixed residence. Large Households: Large households often require dwelling units with more bedrooms than units available on average. Renton has a slightly greater proportion of households with 3 to 7 people than in King County. About 40% of Renton residents live in households with more than 2 people, compared to 36% for the County overall. Elderly Population: Households with older adults may require assistance to update their homes to accommodate physical constraints (e.g., ramps, remodeling, and repairs) or may require emotional, social, health or other assistance for daily life. In 2010, Renton’s senior population (ages 65 years and over) was about 10.1% of the population. Disabled Population: Renton has an estimated 8,398 adults living with a disability, representing approximately 8% of the population 18 to 64 years old and 41% of the population over 64 years old. Persons with medical or physical disabilities or substance abuse concerns may need support services or a supportive living environment. HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 40 GOAL HHS-A: Adopt best available housing practices and implement innovative techniques to advance the provision of affordable, fair, healthy, and safe housing for renters, homeowners, and the homeless. By the end of year 2020, adopt a strategic housing plan tailored to achieve this goal. POLICIES Policy HHS-1: Provide resource assistance to potential new homeowners, homeowners facing foreclosure, and others in danger of losing their housing. Policy HHS-2: Collaborate with financial institutions, organizations, and individuals who provide affordable housing to acquire and rehabilitate foreclosed units to be used as long-term affordable or subsidized housing. Policy HHS-3: Work with other jurisdictions and organizations, including the Renton Housing Authority and non-profit housing developers, to address the need for housing to be affordable to very low-income households. This housing should focus on accessibility, mobility, and proximity to social services. Policy HHS-4: Promote homeownership opportunities for households of all incomes. Policy HHS-5: Work collaboratively with local, regional, state, and federal public and private sector entities to enhance resources and secure financial and other types of support for housing programs. GOAL HHS-B: Ensure a variety of housing types are available within the City that meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. POLICIES Policy HHS-6: Implement inclusionary zoning provisions and other techniques that result in a range of housing types, at different densities, and prices in new developments that address the housing needs of all people at all stages of life, including vulnerable populations. Policy HHS-7: Continue to regulate manufactured housing the same as site built housing. Also, maintain manufactured housing developments that meet the following criteria: 1) The development provides market rate housing alternatives for moderate- and low-income households. 2) The housing is maintained and certified as built to the International Building Code and Federal Department of Housing and Urban Development standards. 3) Site planning includes pedestrian amenities, landscaping, and a community facility. Policy HHS-8: Continue to allow Accessory Dwelling Units in single family residential areas and ensure they are compatible with the existing neighborhood. Policy HHS-9: Foster and locate new housing in proximity to Employment Centers and streets that have public transportation systems in place, and complements existing housing. Policy HHS-10: In collaboration with the County, other cities, and community stakeholders, develop strategies to achieve a diverse housing stock that is affordable for the following minimum percentages of the City’s households: Total Households AMI 12 % Below 30% (very low-income) 12 % 30 to 50% (low-income) 16 % 51 to 80% (moderate-income) HOUSING PRESERVATION Age of housing is a factor in the quality of housing and how much housing costs to maintain. Older homes typically have less efficient furnaces, insulation, windows, and appliances, which lead to higher operating costs compared to newer housing construction. Under normal circumstances, a new residential unit can be expected to have an effective useful life of 40-50 years before it becomes functionally obsolete. The useful lifespan can be HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT PAGE 41 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN expanded indefinitely with continued maintenance and reinvestment. About 19% of housing in Renton was built before 1959, making it over 50 years old. The vast majority of this older housing is comprised of single family homes. In addition, a significant portion of housing built in the 1940’s, some of which is still owned by the Renton Housing Authority, was built quickly for the war defense industry. This housing was constructed as temporary housing for war defense workers who were expected to return to their original communities after the war. Much of this housing is still in use today, and likely is approaching functional obsolescence. Preserving existing housing where it provides quality living environments protects neighborhood character and is the largest source of affordable housing in the community. Other activities to preserve housing can include promoting the preservation or rehabilitation of affordable housing that would otherwise convert to market rate housing (e.g., subsidized housing, manufactured home parks, etc.) or home repair programs for low- income households. GOAL HHS-C: Increase the stability of neighborhoods by fostering long-term homeownership, property maintenance, and investments in existing housing. POLICIES Policy HHS-11: Utilize the City’s authority to rehabilitate housing to prevent neighborhood blight or eliminate unsound structures. Policy HHS-12: Encourage expansion of programs that result in home repair, weatherization, and other energy-efficient improvements to owner- occupied and rental housing, and promote additional funding for these programs at the state and federal level. Policy HHS-13: Promote housing development in proximity to the City’s Employment Centers and other areas of the City that have jobs and work opportunities, or the potential for future job growth. Policy HHS-14: Provide technical assistance and access to resources for housing adaptations and remodels to allow people to age or remain in place as their circumstances change. Downtown Housing, Credit: ICF Jones & Stokes SUSTAINABILITY, HEALTH, AND WELLNESS Livable neighborhoods include those that promote physical activity with access to amenities (sidewalks, trails, parks, and services) and protection of environmental quality such as clustered designs and low-impact development to protect critical areas and water quality. Livable homes include those that are developed and maintained to meet quality building and housing codes, including energy conservation and good ventilation to reduce exposure to indoor air pollutants due to paint, flooring, and furniture. HUMAN SERVICES The City’s role is to fund, advocate, facilitate, plan, and inform by continuously engaging service providers and community organizations in dialogue regarding the functioning of the present service systems, the emerging needs of the community and the building of a complete system of services. The Human Services Division distributes general funds and Community Development Block Grants. The staff and Advisory Committee members advocate for community members who cannot do so for themselves; needs are assessed and HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 42 appropriate policy and program responses are developed. City staff facilitates in convening and engaging others in community problem solving to develop and improve services. FUNDING AND PARTNERSHIPS Renton primarily creates opportunities for market rate and assisted housing through its Comprehensive Land Use Plan and zoning. The City has worked in partnership with the Renton Housing Authority (RHA) to establish the long-term vision and revitalization of RHA properties, such as Sunset Terrace and other locations in the Sunset Area. The City also participates in the King County Joint Recommendations Committee (JRC) which allocates funding for affordable housing. The City does not have a dedicated funding source for housing, but could continue to advance partnerships with other cities located within South King County. GOAL HHS-D: Partner with the community to help provide services and resources so that all residents have food, clothing, and shelter, and have the opportunity to live a healthy, active, safe, and sustainable lifestyle. To achieve this goal, adopt a strategic human services plan that furthers the ability of residents to develop to their fullest potential. POLICIES Policy HHS-15: Work with other jurisdictions and social service organizations to develop a regional approach to end homelessness and, on a local level, with community partners to expand services available to the chronically homeless, temporarily homeless, and other vulnerable populations in Renton. Policy HHS-16: Increase awareness of healthy food options by building collaborative partnerships with community organizations and sharing resources to promote food access and provide education about nutrition and healthy food preparation. ACCESSIBLE AND EFFECTIVE HUMAN SERVICES The Renton Community Needs Assessment for Human Services and Housing identified a number of key human service concerns in the Renton community, including Economic Opportunity, Basic Needs for Families, and Health and Wellness. The Assessment also identified the need for Available Quality Housing and Mobility, which are addressed elsewhere in this element. The Salvation Army Services Center, Credit: City of Renton ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY Most human service and housing programs aim to increase the social and economic well-being of individuals and families. Families with sufficient resources are largely able to attain services and housing to meet their needs. In general, improving economic opportunity in a community for those who face barriers to employment, career advancement, and other forms of economic opportunity can improve, prevent, or reduce needs for social service and housing supports. In some cases, families with otherwise adequate purchasing power will have needs that outstrip their resources. The Community Needs Assessment identified the need to provide or promote:  Support for adults who face barriers to employment; and  Access to living-wage jobs and career advancement. BASIC NEEDS FOR FAMILIES There are families in Renton experiencing significant economic hardship who are unable to meet their most basic needs, including adequate shelter and having enough to eat. While this is a small percentage of all families, the needs are very urgent. While immediate services are needed for those who are in crisis, preventative support such as increased economic opportunity and education on managing household expenses is also needed. HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT PAGE 43 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Priority areas of focus for human services include:  Improved access to quality food;  Day and night shelters that offer a range of services for homeless families. HEALTH & WELLNESS Health and wellness is fundamental to quality of life. The Community Needs Assessment documented a dominant theme in human services stakeholder feedback that there are structural and personal obstacles that many individuals and families face to adequate healthcare. Areas of focus for human services include:  Better access to health and dental care for low- income residents;  Early childhood screenings and parenting support; and  More mental health and substance abuse services  More mental health and substance abuse services. NEIGHBORHOOD OPPORTUNITY Neighborhood opportunity reflects a person or family’s ability to access the services and amenities they need to lead socially and economically successful lives. In almost all cities, access to services and amenities is driven by the attainability of housing options in different neighborhoods, and as a result is geographically unequally distributed. This results in uneven access and functional barriers to services and opportunity. In addition to mobility addressed elsewhere in this Element, the following needs were highlighted in the Community Needs Assessment:  More high quality out-of-school time opportunities for youth, including programs and activities that engage youth to learn and practice social skills that lead to life and academic success; and  Increased access to affordable, quality, early childhood education. GOAL HHS-E: Actively participate in local, regional, state, and federal programs to address human services needs in the region and in Renton. POLICIES Policy HHS-17: Build on collaborative relationships; partner with local agencies and school districts to increase affordability and availability of early- childhood education, after-school youth engagement opportunities, and preparation for college/career. Policy HHS-18: Work with community partners to support people who face barriers to getting and staying employed, need job training, and who desire career advancement. Policy HHS-19: Promote healthcare equity and increase the availability of: medical and dental care, mental health and substance abuse services, early childhood screenings, and parenting support. Policy HHS-20: Strengthen collaborative partnerships between cities and regional, state, federal, and public and private sector providers of human services. City of Renton Community Garden, Credit: City of Renton HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 44 GOAL HHS-F: Enable individuals to meet their basic physical, economic, and social needs by promoting an effective and equitable human services delivery system that enhances their quality of life. POLICIES Policy HHS-21: Promote an individualized approach for vulnerable people by utilizing community services and transportation assistance. Policy HHS-22: Develop incentives to encourage food outlets to locate in Renton so that healthy foods are accessible, with an emphasis on school- age children. MOBILITY Transportation and mobility is an important component of all forms of opportunity. Lack of mobility creates obstacles for individuals and families to access the services they need. Renton, like many suburban cities, has a need for improved mobility and transportation options. For a family with very little income, lack of mobility and transportation services can limit a household’s ability to obtain basic goods and services, receive medical or dental care, commute to a job, and maintain employment. Current barriers to mobility in Renton include:  Inequitable access to public transit, with limited options for those who do not live Downtown, do not commute during peak travel times, or who need to travel within Renton (instead of between downtowns). This negatively impacts mobility for all residents, but is especially problematic for individuals and families who do not have access to a vehicle. The most vulnerable groups include low-income households who are unable to afford vehicle ownership, as well as, residents who are unable to drive.  Elderly and disabled residents with personal mobility issues also face the challenge of not being able to walk longer distances to and from a bus stop, further limiting their opportunities to use public transit.  Many pedestrian and bike routes connecting Renton’s residential areas with basic services are unsafe, which further limits transportation alternatives for households without a vehicle. Renton Transit Center, Credit: City of Renton King County Van Share, Credit: City of Renton HOUSING AND HUMAN SERVICES ELEMENT PAGE 45 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN GOAL HHS-G: Make land use decisions that provide increased options for healthy living in Renton. POLICY Policy HHS-23: Support the link between land development and physical activity by increasing options for transit use, walking, and bicycling, such as providing physical connections between residential areas and schools and/or commercial development. GOAL HHS-H: Actively work to increase the availability of healthy, equitable, and affordable housing for people in all demographic groups and at all income levels and promote a balance of housing and the amenities needed by residents at a neighborhood level, such as childcare, availability of fresh food, recreational opportunities, and medical care. POLICY Policy HHS-24: Support the development of housing and neighborhoods that are sited, designed, constructed, and maintained to promote environmentally healthy and safe living. “Environmental heath,” in this context, includes factors of the natural and built environment that affect human health, such as physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person. GOAL HHS-I: Improve mobility and transportation options for Renton residents to increase access to jobs and services, reduce household costs, and maintain a sustainable lifestyle. POLICIES Policy HHS-25: Plan and construct a transportation system that links residents to services, such as childcare, healthcare, and places of work. Transportation systems should include opportunities for various modes of transportation, including automobiles, public transit, walking, and cycling. Policy HHS-26: Encourage construction of universally designed units, supportive housing arrangements, and transitional housing in close proximity (within one-quarter mile) to public transportation. Sunset Terrace Redevelopment Concept, Credit: Mithun The Bristol at Southport, Credit: City of Renton DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Renton Community Needs Assessment for Human Services and Housing ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 46 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELEMENT - Creating economic opportunity that keeps Renton as a city of prosperity - DISCUSSION Renton's economic development promotes it as the progressive, opportunity-rich city in the Puget Sound region. Renton’s economic development policies encourage collaboration between the public and private sectors to ensure the long-term economic health of Renton and its residents. A healthy economy provides jobs and opportunity and helps pay for vital public services such as education, parks, transportation, police and fire protection, and human services. The policies encourage a mix of high-tech, creative jobs, as well as retail, service, and office uses that will result in a diversified employment base. The policies encourage high quality development necessary to sustain a high standard of living in Renton. GOALS ED-A: Promote and maintain diversified economic growth by utilizing resources and amenities to stimulate economic development while protecting quality of life through environmental sustainability and increased employment opportunities to ensure competitiveness in the market. ED-B: Recruit and retain businesses to ensure a dynamic, diversified employment base. Nurture entrepreneurship while fostering successful partnerships with business and community leaders. Invest in and grow workforce training and retraining opportunities to support targeted local industry clusters. Build a diverse economic industry base in areas of aerospace, healthcare, and creative industries (high-tech, design, software, local artisan, gaming, and architecture, etc.). ED-C: Leverage public and private resources to focus development on targeted economic centers, in addition to industry clusters, and pursue transportation and other regional improvements and services that support and improve quality of life. Foster commercial and residential development, and cultivate optimism and focus towards redevelopment of public and private spaces throughout the City. POLICIES Policy ED-1: Develop incentives for businesses to locate, stay, and expand within the City; provide incentives for economic development within the City’s Growth Center, neighborhood business districts, and commercial corridors. Policy ED-2: Promote targeted local and regional industry cluster development: meet with top employers and key organizations to identify and discuss their future needs to determine how the City can assist them in being successful in expanding in Renton. Policy ED-3: Foster communications with, and support for key local and regional economic foundations. Support partnerships between businesses, government, schools, and research institutions to implement economic development policies and promote workforce development programs. Policy ED-4: Develop a retail recruitment strategy with an emphasis on business district development. Policy ED-5: Implement strategies to foster and expand knowledge-based businesses, high profile companies, and locally owned startups. Policy ED-6: Ensure Renton’s Economic Development Element is consistent with countywide economic policies and strategies in accordance with relevant Countywide Planning Policies. Policy ED-7: Provide transparency, efficiency, and uniformity of City regulations, policies, and procedures. Allocate sufficient resources to process development projects quickly and professionally. Policy ED-8: Define and develop Renton’s unique cultural, historic, recreational, educational, and “Jobs, businesses, and transportation, are interdependent parts of strong local economies. By planning and building smarter, we can make families, communities and entire regions more prosperous” (Smart Growth America). ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ELEMENT PAGE 47 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN environmental assets as important marketing and image-building tools of the City’s business districts and neighborhoods. Policy ED-9: Support Downtown Renton redevelopment by engaging Downtown stakeholders and business community members with efforts to implement the City Council’s priorities for the City Center Community Plan. First Savings Bank, Credit: City of Renton Policy ED-10: Promote incentives for multifamily development in Downtown. Work with prospective single-family and multifamily developers to facilitate new residential development with a diversity of housing types and price ranges to meet the needs of Renton citizens. Policy ED-11: Encourage growth that balances employment and housing opportunities within designated urban centers by promoting investment in mixed-use centers with compact urban development, specifically advocating for redevelopment and quality infill design that maximizes allowable density. Policy ED-12: Facilitate the Sunset Area Community Revitalization; engage with Renton Housing Authority and prospective developers to identify additional opportunities for the City to successfully leverage capital investment in the Sunset Area. Policy ED-13: Foster economic and employment growth by encouraging local investment, planning, and financial policies that advance the development of commercial, manufacturing, and industrial development centers. Policy ED-14: Encourage investments that address future needs; focus investment in infrastructure and services in designated centers that align with the City’s projected population, housing, and job growth targets. Policy ED-15: Implement the Renton Airport Compatible Land Use Program when guiding development within the Airport Influence Area. Policy ED-16: Further the provisions of Creating Renton’s Clean Economy. Attract low-carbon and clean-energy sectors and promote green job development. Encourage economic activity that is highly resource-efficient and minimizes the generation of waste and pollution. Policy ED-17: Promote the efficient use of services and resources, including conserving water and energy, reducing waste, and protecting resource lands. Work cooperatively with local businesses to help protect the natural environment in a manner that is efficient and predictable. Policy ED-18: Provide peripheral support to community services to facilitate the growth of a regional food economy through the development and expansion of farmers’ markets, food co-ops, and community supported agriculture programs. Policy ED-19: Support collaboration with the Renton Housing Authority to encourage economic development strategies that address disparities in income and employment opportunities for economically disadvantaged populations, including minorities and women. Policy ED-20: Develop and promote local arts and culture programs, particularly by supporting the Renton Municipal Arts Commission. Encourage investments in creative industries and centers, bolster earned income for local attractions, and generate new tax revenues by attracting cultural tourists to the City while expanding cultural experiences for residents. Policy ED-21: Identify and encourage the preservation of lands, sites, and structures that have historical, cultural, and/or archaeological significance. DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Clean Economy Strategy  Renton Airport Compatible Land Use Program PARKS, RECREATION, NATURAL AREAS, AND TRAILS ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 48 PARKS, RECREATION, NATURAL AREAS, AND TRAILS ELEMENT - Creating and preserving Renton’s parks, recreation, natural areas, and trails - DISCUSSION Parks, trails, and natural areas create opportunities to recreate, connect people and build community, protect natural resources, and offer places for quiet reflection to experience nature. The City of Renton strives to provide access to parks, indoor and outdoor recreation facilities, natural areas and trails, and focuses on developing a unique and varied system. Renton’s natural areas are a critical link between people and their environment, build stewardship ethic and attract residents and businesses. Planning for natural areas provides a balance between public access to natural areas with the need to protect and conserve natural resources. Alternatively, Renton’s developed parks offer a wide range of indoor and outdoor recreation facilities supporting the vision for healthy and active lifestyles. Recreation programing connects people, builds community, fosters volunteerism and creates long term partnerships, especially with other major community resources. The goals and policies in the Comprehensive Plan are intended to illustrate the desired future for the community, while giving the Community Services Department the flexibility it needs to achieve these goals. Park trail, Credit: City of Renton GOALS P-A: Parks, Recreation, and Natural Resource Areas provide the opportunity for the community to connect to, participate in, support and encourage a healthy environment and active lifestyle. P-B: Support a city where residents and visitors can recreate and exercise, contributing to a healthy lifestyle and where using an integrated trails/road network becomes a realistic transportation alternative. POLICIES Policy P-1: Expand parks and recreational opportunities in new and existing locations with an identified need, in order to fill gaps in service and keep pace with future growth. Policy P-2: Create a connected system of parks corridors, trails, and natural areas that provide nearby and accessible opportunities for recreation and non-motorized transportation. Playground at Gene Coulon Memorial Park, Credit: City of Renton “City parks offer children the daily benefits of direct experience with nature – the motivation to explore, discover and learn about their world and to engage in health-promoting, physical activity” (City Parks Forum, American Planning Association). PARKS, RECREATION, NATURAL AREAS, AND TRAILS ELEMENT PAGE 49 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Boats docked at Gene Coulon Memorial Park, Credit: City of Renton Policy P-3: Cultivate strong, positive partnerships at the local and regional level with public, private, and non-profit organizations in order to unite community efforts to develop and sustain the park system. Policy P-4: Create a distinct identity that celebrates the natural, historic, and diverse character of the community through park and facility design, recreation programming, interpretation, and education. Policy P-5: Ensure long-term economic and environmental sustainability in system planning, design, operation, maintenance, and decision making. The Piazza, Credit: City of Renton Policy P-6: Promote healthy and active lifestyles and build community through programs that are inclusive, fun, and accessible for a diverse population. Policy P-7: Protect, conserve, and enhance the area’s diverse natural resources for the long-term health of ecosystems, and for the benefit and enjoyment of future generations. Water feature at Maplewood Golf Course, Credit: City of Renton DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE The Washington Recreation and Conservation Office requires the City to adopt a specific parks plan every six years to maintain eligibility for State and Federal grant funding. The following plans have been adopted:  Parks, Recreation and Natural Areas Plan  Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan COMMUNITY PLANNING ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 50 COMMUNINTY PLANNING ELEMENT - Engaging citizens at the local level - DISCUSSION Through the Community Planning process, communities decide what they want to nurture and what they want to change at a local level and set the vision and goals for the community. Community Plans are a unifying force that identify local characteristics and addresses local issues that are not in the Comprehensive Plan, such as patterns of land use, design, traffic circulation, and services. Community Plans result from a partnership between the City and community residents, businesses, and other stakeholders in the Planning Area. The purpose of Community Planning is to enhance that which the community values, as well as to identify and assure sensible growth and development, consistent with the Comprehensive Plan. Community Plans align the provision of City services and the allocation of infrastructure investments with community goals and priorities. GOALS CP-A: Engage the public with the opportunity to participate in a partnership with the City shaping the future of their community. CP-B: Through Community Planning, improve the livability of Renton’s neighborhoods, preserve unique identities, foster and enhance community character, and prioritize the provision of City services and investment in infrastructure. CP-C: Ensure Community Plans implement the goals of the City and the Growth Management Act and that there is consistency between the Comprehensive Plan, Community Plans, and Development Regulations. POLICIES Policy CP-1: Develop Plans in conjunction with the people of the Community; this includes coordinating with recognized neighborhood associations, business associations, and other community groups, as well as, business owners and community residents. Policy CP-2: Engage in consistent and ongoing public participation because it is essential in developing relevant plans and in implementing plans successfully. Policy CP-3: Community Plans establish the vision of the Community and identify features and characteristics to retain, develop, preserve, enhance, or correct. They also seek to identify local centers where housing, employment, and services are accommodated in a compact urban form. Finally, plans seek to identify opportunities to enhance community character and mix of uses through infill development, redevelopment, and reuse of existing buildings. Renton Community Members, Credit: City of Renton Policy CP-4: Develop plans that supplement and refine the goals, objectives, and policies of the Comprehensive Plan within the Community Planning Areas and that make recommendations on land use designations, design standards, and capital improvements within the Community Planning Areas. The City of Renton has 10 Community Planning Areas. The City began community planning in 2010 and is working towards adopting plans for each of the Planning Areas COMMUNITY PLANNING ELEMENT PAGE 51 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Policy CP-5: Recognize that unique districts and neighborhoods exist within Community Planning Areas and, if appropriate, include provisions for subarea or neighborhood plans for these areas in a Community Plan. Policy CP-6: Implement Community Plans in concert with Community Plan Advisory Boards who make recommendations based on the adopted vision and goals of their Community Plan regarding the provision of City services and infrastructure investment. COMMUNITY PLANNING AREAS MAP Community Planning Areas share community identity, schools, existing infrastructure, physical features, service areas, districts, access to and from the community, and/or data collection units. Based on those traits, at a Neighborhood Program Neighbor to Neighbor meeting, residents began the process of identifying Community Planning Areas. City elected officials and staff refined the drafted maps and following review of Planning Commission and City Council the formal Community Planning Areas map was adopted. The Map shows ten Community Planning Areas in the City of Renton and its Potential Annexation Area. Boundaries are not final until the adoption of the Community Plan. ADOPTED COMMUNITY PLANS Over time, community plans will be developed for each of the ten, Community Planning Areas. Copies of all adopted Community Plans can be obtained by contacting the Planning Division of the Department of Community and Economic Development. The following plans have been adopted:  The City Center Community Plan  The Benson Hill Community Plan Figure CP-1: Community Planning Areas Map UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 52 UTILITIES ELEMENT - Ensuring reliable, cost-effective, and essential utilities for the community – DISCUSSION The Utilities Element guides future utility service within Renton’s planning area and ensures that adequate utility services will be available to support existing and future development in the City. The goals and policies included in the Utilities Element are designed to promote efficient, cost-effective utility service while meeting community needs and protecting both existing neighborhoods and the natural environment. The City of Renton provides water, wastewater, and surface water utility services to Renton residents, as well as some areas outside City boundaries. The City contracts with a private hauler for solid waste and recycling collection and coordinates with King County for use of regional solid waste disposal facilities. Several non-City utility providers also operate within Renton, providing water and sewer service for developed areas that have been annexed. Other non-City utilities include electric, natural gas, and telecommunications (cable television, internet, wired telephone, and cellular telephone/data services). Under the Growth Management Act, planned land use patterns and growth must be supported by adequate levels of utility service. The Utilities Element must therefore ensure that adequate levels of utility service are available to serve the levels of growth that are discussed in the Land Use Element. Functional plans for each utility system must also accommodate projected growth in their respective service areas, based on these adopted growth allocations. A detailed discussion of City utility system capacity and the City’s adopted growth allocations is contained in Appendix C: Land Use Assumptions and Utility Plans, which is hereby adopted by reference. The relationship of the Land Use Element, Utilities Element, and City utility functional plans is shown in Figure U-1. Major challenges related to the provision of utility services include the following:  Recent annexations have created large areas of the City, mostly in southeastern Renton, where water and/or sewer service is provided by non- City providers.  Much of the City’s existing wastewater infrastructure is approaching the end of its useful life and will require replacement in the near future.  New requirements for implementation of Low Impact Development (LID) are included in the NPDES Phase II Municipal Stormwater Permit for Western Washington, issued by the Department of Ecology in 2012. These requirements may affect development patterns in Renton and may result in new methods for handling stormwater runoff. Increased use of on-site infiltration may affect aquifer recharge and groundwater quality. Figure U-1: Utilities Planning Relationships UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 53 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN GOALS U-A: Provide an adequate level of public utilities consistent with land use, protection of the environment, and annexation goals and policies. U-B: Ensure the long-term protection of the quality and quantity of the groundwater resources of the City of Renton in order to maintain a safe and adequate potable water supply for the City. POLICIES Policy U-1: All utility services and systems should be consistent with the growth projections and development concepts established in this Comprehensive Plan. Policy U-2: Protect the health and safety of Renton citizens from environmental hazards associated with utility systems through the proper design and siting of utility facilities. Policy U-3: Promote co-location of new utility infrastructure within rights-of-way and utility corridors, and coordinate construction and replacement of utility systems with other public infrastructure projects to minimize construction- related costs and disruptions. Policy U-4: Coordinate with adjacent jurisdictions and non-City service providers within Renton to cooperatively plan for regional growth. Policy U-5: Approval of development should be conditioned on the availability of adequate utility service and should not result in decreases in local levels of service for existing development. All new development should be required to pay their fair share of construction costs for necessary utility system improvements. Policy U-6: Encourage the use of water and energy conservation technologies to provide utility services in an environmentally responsible manner. Policy U-7: Non-City utility systems should be constructed in a manner that minimizes negative impacts to existing development and should not interfere with operation of City utilities. City development regulations should otherwise not impair the ability of utility providers to adequately serve customers. Policy U-8: Encourage the use of new technology to increase the quality and efficiency of utility service and utility system management. CITY-MANAGED UTILITIES WATER The Renton Water System is a publicly owned water system operated by the City of Renton as a self- supporting enterprise utility. Operations and system planning are guided by the City of Renton Comprehensive Water System Plan (2012) and the provisions of Chapter 246-290 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Group A Public Water Supplies. The City provides water service to an area of approximately 16 square miles, generally coincident with City boundaries, though portions of northeastern and southeastern Renton (East Renton Plateau and Benson Hill) are currently served by non-city water providers. Figure UT-2 shows the boundaries of the City’s water service area and those of adjacent water purveyors. The master planning of utilities is necessary for cost-effective development and maintenance of essential public and private utility systems. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 54 WATER SUPPLY AND SYSTEM CAPACITY The City’s water supply is from a combination of groundwater wells, Springbrook Watershed, and a partial contract with Seattle Public Utilities (SPU) for Boeing facilities. City water sources represent 95% of the City’s supplies and the SPU agreement represents 5%. There are also emergency interties with adjacent cities. The current capacity of the City’s active supply wells is 19,450 gallons per minute (gpm), or 27.29 million gallons per day (mgd). Emergency wells and interties with adjacent water systems can provide an additional 14,695 gpm (21.16 mgd). The City also maintains two interties with Seattle Public Utilities dedicated to supplying water to the Boeing’s Renton Plant and an intertie with the Skyway Water and Sewer District, which purchases water wholesale from Renton. The City’s water system also includes a network of ten storage reservoirs, consisting of underground concrete and steel tanks, above-ground steel tanks, elevated steel tanks and standpipes, and covered concrete- lined surface reservoirs. The overall gross storage volume available is approximately 22.88 million gallons. Detailed descriptions of the City’s supply wells, storage reservoirs, and all interties with other systems are included in the Comprehensive Water System Plan. GOALS U-C: Provide and maintain a consistent, ample, and safe water supply for the City and future service areas through system planning consistent with anticipated development. U-D: Protect water supply resources and ensure that groundwater quality is not negatively impacted by future development. POLICIES WATER SUPPLY AND SERVICE Policy U-9: Provide and maintain water supply, infrastructure, and service consistent with projected population growth within the City’s service area, as established in the Land Use Element and the Water System Comprehensive Plan. Figure U-2: City of Renton Water System Service Area UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 55 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Policy U-10: Extend water service within the City’s water service area in an orderly manner to serve anticipated growth and development in accordance with the Land Use Element. Policy U-11: Ensure adequate water supply to meet both average and maximum daily demand. Employ monitoring of water supply sources and withdrawal limits as necessary to comply with State issued water rights certificates and permits. Policy U-12: Maintain and upgrade the water system to deliver adequate water flow and storage for fire protection to all customers and facilities connected to the City water system. Policy U-13: Continue maintenance and upgrades to the water system to ensure water quality that meets or exceeds all health requirements. Policy U-14: Coordinate with non-City water providers operating within Renton and neighboring jurisdictions where the City has extended water service to accommodate road construction and other public works projects. Policy U-15: Practice and support water resource management that achieves a maximum net benefit for all citizens and promotes enhancement of the natural environment. Policy U-16: Actively promote voluntary water conservation and coordinate with Seattle Public Utilities to meet regional water conservation goals. Policy U-17: Implement the City’s Wellhead Protection Plan and Aquifer Protection Program to preserve groundwater quality. Policy U-18: Emphasize the use of stormwater management techniques that maximize water quality and infiltration where appropriate, which will not endanger groundwater quality. Policy U-19: Promote the use of interlocal agreements with other agencies to restrict land use in sensitive aquifer recharge areas to minimize possible sources of pollution and the potential for erosion, and to increase infiltration. WASTEWATER The Renton sewer system is a publicly owned wastewater system operated by the City of Renton as a self-supporting enterprise utility. Operations and system planning are guided by the City of Renton Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan. The City collects wastewater from a service area of approximately 21.68 square miles, with approximately 3.91 square miles located outside City limits. Primary collection of wastewater is achieved through gravity sewer lines, though the City maintains a series of lift stations and force mains to overcome changes in topography. Collected wastewater is discharged to King County wastewater facilities, where it is ultimately transmitted to the King County South Treatment Reclamation Plant for treatment. Some portions of the City are not served by municipal sewer, and are instead connected to non- City sewer districts. Figure U-3 shows the boundaries of the City’s sewer service area and those of adjacent service providers. SYSTEM CAPACITY Sewer system capacity is dependent on a number of factors, including adequately sized pipes to collect wastewater, properly sloped pipes to allow adequate gravity flow, the capacity of downstream treatment facilities to accept wastewater, and the level of inflow and infiltration into the system. An updated hydraulic computer model of the City’s wastewater system was completed in 2006, and the City uses this model to evaluate the effects of changes to the sewer system resulting from new development, changes to the existing system, or future population growth. Hydraulic modeling does not show any current capacity deficiencies in the City’s system, but capacity is projected to become an issue at various locations as the City nears the “ultimate build-out” year of 2030. King County’s handling of wastewater flows from the Renton system also contributes to potential capacity issues. During peak flows, King County interceptor lines are sometimes used to store wastewater while the South Treatment Plant is UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 56 temporarily over-capacity or when flows to the treatment plant need to be limited for other reasons. When these interceptor lines cannot flow freely, they may cause back-ups in connected systems, including Renton. During such conditions, the City system has experienced sewer surcharging in low-lying areas, resulting in wastewater overflowing through manhole covers and side sewer connections. INFRASTRUCTURE REPLACEMENT Much of Renton’s existing sewer infrastructure dates from the 1940’s and 1950’s, installed as part of federal programs to provide housing for workers at the Renton Boeing Plant. Sewer infrastructure in the Central Business District is even older, much of it dating from the 1920’s and 1930’s. These facilities have reached the end of their useful life and many are in need of replacement. The Long- Range Wastewater Management Plan establishes a list of recommended capital improvements to the sewer system, ranked in priority order, which includes extensive replacement of wastewater collection pipes, elimination or replacement of lift stations, and rehabilitation or improvement of aging interceptor lines. A complete list of proposed capital improvements is included in Chapter 6 of the Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan. Figure U-3: City of Renton Sewer System Service Area UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 57 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN INFLOW/INFILTRATION MANAGEMENT Inflow results from storm water flowing into the sewer system, either during a storm incident or from an illegal connection. Infiltration results from groundwater entering the sewer system through leaking pipe joints, cracks, or other defects in the sewer system. While some level of Inflow/Infiltration (I/I) is unavoidable, excessive volumes can place a strain on the system, taking up valuable conveyance and treatment capacity with relatively clean water. The City participates in King County’s regional I/I management program by implementing I/I reduction techniques, such as minimizing vent holes, sealing manholes in wet areas, and conducting video inspections of sewer lines to check for leaks. Older sewer infrastructure is more susceptible to I/I, and the City has identified priority areas for investigation and replacement. A complete discussion of the City’s I/I monitoring efforts is contained in the Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan. GOALS U-E: Ensure the availability of an adequate level of sanitary sewer service through system planning that is consistent with land use, environmental protection, and annexation goals and policies. U-F: Provide and maintain a sanitary sewer collection system that is consistent with the public health and water quality objectives of the State of Washington and the City of Renton. POLICIES SEWER SERVICE CAPACITY AND AVAILABILITY Policy U-20: Sewer facilities and services should be consistent with the growth and development concepts expressed in the Land Use Element. Extension of sewer service should be coordinated with expected growth and development. Policy U-21: All new development should be required to connect to the sanitary sewer system, except properties that have adequate soils to support on-site septic systems, are zoned for low density single family residential development, located away from environmentally sensitive areas, and outside Aquifer Protection Areas. Policy U-22: Projected sewage flows from development should be calculated based on adopted land use plans and policies. These projections should be used as a guide in developing the wastewater Capital Improvement Program (CIP). The CIP should be updated as land use plans and policies are revised. Policy U-23: Coordinate with non-City sewer providers operating within Renton and neighboring jurisdictions where the City has extended sewer service to accommodate road construction and other public works projects. The Surface Water Utility develops policies, design standards, and capital projects to maintain and restore the quality of Renton’s lakes, wetlands, streams, and rivers, improve drainage, and reduce flooding. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 58 WATER QUALITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH Policy U-24: Timely and orderly extension of the sewer system should be provided within the City’s existing and future service areas to meet public health requirements. Policy U-25: Sewer system improvements supporting areas of the City projected to experience high levels of growth should be prioritized to ensure that sewer service is concurrent with anticipated growth. Policy U-26: Protect surface and groundwater quality through coordination with King County to reduce surcharging conditions that may cause wastewater overflows. Policy U-27: Continue coordination with King County Wastewater Division regarding Inflow/Infiltration reduction initiatives, system improvements, and interconnections between City and County sewer infrastructure. SURFACE WATER THE SURFACE WATER SYSTEM Renton’s surface water system consists of natural streams, rivers, wetlands, and lakes, and constructed systems that manage drainage, provide flood protection, and water quality treatment. Surface water management is important to meet social, economic, and ecological needs including flood protection, erosion control, water supply, groundwater recharge, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES Impervious surfaces in an urban, growing community such as Renton can affect surface and groundwater quality through stormwater runoff containing pollutants from roads and parking lots and landscaping. Impervious surfaces can also decrease groundwater recharge and increase the quantity of peak flows of runoff, causing stream channel scouring, sedimentation, and loss of habitat. The existing surface water drainage system is meeting capacity requirements under normal conditions. However, in some areas of the City, the system has become inadequate to serve present needs during large, infrequent storm events. In more developed areas of the City within the Lower Cedar River and Lake Washington East Basins, problems include flooding and ponding caused by inadequately sized pipes, ditches and detention facilities. In other areas of the City, such as the Black River Basin, loss of wetlands and fish passage are concerns, as well as, development occurring within the watershed, both inside and outside the City. In areas where redevelopment is likely such as the Renton Urban Center, Sunset Area, and other centers, redeveloped properties would be required to provide water quality treatment, which could improve water quality over present conditions. Additionally, as new development and redevelopment occur, Low Impact Development (LID) practices would be implemented to conserve native soils and vegetation, protect hydrologic processes (e.g., infiltration), and reduce and treat overland stormwater flow to more closely match native forest or prairie conditions. Selected examples of LID techniques include bioretention planters, rain gardens, and permeable sidewalks. Cedar River, Credit: City of Renton UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 59 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN LID works to provide water quality treatment and reduce stormwater flow. SURFACE WATER UTILITY Renton’s Surface Water Utility manages stormwater and surface water in Renton’s city limits which has grown from about 17 square miles in the year 2000 to 24 square miles in 2013. Figure U-4 illustrates the Surface Water Utility service area and its component drainage basins. The Utility develops policies, basin plans, development design standards, and capital improvement projects in order to maintain and restore the quality of Renton’s lakes and rivers, improve drainage, and reduce flooding. The Utility coordinates with the Federal Emergency Management Agency regarding flood hazard management. The Utility also coordinates with multiple state, county, and city agencies to conduct watershed planning for the Green River/Duwamish and Cedar River/Lake Washington Watersheds. The City currently operates a storm system maintenance program that includes cleaning catch basins, pipes and other facilities, along with a street vacuum sweeping program. The maintenance programs remove sediment and pollutants from City-owned and operated storm systems and streets, which reduces flooding and non-point source pollution from being discharged into water bodies in the City. The Utility also provides public education on how homeowners and businesses can help minimize impacts to surface waters such as by using natural lawn care, and avoiding discharges or spills entering drains or waterways. As the City redevelops and annexes territory, greater demand is placed on the Utility to provide planning, regulatory oversight, capital project implementation, and maintenance services it provides today. STATE AND FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS The Utility is responsible for meeting federal and state stormwater requirements. A significant effort for the Utility is compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Stormwater Permit. This permit requires the Utility to control discharge of pollutants to protect surface water and to develop and implement a stormwater management program addressing:  Public education and outreach  Public involvement and participation  Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination (IDDE)  Controlling runoff from new development, redevelopment, and construction sites  Pollution prevention and good housekeeping for municipal operations and maintenance  Post construction stormwater management for new development & redevelopment, including LID  Monitoring  Annual reporting and record keeping of compliance with NPDES permit requirement. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 60 Figure U-4: City of Renton Surface Water Service Area and Drainage Basins AQUIFER PROTECTION COORDINATION Approximately 87 percent of Renton's water is supplied by the Cedar Valley Aquifer, with the rest coming from Springbrook Springs. As Renton's primary water source, the Cedar Valley Aquifer has been designated a "sole source" by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; no federal financial assistance can be given to a project which might contaminate the aquifer. The City has identified aquifer protection area (APA) zones. Development projects located in either Zone 1, Zone 1 Modified, or Zone 2 of the Aquifer Protection Area (APA) are required to pass additional City review to ensure the projects do not produce water quantity and/or quality impacts that may affect the aquifer. Areas of particular concern include areas subject to vehicular traffic or the storage of chemicals. In some areas, infiltration UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 61 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN systems are not allowed and could increase runoff, requiring new facilities to be larger. If the new NPDES Phase II requirements result in changes to quality or quantity of runoff and infiltration, the City’s aquifer protection regulations could require review and amendments. GOALS U-G: Provide and maintain surface water management systems to minimize impacts of land use development and storm water runoff on natural systems, fish and wildlife habitat, water supply, public health, and safety. U-H: Implement a stormwater management program that optimizes Renton's water resources and promotes low impact development that combines engineering with the preservation of natural systems. U-I: Preserve and protect fish and wildlife habitat, riparian corridors, and wetlands for overall surface water system functioning. U-J: Protect the natural functions of 100 year floodplains and floodways to prevent threats to life, property, and public safety associated with flooding hazards. U-K: Increase the participation by the City of Renton in resolution of regional surface water and ecological issues that may impact Renton residents. POLICIES STORMWATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Policy U-28: Design storm drainage systems to minimize potential erosion and sedimentation problems, and to preserve natural drainage, watercourses, and ravines. Policy U-29: Control runoff from new development, redevelopment, and construction sites through the implementation of development design standards and construction techniques that promote the use of best management practices to maintain and improve storm water quality and manage stormwater flow. Waterway, Credit: City of Renton Policy U-30: Provide incentives and regulations appropriate to an urban environment that reduce impervious surfaces, promote natural and distributed stormwater techniques, and incorporate native and naturalized vegetation. Policy U-31: Maintain, protect, and enhance natural drainage systems and natural surface water storage sites to protect water quality, reduce public costs, and prevent environmental degradation. Policy U-32: Work to protect surface and groundwater resources from pollutants entering the storm drainage system. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 62 NATURAL SYSTEM PROTECTION Policy U-33: Manage water resources for multiple uses including recreation, fish and wildlife, flood protection, erosion control, water supply, recreation, and open space. Policy U-34: Through public programs and new development, naturalize degraded channels, streams, creeks, and banks. Policy U-35: Prohibit filling, culverting, and piping of natural watercourses that are classified as streams, except as needed for a public works project where no other option is feasible and mitigation is provided to replace lost functions. Policy U-36: Where feasible, promote the return of precipitation to the soil at natural rates near where it falls through development design that minimizes impermeable surface coverage and maximizes infiltration, through the exposure of natural surfaces, tree retention, and the use of LID techniques(such as flow dispersion, bioretention facilities, and permeable pavements). Policy U-37: Preserve and protect wetlands for overall system functioning. Policy U-38: Protect buffers along wetlands, streams, rivers, and other water bodies to facilitate infiltration and maintain stable water temperatures, provide for biological diversity, reduce amount and velocity of run-off, and provide for fish and wildlife habitat. Policy U-39: Ensure water level fluctuations in wetlands used as part of storm water detention systems are similar to the fluctuations under natural conditions. The utilization, maintenance, and storage capacity provided in existing wetlands should be encouraged. Policy U-40: Minimize erosion and sedimentation by requiring appropriate construction techniques and resource practices. Policy U-41: Limit discharges of pollutants such as chemicals, insecticides, pesticides, and other hazardous wastes to surface waters. Policy U-42: Reduce the impact of new development on the environment by encouraging sustainable design techniques in public and private development, through LID and other sustainable development methods. Herons by the shore, Credit: City of Renton PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY Policy U-43: Prohibit permanent structures from developing in floodways and manage development within the 100 year floodplain. Where development is permitted in the floodplain, ensure compliance with FEMA floodplain development regulations and the National Marine Fisheries Biological Opinion regarding the National Flood Insurance Program. Policy U-44: Emphasize non-structural methods in planning for flood prevention and damages reduction. Policy U-45: Continue to maintain levees and floodwalls and perform maintenance dredging of the Army Corps of Engineers constructed Lower Cedar River Flood Hazard Reduction Project to protect the Renton Municipal Airport, other essential public facilities, industrial, and residential areas in the urban center, educational and recreation investments, and other facilities. UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 63 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN REGIONAL COORDINATION Policy U-46: Actively participate in regional efforts to improve fish habitat and water quality that also contribute to the recovery of Endangered Species Act listed salmon in WRIA 8 and WRIA 9, which include May Creek, Cedar River, and Green River Basins. Policy U-47: Actively participate in the King County Flood Control District regional efforts to implement flood hazard reduction projects and programs on the major river basins in King County, including the Green River and Cedar River basins. Policy U-48: Coordinate with adjacent cities, counties, state, and federal agencies in the development and implementation of the NPDES Phase II Stormwater Permit, flood hazard management plans, and storm and surface water management programs. UTILITY MANAGEMENT Policy U-49: Provide high quality surface water utility services. Continue to develop policies, design standards, basin plans, and capital projects to maintain and restore the quality of Renton’s waterbodies, improve drainage, protect fish and wildlife habitat, and reduce flood hazards to protect people and property. Policy U-50: Protect, restore, and enhance environmental quality through land use plans, surface water management programs, park master programs, urban forestry programs, transportation planning, development review, and incentive programs; work with citizens, land owners, and public and private agencies. Policy U-51: Establish regulatory standards for sustainably developed public and private projects, to include standards for site design and layout, construction, and on-going maintenance and operation. Policy U-52: Continue to assume maintenance of stormwater facilities in subdivisions that manage runoff from public streets. Policy U-53: Continue to implement a program to detect and remove illicit connections and contaminated discharges. Policy U-54: Continue to implement public education and outreach activities to inform residents, businesses, and developers about ways they can prevent stormwater pollution. SOLID WASTE While solid waste collection is managed by the City, Renton maintains an interlocal agreement with King County for disposal of collected solid waste. This interlocal agreement also authorizes King County to include Renton in its Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan. Renton’s Solid Waste Utility administers the City’s solid waste, recycling, and yard/food waste collection for all residents and businesses through a contract with Republic Services, Inc. The City’s Solid Waste Utility also develops and manages Renton’s Recycling Program, waste reduction, hazardous waste education, and special collection events. COLLECTION PROCESS AND SOLID WASTE FACILITIES Solid waste and recycling are collected every other week, while food/yard waste is collected weekly. The majority of collected waste is brought to King County’s Renton Transfer Station located in the Renton Highlands. Residents of unincorporated King County, as well as City residents are also allowed to use this facility for self-haul disposal. Also within city limits is the Black River Construction, Demolition, and Land Clearing Transfer Station (CDL), overseen by Republic Services, Inc. Under a contract with King County, this facility accepts construction, demolition, and land clearing waste from waste hauling companies and private residents. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 64 Waste Management trucks, Credit: Waste Management, Inc. Following the city-administered collection process, all solid waste produced in Renton is brought to the King County Solid Waste Division’s Cedar Hills Regional Landfill, located southeast of Renton. All recyclables collected from single-family, duplex, and multi-family residents are brought to a recycling center while all food/yard waste from single-family and duplex residents is taken to Cedar Grove Recycling in Maple Valley. Cedar Hills Regional Landfill, Credit: Parametrix, Inc. ESTIMATED CAPACITY OF FACILITIES As of 2012, the remaining airspace capacity (with anticipated settling) at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill is 9 million cubic yards. However, an additional waste disposal area that is currently in planning will add another 8.6 million cubic yards by 2017, bringing the total estimated airspace capacity to 17.7 million cubic yards. Under current planning assumptions, the landfill has a remaining operating life of nearly 15 years. The Cedar Grove Recycling Center has a yearly capacity of 195,000 tons of organic material. At this time, the capacities of the Renton Transfer Station, the Cedar Hills Landfill, the Cascade Recycling Center, and Cedar Grove Recycling are sufficient to meet the City’s needs. KING COUNTY SOLID WASTE DIVISION The King County Solid Waste Division serves unincorporated King County and 37 of the 39 cities in the County, including Renton. It manages a complex network of collections, transportation, and processing for garbage, recyclables, organics, and construction and demolition debris. The services and infrastructure of the public and private sectors are included in the County’s integrated network to establish long-term capacity for the management of solid waste in the County. GOAL U-L: Provide a responsible, comprehensive solid waste management program that provides cost- effective, environmentally sensitive service to the community. POLICIES Policy U-55: Actively promote recycling, as well as overall reduction of both the residential and commercial solid waste streams through public education programs and incentive programs. Policy U-56: Work closely with King County Solid Waste Division to plan for regional solid waste collection and disposal, including siting of facilities. Policy U-57: Coordinate with King County’s Local Hazardous Waste Management Program to provide opportunities for residents to dispose of commercial and household hazardous materials in a safe, environmentally sound manner. Policy U-58: Administer the City’s contracts with private waste haulers to ensure capacity for collection of solid waste, recycling, and food waste that is adequate to serve both existing and future population and that solid waste is handled in a manner that minimizes the potential for land, air, and water contamination. NON-CITY MANAGED UTILITIES Non-City managed utilities operating within Renton conduct their own planning processes and maintain their own systems with limited involvement from the City, and expansion of these systems is often driven by consumer demand and not solely on regional growth forecasts, though those are UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 65 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN considered. An overview of the major non-City utility providers offering service within Renton is provided in this section, as well as policies to ensure that Renton is aware of non-City utility upgrades and utility providers are aware of City needs. WATER While the majority of Renton is served by the City’s publicly owned water system, portions of northeastern and southeastern Renton (East Renton Plateau and Benson Hill) are currently served by various non-City water providers; the two largest are Soos Creek Water & Sewer and King County Water District #90. SOOS CREEK WATER & SEWER Soos Creek is a municipal corporation of King County that operates across multiple incorporated cities and unincorporated King County. Its retail water service area covers approximately 16 square miles (with the majority located within the Cities of Renton and Kent) and serves more than 23,400 equivalent residential units (ERUs). While only one pump station and one reservoir are located within Renton city limits, City residents are served by the broader system that utilizes the District’s entire infrastructure. In 1997, the City of Renton and Soos Creek signed an interlocal agreement for the establishment of water and sewer service area boundaries. An addendum to the agreement occurred in 2004 that included a transfer of facilities and a re-establishment of service boundaries. SUPPLY, SYSTEM CAPACITY, AND PROJECTED DEMAND Soos Creek’s water supply is provided exclusively by Seattle Public Utilities (SPU), with flow occurring from four locations. The current contract with SPU guarantees a total of 7,000 gallons per minute, which is less than the current projected maximum daily demand (MDD) of 7,500 gallons per minute and the projected MDD of 9,458 gallons per minute in 20 years. Increased water supply could become available in the future if the District revises its contract with Seattle Public Utilities. PLANNED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS The District’s capital facility plan identifies capital improvements to be built over the next 20 years, including short and long term projects aimed at improving the District’s existing system to meet its policies and criteria and respond to projected growth. The types of projects planned include: supply and source projects, pressure zone projects, storage facility projects, intertie projects, and distribution and transmission projects. KING COUNTY WATER DISTRICT #90 King County Water District #90 is a special purpose district located in the Renton Highlands area of unincorporated King County, directly east of and adjacent to the City of Renton. It serves just fewer than 6,000 direct service connections in a service area of approximately 15 square miles (9,770 acres). Because it provides water service to some areas inside the City of Renton, the District maintains an interlocal agreement that details the conditions of the District’s operations, infrastructure, and service within the City. WATER SUPPLY AND SYSTEM CAPACITY Seattle Public Utility (SPU) currently supplies 70% of the District’s water. The District provides the other 30% of its water supply from a groundwater well and treatment facility, located off Jones Road, that it operates and maintains. In total, the District’s water supply capacity is 3,450 gpm. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 66 PLANNED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS The District’s Capital Improvement Plan presents recommended improvements over a 20-year period. It addresses construction of new facilities and upgrades to existing facilities to provide for projected growth. The District is planning to focus on improved system reliability through astute upsizing of critical pipes and additional looping of water mains. Another major project that will be addressed in phases is the expansion of one of the major pressure zones to address areas of low pressure and improve the utilization of the two main storage reservoirs. GOAL U-M: Ensure that water service from non-City providers is available to support development that is consistent with City land use plans and policies, as well as, the policies of the service provider. POLICIES Policy U-59: Maintain coordination with non-City water providers to ensure that they have adequate capacity to serve planned development within the City of Renton. Policy U-60: Work collaboratively with non-City water providers to identify opportunities for joint projects to minimize potential impacts to neighborhoods and the environment. Policy U-61: Coordinate with non-City water providers to ensure that all water systems operating in Renton have access to sufficient emergency water flow for fire protection. Policy U-62: Before issuing building permits to new development in areas not served by the City of Renton Water Utility, require applicants to provide a certificate of water availability stating that sufficient water supply is available to meet both regular and fire flow requirements. WASTEWATER While most of Renton is served by the City Wastewater Utility, portions of the City are served by other wastewater providers, most notably in areas of southeastern Renton annexed in 2008. The largest non-City provider of sewer service is Soos Creek Water & Sewer. Soos Creek is a municipal corporation of King County that operates across multiple incorporated cities and unincorporated King County. The district covers portions of multiple cities and provides sewer service to approximately 92,500 customers within its 35-square mile service area. Primary collection of wastewater is through gravity mains and trunks that drain to interceptors or lift stations. Wastewater leaves the District at a total of 19 locations, with three discharge connections to the City of Renton. Collected wastewater is treated at King County’s Renton treatment facility. Soos Creek Water & Sewer District's Lift Station 10B, Credit: Harbor Pacific Contractors, Inc. SYSTEM CAPACITY The District utilizes hydraulic modeling, forecasted population growth, and a range of assumptions to prepare existing, 10-year, 20-year, and ultimate build-out scenario analyses that identify potential deficiencies within the system. These analyses identified relatively few capacity deficiencies in the portion of the District’s Renton service area. Currently, capacity issues exist in two gravity lines that discharge to the City of Renton sewer system. Additional capacity issues are projected to develop in southeastern Renton as development continues. UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 67 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN CAPITAL FACILITIES PLAN Based on the system analyses described above, a range of necessary improvements have been identified to meet the District’s future sewerage needs. Improvements have been classified as either short-term (within the next 10 years) or long-term (through ultimate build-out) and fall under one of two categories: pipe replacements/upgrades or lift station replacement/upgrades. Funding has also been allocated to conduct general facilities upgrades and maintenance. GOAL U-N: Ensure that sewer service from non-City providers is available to support development that is consistent with City land use plans and policies, as well as, the policies of the service provider. POLICIES Policy U-63: Maintain coordination with non-City sewer providers to ensure that they have adequate capacity to serve planned development within the City of Renton. Policy U-64: Work collaboratively with non-City sewer providers to identify opportunities for joint projects to minimize potential impacts to neighborhoods and the environment. Policy U-65: Ensure that wastewater flows from areas served by non-City providers do not create capacity deficiencies where non-City sewer lines discharge to the City of Renton system. Coordinate with both sewer providers and City development services staff to ensure such areas have adequate sewer capacity before development is approved. Policy U-66: Before issuing building permits to new development in areas not served by the City of Renton Wastewater Utility, require applicants to provide a certificate of sewer availability stating that sufficient capacity is available to meet both regular and peak demand. ELECTRICITY Electricity is distributed in Renton by a combination of three purveyors, which are part of an integrated transmission grid that connects production and consumption locations across the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the regional administrative entity of the U.S. Department of Energy, operates major transmission lines that transmit power from generation facilities to retailers across the state, who then sell power to local customers. Most electricity customers in Renton are served by Puget Sound Energy (PSE), while Seattle City Light (SCL) provides power to the Bryn Mawr and Skyway areas, including some customers within current Renton city limits. ELECTRIC FACILITIES The electric transmission grid consists of high- voltage transmission lines (115 kilovolts (kV) or above) and distribution lines (55 kV and lower). Distribution substations transform high-voltage current into lower voltages suitable for distribution on local lines. Local transformers further reduce voltage to levels suitable for use by customers. Bonneville Power Administration Facilities BPA Transmission lines at voltages of 500 kV, 345 kV, and 230 kV enter the Renton Planning Area from the east and south, terminating at the Maple Valley Substation in southeastern Renton. The Maple Valley Substation provides power to Puget Sound Energy’s adjacent Talbot Hill Substation, which distributes electricity to local PSE customers. Bonneville power lines, Credit: The Columbian Publishing Co. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 68 Puget Sound Energy Facilities As the primary electricity retailer in Renton, PSE maintains a variety of transmission lines, distribution lines, and substations in the area for provision of power to local customers. Locally, PSE distributes power from its Talbot Hill Substation, located adjacent to BPA’s Maple Valley Substation in southeastern Renton. Seattle City Light Facilities Seattle City Light maintains distribution lines and two minor distribution substations in a small portion of the Renton Planning Area. Power is provided to these substations by Seattle’s Creston distribution substation, located outside Renton’s planning area. GROWTH AND CAPACITY As population in Renton continues to grow, demand for electricity will increase. BPA, PSE, and SCL all conduct ongoing system planning efforts to ensure adequate energy supply is available for their customers and that transmission and distribution infrastructure can accommodate anticipated demand. PSE has planned additional transmission lines and upgrades to existing infrastructure to increase system reliability and capacity in response to growth, as well as construction of a new substation. Seattle City Light has likewise planned for the replacement of existing aging infrastructure in the Skyway and Bryn Mawr areas with new, higher-voltage distribution lines. GOAL U-O: Promote the availability of safe, adequate, and efficient electrical service within the City and its planning area, consistent with the regulatory obligation of the utility to serve customers. POLICIES Policy U-67: Coordinate with local and regional electricity providers to ensure the siting and location of transmission and distribution facilities is accomplished in a manner that minimizes adverse impacts on the environment and adjacent land uses. Policy U-68: Encourage electricity purveyors to make facility improvements and additions within existing utility corridors wherever possible. Policy U-69: Require underground electricity infrastructure installation to be coordinated with the City of Renton Public Works Department to prevent cross-boring through existing water, sewer, or natural gas lines. NATURAL GAS Natural gas service in Renton is provided by Puget Sound Energy under a franchise agreement with the City. The gas distribution system consists of a network of pressurized mains and distribution lines that convey natural gas throughout PSE’s service area. PSE receives natural gas from the Northwest Pipeline Corporation, which operates large, interstate natural gas pipelines. Two pipelines cross the Renton Planning Area and terminate at the South Seattle Gate Station. PSE mains extend from the gate station, distributing the gas to pressure regulators and smaller lines, which provide natural gas to customers. GROWTH AND FACILITY CAPACITY Natural gas system capacity is primarily a function of the volume of gas flowing from the Northwest Pipeline Corporation pipelines, and demand fluctuates based on power consumption. Natural gas is used primarily as fuel for home heating, so demand is highest during winter months and peaks during extremely cold weather. PSE maintains storage tanks that provide a reserve against such periods of high demand. In the event of supply shortfalls from extreme demand, residential customers are granted first priority for service. Because it is clean-burning and less expensive than other energy sources, the popularity of natural gas has risen in recent years, and this trend is expected to continue. Population growth within PSE’s service area will also increase demand for natural gas. Puget Sound Energy conducts ongoing system planning to ensure an adequate supply is available to customers. Improvements to regional infrastructure, including the South Seattle Gate Station, and construction of additional high UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 69 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN pressure mains, have been planned. Precise timing and location of infrastructure improvements will be determined based on right-of-way permitting, environmental analysis, and coordination with the City of Renton. Natural Gas pipe replacement, Credit: PSE GOAL U-P: Promote the safe transport and delivery of natural gas and other fuels within the planning area. POLICIES Policy U-70: Coordinate with local and regional purveyors of natural gas for the siting of transmission and distribution infrastructure within the Renton Planning Area. Policy U-71: Support voluntary energy conservation and efficiency programs, including the supplementation of natural gas supplies with new technologies. Policy U-72: Allow extension of natural gas distribution infrastructure within the Renton Planning Area, provided such facilities are consistent with development assumptions in the Land Use Element of the Comprehensive Plan. Policy U-73: Require underground natural gas infrastructure installation to be coordinated with the City of Renton Public Works Department to prevent cross-boring through existing utility lines. TELEPHONE Conventional telephone service in Renton is provided by CenturyLink (formerly Qwest Communications). CenturyLink is an investor-owned corporation and one of the largest telecommunications companies in the United States, serving millions of customers nationwide. CenturyLink also provides broadband internet service and satellite television service through DirecTV. Digital phone service is also provided by Comcast in conjunction with their cable television and internet services. TELEPHONE FACILITIES Conventional telephone facilities consist of switching station, trunk lines, and distribution lines located throughout Renton. Switching stations direct calls from one line exchange to another, trunk lines connect switching stations to one another, and distribution lines provide phone connections to individual customers. GROWTH AND FACILITY CAPACITY The capacity of conventional telephone switching stations is determined by the type of switch employed. Use of modern digital switches allow for straightforward increases in switch capacity to accommodate growth. Regulations governing telecommunications service require that telephone purveyors provide adequate service on demand. CenturyLink installs new lines and upgrades facilities as required to accommodate customer demand. CELLULAR TELEPHONE AND DATA Cellular phone and data service providers are licensed by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) for a particular band of radio frequencies. Major cellular service providers operating in Renton include AT&T, Verizon Wireless, T-Mobile, and Sprint. UTILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 70 CELLULAR TELEPHONE AND DATA FACILITIES Cellular telephone systems consist of a series of wireless antennae, each located at the center of a single “cell” of the overall system. The cellular transmitters themselves are generally located where topography and features of the built environment will have the least effect on signal quality, such as existing broadcast communication towers, water towers, high-rise buildings, or vacant open land. GROWTH AND FACILITY CAPACITY The significant growth in wireless phone and data usage over the past few years is anticipated to continue, placing additional demand on existing cellular networks. The capacity of a cellular transmission cell is limited by the number of radio frequencies available for use; the carrier’s FCC license defines what frequency spectrum is allowed. To increase system capacity, carriers often install additional transmitters, thereby creating multiple smaller cells that cover less area than the original, larger cell and serve fewer customers each, increasing overall system capacity. CABLE AND SATELLITE TELEVISION Cable television service in Renton is currently provided by Comcast, and satellite television service is currently provided by DirecTV through an agreement with CenturyLink, allowing customers to bundle their phone, internet, and television services. Satellite television is also available from Dish Network. CABLE TELEVISION FACILITIES Cable television facilities include broadcast receivers, a headend, a trunk system, and a feeder system. After receiving and processing broadcast signals, the trunk and feeder system distribute television signal to individual customers. Cable trunk and feeder lines generally follow existing street rights-of-way. Satellite television facilities generally consist only of receiver dishes installed at individual customer locations, which receive signal directly from orbiting communications satellites. While uplink transmitters are necessary at the origin of the broadcast, no additional local infrastructure is needed to receive satellite television signal. Telecommunications Facility, Credit: City of Renton UTILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 71 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN GROWTH AND FACILITY CAPACITY Because Comcast currently holds the cable television franchise for the City of Renton, the company must continue to make cable television service available upon request. Comcast offers telecommunications service over a large portion of western Washington in addition to Renton and reviews population growth as part of its ongoing system planning operations. Satellite television services are provided in response to customer requests. Capacity planning occurs at a regional or national scale due to the substantial investment required to use communications satellites. INTERNET Broadband internet service is provided in Renton by a variety of private providers; the two largest are Comcast and CenturyLink, who provide internet services in addition to phone and television. Wireless internet service is also provided by Clearwire through Sprint’s network of cellular communication towers. INTERNET FACILITIES Internet service is provided via cable television infrastructure, telephone lines, or wirelessly. GROWTH AND FACILITY CAPACITY Internet service is not considered an essential public utility and is provided in response to customer requests. Individual providers conduct system planning in response to population growth and increased demands for service. Given the increasing rate of internet adoption in American homes in recent years, it is likely that demand for internet service will continue to increase, and it will be necessary for providers to continue to increase capacity and connection speeds to satisfy demand. GOAL U-Q: Promote the timely and orderly expansion of all forms of telecommunications service within the City and its planning area. POLICIES Policy U-74: Require the siting and location of telecommunications facilities be accomplished in a manner that minimizes adverse impacts on the environment and adjacent land uses. Policy U-75: Require wireless communication structures and towers to be designed and sited to minimize aesthetic impacts and to be co-located on existing structures and towers wherever possible. Policy U-76: Encourage healthy competition among telecommunication service providers in the City to promote high-quality, cost-effective service for Renton residents. Policy U-77: Require underground telecommunication infrastructure installation to be coordinated with the City of Renton Public Works Department to prevent cross-boring through existing water, sewer, or natural gas lines. PLANS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  City Of Renton Comprehensive Water System Plan  City of Renton Long Range Wastewater Management Plan  King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 72 CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT - Investing in the City for the prosperity of the community - DISCUSSION The City of Renton is responsible for providing facilities and services that are needed by the residents and businesses of the City for a functional, safe, and efficient environment. Capital facilities and services are City-owned or managed infrastructure, property and services such as, police and fire protection, parks, streets, water and sanitary sewer service, and storm drainage service. The Capital Facilities Element of the Comprehensive Plan consists of two portions: the 20- year Element and the 6-year Program. The Element, which is this chapter of the Plan, contains goals and policies related to capital facilities that are consistent with those of other Comprehensive Plan Elements. The Element relies heavily on the analyses and policies presented in other Elements of the Comprehensive Plan, specifically the Utilities, Land Use, Transportation, and Parks, Recreation, Natural Areas, and Trails Elements. The Program portion is the most current Capital Investment Program, which is supplemented by the most current adopted City Budget, and functional Plans specific to individual City Departments and other service providers. For detailed information and explanations concerning existing, future and improved facilities, as well as the method of financing them, the reader must consult these documents. The Capital Facilities Element incorporates by reference the information and analyses presented in these other documents. With a six-year horizon, the Program inventories existing and proposed capital facilities, forecasts future needs for facilities, identifies deficiencies and necessary improvements of capital facilities, and provides a financing plan. The Capital Investment Program and supplemental plans are separate documents. Capital facilities belonging to privately owned utilities serving Renton are addressed in the Utilities Element of the Plan. GOALS CF-A: Establish policies that enable the development and implementation of the Capital Investment Program in order to provide high- quality, well-maintained facilities and services that support the social, economic, cultural, safety, transportation, environmental, communication and other needs of the community, that are available at the time of development to serve new growth, and are equitably distributed. CF-B: Ensure capital facility investments are prioritized to support growth in the locations targeted in the Land Use Element and that these facilities will be in place when development occurs. CF-C: Identify service standards for capital facilities that meet community expectations for municipal services, and that are consistent for both existing and new development. CF-D: Ensure adequate long-term financial capacity exists to provide capital facilities and services needed to support expected growth, while maintaining adopted level of service standards. POLICIES Policy CF-1: Update the Capital Investment Program in conjunction with the City's regular budget adoption process and ensure anticipated funding is adequate to finance capital facilities that are necessary for development at predetermined levels of service, and in conformance with the Comprehensive Plan. If funding is insufficient, adjustments should be made to the levels of service, the Land Use Element, sources of revenue, or any combination thereof. For the purpose of capital facilities planning, plan for forecasted Capital Facilities Planning is an integral element of a comprehensive plan. Infrastructure investments support economic development and have long- term impacts on communities. CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 73 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN growth at the high end of the projected range and in locations determined by the Land Use Element. Policy CF-2: Ensure adequate public facilities are in place concurrent with development. Concurrent with development shall mean the existence of adequate facilities, strategies, or services when development occurs or the existence of a financial commitment to provide adequate facilities, strategies, or services within six years of when development occurs. Policy CF-3: Pursue funding from a mix of sources for new, improved, or expanded public facilities or services in order to distribute the cost of such facilities or services according to use, need, and adopted goals and policies. Policy CF-4: Levy impact fees on development that are commensurate with the cost of funding new or expanded capital facilities and services necessary for the development. Policy CF-5: Individually adopt by reference the most current Capital Facilities Plans for the Kent School District #415, the Issaquah School District #411, and the Renton School District #403, and adopt an implementing ordinance establishing a school impact fees consistent with each District’s adopted Capital Facilities Plan, if the Plan demonstrates that the facilities are needed to accommodate projected growth. Policy CF-5: Adopt by reference the most current Capital Facilities Plans for Renton Regional Fire Authority and adopt an implementing ordinance establishing a fire impact fee consistent with their Capital Facilities Plan, if the Plan demonstrates that the facilities are needed to accommodate projected growth. Policy CF-6: Support private/public partnerships to plan and finance infrastructure development, public uses, structured parking, and community amenities to stimulate additional private investment and produce a more urban environment. Policy CF-7: Protect public health, enhance environmental quality and promote conservation of man-made and natural resources through appropriate design and installation of public facilities. Policy CF-8: Promote conservation and demand- management programs that reduce the impact on public facilities and maximize their efficiency. Policy CF-9: Advocate projects that are energy efficient or enhance energy conservation efforts by the City and its residents. Policy CF-10: Coordinate with federal, state, regional and local jurisdictions, private industry, businesses and citizens in the planning, design and development of facilities serving and affecting the community. Policy CF-11: Consider land use compatibility, capital facility needs and financial costs when siting essential public facilities. See the Land Use Element, the Parks, Recreation, Natural Areas, and Trails Element, the Utilities Element, and the Transportation Element for policies related to the Capital Facilities Element. Fire Station 11, Credit: City of Renton CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 74 LEVELS OF SERVICE Levels of service are objective standards of capacity or services that specify minimum metrics and provide an unbiased basis for assessing the need for new facilities or capacity. These standards are established at the local level and influenced by citizen, City Council, and Planning Commission recommendations, national and regional standards, state and federal laws, the City’s population, and fiscal resources. Table CF-1: Levels of Service Capital Facilities (necessary for development) Level of Service Domestic Water Minimum of 30 psi at the meter during normal demand conditions and a minimum of 20 psi during an emergency. Surface Water 1) Development shall treat stormwater runoff and not increase pre- developed stormwater discharge rates. 2) Development shall convey stormwater discharge without system surcharging during a 25-year storm event and result in no increased flooding during a 100-year storm event. Sanitary Sewer 20-year total population projection, as well as, Dept. of Ecology Criteria Fire and Emergency Services Level of Service provision for the Renton Regional Fire Authority is adopted in their Standards of Cover document. Police Enforcement Avg. response time to Priority I calls: <3.5 minutes Avg. response time to Priority II calls: <8 minutes Avg. response time to Priority III calls: <12 minutes Avg. response time to Priority IV calls: <21 minutes Parks and Recreational Facilities 0.009 acres of parkland per capita Schools  Renton: K-3: 24:1 (students per teacher) 4-5: 29:1 6-12: 29:1  Kent: K-3: avg. class size of 23 4-6: avg. class size of 27 7-8: avg. class size of 28 9-12: avg. class size of 30  Issaquah: K-5: avg. class size of 20 6-8: avg. class size of 26 9-12: avg. class size of 28 Special Ed: class size of 12 Transportation 1. Motor Vehicles (SOV & HOV) 2. Transit 3. Non-motorized 1. LOS D 2. LOS D 3. LOS D Capital Facilities (NOT necessary for development) Level of Service Airport 100% compliance with FAA Municipal Buildings (e.g., City Hall, libraries) As needed Municipal Parking Facilities As needed CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 75 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SURFACE WATER Renton’s surface water system consists of natural streams, rivers, wetlands, and lakes, and constructed systems that manage drainage, provide flood protection, and water quality treatment. Surface water management is important to meet social, economic, and ecological needs including flood protection, erosion control, water supply, groundwater recharge, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation. Renton’s Surface Water Utility manages stormwater and surface water in Renton’s. The Utility develops policies, basin plans, development design standards, and capital improvement projects in order to maintain and restore the quality of Renton’s lakes and rivers, improve drainage, and reduce flooding. The Utility is responsible for meeting federal and state stormwater requirements. A significant effort for the Utility is compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II Stormwater Permit. This permit requires the Utility to control discharge of pollutants to protect surface water and to develop and implement a stormwater management program. DOMESTIC WATER The City owns and operates a multi-source municipal water system, which includes supply, treatment, storage, and distribution of potable water to residential, commercial, industrial, and wholesale customers. The City’s water distribution system consists of more than 1.6 million feet of pipeline and provides service to a full-time residential population of approximately 54,000, approximately 20,000 temporary and transient users, and approximately 28,000 regular non- residential users in an area of approximately 16 square miles that is largely coincident with the city limits. In addition, the City supplies water on a wholesale basis to Skyway Water and Sewer District through a single metered connection. Updated every six years, the Water System Plan Update (Plan) develops a long-term planning strategy for the City’s water service area by evaluating the existing system and its ability to meet the anticipated requirements for water source, quality, transmission, storage, and distribution over a twenty-year planning period. Water system improvement projects have been developed to meet the changing demands of regulatory impacts, and population growth, as well as infrastructure repair and replacement. The Plan also identifies planning level costs of the improvement projects and provides a financial plan for funding the projects. Water Tower, Credit: City of Renton CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 76 SANITARY SEWER The City of Renton owns, operates, and maintains its Wastewater Utility, which has a service area that encompasses a wide variety of residential, commercial, and industrial land uses over 21 square miles. This system consists of approximately 191 miles of gravity sewer, 23 sewage lift stations and force mains, and approximately 5,107 manholes. Wastewater is discharged to King County facilities at 79 locations within the City Service Area from which it is conveyed to and treated by King County’s South Treatment Reclamation Plant. The City of Renton Service Area is divided into six major wastewater collection basins: Black River, Downtown, East Cedar River, East Lake Washington, May Valley, and West Cedar River. For the most part, these major collection basins follow the natural drainage patterns of the Renton service area. Policies, design criteria, and standards used for planning and operating the sanitary sewer system are based on laws and policies that originate from several sources. All these policies and standards have the general purpose of providing an acceptable level of service to the sanitary sewer customers. Analysis and design criteria for the sanitary sewer system are based on standards presented in the Criteria for Sewage Works Design prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology, as well as, standards set by King County Department of Natural Resources - Wastewater Treatment Division and the City of Renton. Operations and system planning are guided by the City of Renton Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan. PARKS AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES Renton’s parks, recreation and natural area system is comprised of distinctive parks and popular recreation facilities, providing for a wide range of opportunities and benefits for the community. Parks are also a key gathering point, creating space for building community and providing exposure to history, arts and culture. In addition, many parks in Renton play a critical role in preserving natural areas, protecting wildlife and riparian habitat, conserving natural resources and contributing to clean water and a healthy environment for City residents. FIRE AND EMERGENCY SERVICES Renton Regional Fire Authority (RRFA) fulfills its mission through three core services: Response Operations, Community Risk Reduction, and Safety and Support Services. The RRFA currently has 161 employees, 145 are uniformed personnel. External services include community risk reduction activities that meet the needs of our community prior to an emergency, and response operations activities focused on responding to calls for service and assisting customers as they return to a normal or better condition. Internal services focus primarily on the safety and support of RRFA members, while maintaining effective partnership between the department and the City. Fire protection level of service is primarily influenced by call volume and response time. Service level is constrained by the station location, quantity of stations, number of trucks/units, number of firefighters, and road congestion. POLICE ENFORCEMENT The Renton Police Department is a full-service law enforcement agency with 148 personnel comprised of 120 sworn and 28 non-sworn. The Renton Police Department is accredited by Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Chiefs. Accreditation is a significant accomplishment and demonstrates a commitment to excellence. Officers work very diligently to protect life and property, assist in the suppression of crime, apprehend criminals and enforce laws. Community resources, needs, and values determine the level of law enforcement services and facilities. Generally, the higher the density and intensity of land use, the greater the demand for law enforcement services to address the safety of the citizens. Capital facilities associated with police CAPITAL FACILITIES ELEMENT PAGE 77 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN services include vehicles, office and police equipment which are provided through general funds and grants and determined on an annual basis. Projected capital facility requirements are based on officer response times to different types of “priority” level calls that are received. As the City grows, and response times increase, the need for additional officers will increase, as well as the need for additional police equipment and facilities. TRANSPORTATION The City of Renton owns and maintains 250 centerline miles of streets. Projects are developed and prioritized based on community needs, specific goals to be achieved and on general programming considerations. 1) CORRIDOR PROJECTS are oriented toward “moving people” through a balanced transportation system that involves multiple modes of transportation. Included are facilities that facilitate the movement of transit and carpools. 2) OPERATIONS AND SAFETY projects and programs are developed through ongoing analyses of the transportation system and are directed mainly toward traffic engineering concerns such as safety and congestion. Projects are identified not only by analysis of traffic counts, accident records and geometric data, but also through review and investigation of citizen complaints and requests. 3) NON-MOTORIZED PROJECTS are developed with major emphasis on addressing quality of life issues by improving and/or protecting residential livability while providing necessary transportation system improvements. 4) OTHER PROGRAMS involve planning of transportation improvements necessitated by new development and new transportation capital improvements. SCHOOLS Renton’s youth attend schools within the Renton, Kent, or Issaquah School District depending on the location of the pupil’s residence. The Renton School District spans 32.5 square miles and serves over 13,000 students in preschool through twelfth grade. Four high schools, three middle schools, 13 elementary schools, an early childhood education center and various other special programs constitute the accredited preschool-12 system. The Kent School District is the fourth largest school district in the state with over 27,000 students enrolled in four high schools, six middle schools, 28 elementary schools, and three academies. The district boundaries encompass approximately 71 square miles. The Issaquah School District is the 15th largest district in the state of Washington with more than 18,000 students attending a combination of 15 elementary schools, five middle schools, three comprehensive high schools, and an alternative high school spread. DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE Functional plans are major components of this Capital Facilities Element. The following functional plans are incorporated by reference and may be consulted for more detailed information regarding existing and planned facilities, service standards and facility development:  Most current Adopted Budget  Most current Capital Investment Program  Parks, Recreation and Natural Areas Plan  Renton Water System Plan Update  Renton Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan  Renton Stormwater Management Program  Renton Transportation Improvement Program  Renton School District’s Capital Facilities Plan  Issaquah School District’s Capital Facilities Plan  Kent School District’s Capital Facilities Plan  Renton Regional Fire Authority Capital Facilities Plan  King County Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 78 SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT - Fulfilling the vision of the state Shoreline Management Act & engaging the Community - INTRODUCTION The Washington State Shoreline Management Act (the Act) passed in 1971 and is based on the philosophy that the shorelines of our state are among our most "valuable" and "fragile" natural resources and that unrestricted development of these resources is not in the best public interest. Therefore, planning and management are necessary in order to prevent the harmful effects of uncoordinated and piece-meal development of our state's shorelines. Shorelines are of limited supply and are faced with rapidly increasing demands for uses such as marinas, fishing, swimming, recreation, and scenic views, as well as,, private housing, commercial and industrial uses. Lake Washington from Coulon Park, Credit: City of Renton The policy goals for the management of shorelines harbor potential for conflict. The Act recognizes that the shorelines and the waters they encompass are "among the most valuable and fragile" of the state's natural resources. They are valuable for economically productive industrial and commercial uses, recreation, navigation, residential amenity, scientific research and education. They are fragile because they depend upon balanced physical, biological, and chemical systems that may be adversely altered by natural forces and human conduct. Unbridled use of shorelines ultimately could destroy their utility and value. The prohibition of all use of shorelines also could eliminate their human utility and value. Thus, the policy goals of the Act relate both to utilization and protection of the extremely valuable and vulnerable shoreline resources of the state. The Act calls for the accommodation of "all reasonable and appropriate uses" consistent with "protecting against adverse effects to the public health, the land and its vegetation and wildlife, and the waters of the state and their aquatic life and consistent with "public rights of navigation”. The planning policies of master programs (distinct from the development regulations) may be achieved by a number of means, only one of which is the regulation of development. Other means, as authorized by Revised Code of Washington (RCW) 90.58.240, include, but are not limited to: the acquisition of lands and easements within shorelines of the state by purchase, lease, or gift, either alone or in concert with other local governments, and accepting grants, contributions, and appropriations from any public or private agency or individual. Additional means may include, but are not limited to, public facility and park planning, watershed planning, voluntary salmon recovery projects, and incentive programs. Through numerous references to and emphasis on the maintenance, protection, restoration, and preservation of "fragile" shoreline, "natural resources," "public health," "the land and its vegetation and wildlife," "the waters and their aquatic life," "ecology," and "environment," the Act makes protection of the shoreline environment an essential statewide policy goal consistent with the other policy goals of the Act. It is recognized that shoreline ecological functions may be impaired not only by shoreline development subject to the substantial development permit requirement of the There are over 18 miles of shoreline in the City of Renton’s planning area are under the jurisdiction of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 79 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Act but also by past actions, unregulated activities, and development that is exempt from the Act's permit requirements. The principle regarding protection of shoreline ecological systems is accomplished by these guidelines in several ways and in the context of related principles. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT GOALS The City adopts the findings of fact established by the King County Shoreline Master Program based on the findings of RCW 90.58.020. 1) The shoreline jurisdiction is one of the most valuable and fragile of the City’s natural resources. There is appropriate concern throughout the watershed and the greater Puget Sound Region relating to the utilization, protection, restoration, and preservation of the shoreline jurisdiction. 2) Ever increasing pressures of additional use are being placed on the shoreline jurisdiction, which in turn necessitates increased coordination in its management and development. 3) Much of the shoreline jurisdiction and the uplands adjacent thereto are in private ownership. Unrestricted construction on the privately owned or publicly owned shorelines is not in the best public interest; therefore, coordinated planning is necessary in order to protect the public interest associated with the shoreline jurisdiction while recognizing and protecting private property rights consistent with the public interest. 4) There is a clear and urgent demand for a planned, rational, and concerted effort, jointly performed by federal, state, and local governments, to prevent the inherent harm in an uncoordinated and piecemeal development of the City’s shoreline jurisdiction. 5) It is the intent of the City to provide for the management of the shoreline jurisdiction by planning for and fostering all reasonable and appropriate uses. The Shoreline Master Program is designed to ensure development in a manner that, while allowing for limited reduction of rights of the public in the navigable waters, will promote and enhance the public interest. 6) The City’s shoreline policies are intended to protect against adverse effects to the public health, the land and its vegetation and wildlife, and the waters of the state and their aquatic life, while protecting generally public rights of navigation and corollary rights incidental thereto. 7) In the implementation of the Shoreline Master Program, the public's opportunity to enjoy the physical and aesthetic qualities of natural shorelines shall be preserved to the greatest extent feasible consistent with the overall best interest of the state, the county, and the people generally. To this end, uses shall be preferred which are consistent with control of pollution and prevention of damage to the natural environment or are unique to or dependent upon use of the state's shoreline. 8) Alterations of the natural condition of the shoreline, in those limited instances when authorized, shall be given priority for single family residences and their appurtenant structures; ports; shoreline recreational uses including but not limited to parks, marinas, piers, and other improvements facilitating public access to shorelines; industrial and commercial developments that are particularly dependent on their location on or use of the shoreline jurisdiction; and other development that will provide an opportunity for substantial numbers of the people to enjoy the shorelines. 9) Permitted uses in the shorelines zone shall be designed and conducted in a manner to minimize, insofar as practical, any resultant damage to the ecology and environment of the shoreline jurisdiction and any interference with the public's use of the water. LOCAL RESPONSIBILITY Under the Act, local governments have the primary responsibility for initiating the planning program SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 80 and administering the regulatory requirements of the Act, with the Washington State Department of Ecology acting in a supportive, review, or approval capacity depending on the particular shoreline proposal and regulatory requirements. As set forth in the provisions of the Act, local governments must fulfill the following basic requirements:  Use a process that identifies, inventories, and ensures meaningful understanding of current and potential ecological functions provided by affected shorelines.  Include policies and regulations designed to achieve no net loss of those ecological functions, including:  Regulations and mitigation standards ensuring that each permitted development will not cause a net loss of ecological functions of the shoreline.  Local government shall design and implement such regulations and mitigation standards in a manner consistent with all relevant constitutional and other legal limitations on the regulation of private property.  Include goals and policies that provide for restoration of impaired ecological functions that include identifying existing policies and programs that contribute to planned restoration goals, as well as any additional policies and programs that local government will implement to achieve its goals. This Master Program element considers established or funded non-regulatory policies and the direct or indirect effects of other regulatory or non- regulatory programs.  Evaluate and consider cumulative impacts of reasonably foreseeable future development on shoreline ecological functions and other shoreline functions fostered by the policy goals of the Act, address adverse cumulative impacts, and fairly allocate the burden of addressing cumulative impacts among development opportunities. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER PROGRAM The Act (RCW 90.58) directs all local governments to develop a Master Program for the management of all shorelines of the state and associated shore lands that are under the local governments’ jurisdiction. Shoreline management is most effective and efficient when accomplished within the context of comprehensive planning. The Growth Management Act requires mutual and internal consistency between the comprehensive plan elements and implementing development regulations (RCW 36.70A). This Master Program has been prepared and updated to comply with the requirements of the Shoreline Management and Growth Management Acts and to formulate guidelines that will regulate the utilization and development of the shorelines within the City of Renton. As part of this Master Program, the City of Renton has established administrative provisions, including a permit system for any substantial development, as well as review provisions to ensure that all development complies with the policies and regulations of the program. The City of Renton has conducted a comprehensive inventory of the natural characteristics, present land uses, and patterns of ownership along the City's shoreline that provides a substantial information base for understanding ecological functions and other considerations for the development of this Master Program update. The City of Renton, with the involvement of its citizens, local agencies, and interested parties has developed this Shoreline Master Program to serve as both a planning guide and resource for specific regulations Lake Washington Shoreline, Credit: Parametrix SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 81 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN pertaining to development and use of the shorelines in Renton. Included is a description of the goals, objectives, policies, environments, use regulations, and provisions for variances and conditional uses. The basic intent of this Master Program is to provide for the management of shorelines of the state within Renton’s jurisdiction by planning for and fostering all reasonable and appropriate uses and to ensure, if development takes place, that it is done in a manner which will promote and enhance the interests of the general public. This Master Program has further been composed to protect the public interest and general welfare in shorelines and, at the same time, to recognize and protect the property rights of owners. The goals and policies of this Master Program are formulated so as to enhance the public use and enjoyment of the shorelines. It is recognized that the Shorelines of the State found in Renton are located within a major urbanized area, and that they are subject to ever increasing pressures of additional uses necessitating increased coordination in the management and development of the shorelines. The Shoreline Master Program is a planned, rational, and concerted effort to increase coordinated and optimum utilization of the Shorelines of the State in Renton. Cedar River, Credit: Parametrix REGULATED SHORELINES Overview: Over 18 miles of shoreline in the City of Renton’s planning area are under the jurisdiction of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971. By statutory standards, the Green River and Lake Washington are classified as Shorelines of Statewide Significance, and comprise approximately 5.8 miles of Shorelines of the State regulated by City of Renton. In addition, the shorelines of the Cedar River, Black River, Springbrook Creek, and May Creek are shorelines within the City. These 18 miles of shoreline in the City of Renton are an extremely valuable resource not only to the City of Renton, but also for the watersheds of which they are part and for the greater Puget Sound community of which Renton is an integral part. Shoreline Jurisdiction: In the City of Renton, the following bodies of water are regulated by the Act. Applicability: The Renton Shoreline Master Program applies to Shorelines of the State, which includes Shorelines of Statewide Significance and Shorelines as defined in Renton Municipal Code (RMC) 4-11 and as listed below. 1) Shorelines of Statewide Significance: a) Lake Washington b) Green River (The area within the ordinary high water mark of the Green River is not within the Renton City Limits, but portions of the 200-foot shoreline jurisdiction are within city limits.) 2) Shorelines: a) Cedar River b) May Creek from the intersection of May Creek and NE 31st Street in the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 32-24-5E WM c) Black River d) Springbrook Creek from the Black River on the north to SW 43rd Street on the south e) Lake Desire (in the city’s potential annexation area) Extent of Shoreline Jurisdiction: The jurisdictional area includes: 1) Lands within 200 feet, as measured on a horizontal plane, from the ordinary high water SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 82 mark, or lands within 200 feet from floodways, whichever is greater; 2) Contiguous floodplain areas; and 3) All marshes, bogs, swamps, and river deltas associated with streams, lakes, and tidal waters that are subject to the provisions of the State Shoreline Management Act. Shorelines of Statewide Significance: Each shoreline has its own unique qualities which make it valuable, particularly Shorelines of Statewide Significance. Preference is, therefore, given to the following uses (in descending order of priority), which: 1) Recognize and protect the statewide interest over local interest. 2) Preserve the natural character of the shorelines. 3) Result in long-term over short-term benefits. 4) Protect the resources and ecology of the shorelines. 5) Increase public access to publicly owned areas of the shorelines. 6) Increase recreational opportunities for the public in the shoreline. 7) Provide for any other element as defined in RCW 90.58.100 deemed appropriate or necessary. Development, redevelopment, and use of Lake Washington shall recognize and protect the statewide interest in terms of providing for benefits to the general public in terms of:  Preserving and enhancing the natural character and ecological functions of the shoreline to provide long-term public benefits to fish stocks, many of which depend on south Lake Washington for a key phase of their lifecycle.  Increasing public access to the shoreline and integrating public access on individual sites with an integrated non-motorized trail system to allow access to persons not living on or near the shoreline.  Ensuring that impacts of development are mitigated to ensure the long-term benefits of a productive environment over short-term economic benefits.  Providing a variety of recreational opportunities for the public in multiple use development on the shoreline.  Providing high standards for design and aesthetics in the shoreline site and building design to address the visual character and quality of the range of public use of the lake and shorelines. Design and review standards shall achieve high-quality landmark developments that are integrated with the natural environment, that provide appropriate transition to areas of less intense development, and integrate building height, bulk, setbacks, landscaping, and signage into a cohesive whole.  The redevelopment of former industrial areas on the Lake Washington shoreline will lead to the creation of a vibrant new lakefront community providing additional housing, shopping, and employment opportunities to the region. Multiple use projects will take advantage of the amenities of the lake while providing opportunities for water-oriented uses, public access, and/or ecological enhancement. GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENTS Shorelines are classified into separate geographic areas known as “use environments” based upon the current development pattern, biophysical capabilities, and other factors. Policies, standards, and regulations can be customized by the use environment, shoreline, and other uses depending on need. Generally, regulated shorelines include the water bodies and their shorelands extending landward from the floodway or ordinary high water mark for 200 feet in all directions. This jurisdictional area increases to include all marshes, bogs, swamps, and river deltas associated with the regulated Shorelines of the State. The total of this area is subject to shoreline use classification and regulation. The overlay districts in the Renton Shoreline Master Program are classified as zoning overlay districts and include six districts: SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 83 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 1) Shoreline Natural Environment Overlay District Objective: The objective in designating a natural environment is to protect and preserve unique and fragile shoreline or wetland environments that are ecologically intact as close to their natural state as possible. The natural environment is intended to provide areas of wildlife sanctuary and habitat preservation. Areas to be Designated as a Natural Environment: A Natural Area designation is assigned to shoreline areas if any of the following characteristics apply:  The shoreline retains the majority of natural shoreline functions, as evidenced by the shoreline configuration and the presence of native vegetation. Generally, but not necessarily, ecologically intact shorelines are free of structural shoreline modifications, structures, and intensive human uses.  Shoreline areas that provide valuable functions for the larger aquatic and terrestrial environments, which could be lost or significantly reduced by human development.  The shoreline represents ecosystems that are of particular scientific and educational interest.  Shorelines with large areas of relatively undisturbed areas of wetlands.  Shorelines that support specific important wildlife habitat, such as heron rookeries.  The shoreline is unable to support new development, extractive uses, or physical modifications or uses without significant adverse impacts to ecological functions. 2) Shoreline Urban Conservancy Environment Overlay District Objective: The purpose of the Urban Conservancy environment is to protect, conserve, restore, and manage existing areas with ecological functions of open space, floodplain, and other sensitive lands where they exist in urban and developed settings, while allowing compatible uses. Areas to Be Designated as a Conservancy Environment:  Areas of high scenic value.  Areas of open space, floodplain, or other sensitive areas such as wetlands or geological hazards that should not be more intensively developed.  Areas that retain important ecological functions, including areas, which, even though they are partially developed, provide valuable wildlife habitat or essential aquatic habitat functions.  Areas with the potential for ecological restoration.  Areas that cannot provide adequate utilities for intense development.  Areas with unique or fragile features. 3) Shoreline Single Family Residential Overlay District Objective: The objective of the Single Family Residential Shoreline Overlay District is to accommodate residential development and appurtenant structures that are consistent with this chapter. Areas to Be Designated: The Single Family Residential Shoreline Overlay District is applied to and characterized by single-family use and zoning. 4) Shoreline High-Intensity Overlay District Objective: The objective of the High Intensity Overlay is to provide opportunities for large-scale office and commercial employment centers, as well as, multifamily residential use and public services. This district provides opportunities for water- dependent and water-oriented uses while protecting existing ecological functions and restoring ecological functions in areas that have been previously degraded. Development may also provide for public use and/or community use, especially access to and along the water's edge. Areas to Be Designated: The Shoreline High- Intensity Overlay District is designated in areas characterized by: commercial, industrial, or mixed- SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 84 use zoning or use, but not meeting the criteria for conservancy or natural designation. Management Policies: Water-Oriented Activities: Because shorelines suitable for high-intensity urban uses are a limited resource, development opportunities are largely limited to redevelopment. Existing industrial and commercial uses on the shoreline are not water- dependent. It is unlikely that the Renton shoreline will provide opportunities for a commercial port, or other major water-oriented industrial uses. However, there may be opportunity for some types of water-dependent uses to be integrated into existing multiple-use developments or redevelopment projects, particularly on Lake Washington. Opportunities for water-dependent and water-oriented uses are likely to be oriented to recreation, public enjoyment, transportation, and moorage. Emphasis shall be given to development within already developed areas and particularly to water-oriented industrial and commercial uses. Non-water-oriented Activities: Non-water-oriented uses should be permitted as part of development that also includes water-oriented use. Non-water- oriented uses should be allowed in limited situations where they do not conflict with or limit opportunities for water-oriented uses, or on sites where there is not direct access to the shoreline. Non-water-oriented uses allowed in the shoreline should provide ecological restoration and/or public access along the full length of shoreline frontage. Public Access: Priority is also given to planning for public visual and physical access to water in the High Intensity Overlay District. Identifying needs and planning for the acquisition of urban land for permanent public access to the water is addressed in Public Access regulations in RMC 4-3-090.E.4.g Table of Public Access Requirements by Reach. Public access is one of the primary public benefits that may be necessary to locate development on the shoreline. Ecological Restoration: Providing for restoration of ecological functions is one of the public benefits necessary to locate non-water-oriented development on the shoreline. Ecological restoration opportunities are limited in Renton due to the developed nature of much of the shoreline. Generally, new development and redevelopment should remove and replace shoreline armoring that does not meet standards of theCode, restore native vegetation and wetlands, as well as, restore the aquatic substrate. Public access may be required to be set back from restored areas with controlled access to the water’s edge at locations that are less ecologically sensitive. Aesthetics: Aesthetic objectives shall be implemented by appropriate development siting, building bulk, design standards, screening, landscaping, and maintenance of natural vegetative buffers. 5) Shoreline Isolated High-Intensity - Isolated Lands Overlay District Objective and Areas to be Designated: The objective of the High Intensity Overlay – Isolated Lands overlay is to provide appropriate regulations for areas that are within shoreline jurisdiction but are separate parcels effectively isolated from the water by intervening elements of the built environment, largely consisting of railroads and roads or intervening private parcels. In most cases, these areas function as parallel designations with other designations applied to the area adjacent to the water. 6) Aquatic Environment Overlay District Objective: The objective of the Aquatic designation is to protect, restore, and manage the unique characteristics and resources of the areas waterward of the ordinary high water mark. Areas to be Designated: The Aquatic Overlay District is defined as the area waterward of the ordinary high water mark of all streams and rivers, all marine water bodies, and all lakes, constituting shorelines of the state together with their underlying lands and their water column; but do not include associated wetlands and other shorelands shoreward of the ordinary high water mark. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 85 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Management Policies: Development within Aquatic Areas shall be consistent with the following:  Allowed uses are those within the adjacent upland shoreline overlay, limited to water- dependent use or public access.  New uses and over-water structures are allowed only for water-dependent uses, single- family residences, public access, or ecological restoration and only when no net loss of ecological functions will result.  The size of new over-water structures shall be limited to the minimum necessary to support the structure's intended use. In order to reduce the impacts of shoreline development and increase effective use of water resources, multiple-use of over-water facilities is encouraged and may be required.  All developments and uses on navigable waters or their beds shall be located and designed to minimize interference with surface navigation, to consider impacts to public views, and to allow for the safe, unobstructed passage of fish and wildlife, particularly those species dependent on migration.  Shoreline uses and modifications shall be designed and managed to prevent degradation of water quality, minimize alteration of natural conditions and processes, and result in no net loss of ecological functions  Uses and modification of Public Aquatic Land shall incorporate public access and ecological enhancement, except where inconsistent with the operation of water-dependent uses.  Fish and wildlife resource enhancement, including aquaculture related to fish propagation are allowed and encouraged. Seaplane on Lake Washington, Credit: Parametrix GOALS AND POLICIES SHORELINE USES AND ACTIVITIES POLICIES Objective SH-A: Provide for use of the limited water resource consistent with the goals of the Shoreline Management Act by providing a preference for water-oriented uses. Objective SH-B: Provide that the policies, regulations, and administration of the Shoreline Master Program ensure that new uses, development, and redevelopment within the shoreline jurisdiction do not cause a net loss of shoreline ecological functions. Objective SH-C: Ensure that the policies, regulations, and administration of the Shoreline Master Program are consistent with the land use Vision of the City’s Comprehensive Plan. Policy SH-1: Reasonable and appropriate shoreline uses and activities should be planned for: 1) Short-term economic gain or convenience in development should be evaluated in relationship to potential long-term effects on the shoreline. 2) Preference should be given to those uses or activities which enhance the natural functions of shorelines, including reserving appropriate areas for protecting and restoring ecological functions to control pollution and prevent damage to the natural environment and public health. 3) Provide for the following priority in shoreline use and modification of the shoreline: SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 86 a) Water-dependent and associated water- related uses are the highest priority for shorelines unless protection of the existing natural resource values of such areas precludes such uses. b) Water-related and water-enjoyment uses that are compatible with ecological protection and restoration objectives, provided that adequate area is reserved for future water-dependent and water-related uses. c) Multiple use developments may be allowed if they include and support water-oriented uses and contribute to the objectives of the act including ecological protection and restoration and/or public access. d) Limit non-water-oriented uses to those locations where access to the water is not provided or where the non-water-oriented uses contribute to the objectives of the Act, including ecological protection and restoration and/or public access. e) Preserve navigational qualities, and the infrastructure that supports navigation, to support water-oriented use. 4) Recognize existing single-family residential uses and neighborhood character and ensure that existing uses, new uses, and alteration of facilities: a) Do not result in a net loss of shoreline ecological functions. b) Avoid disturbance of unique and fragile areas. c) Are provided with adequate public services including water, sanitary sewer, and stormwater management. 5) Future shoreline subdivision, multi-family developments, and planned urban developments of more than four units should provide public benefits, including ecological protection and restoration, and/or public or community access. 6) New residential developments should provide open space areas at or near the shoreline through clustering of dwellings. Policy SH-2: Aesthetic considerations should be integrated with new development, redevelopment of existing facilities, or for general enhancement of shoreline areas and should include: 1) Identification and preservation of areas with scenic vistas and areas where the shoreline has high aesthetic value as seen from both upland areas, areas across the water, and recreational and other uses on the water. 2) Appropriate regulations and criteria should ensure that development provides designs that contribute to the aesthetic enjoyment of the shoreline for a substantial number of people and provide the public with the ability to reach, touch, enjoy the water’s edge, and view the water and shoreline. 3) Regulations and criteria for building siting, maximum height, setbacks, screening, architectural controls, sign regulations, designation of view corridors, and other provisions should ensure that development minimizes adverse impacts on views of the water from public property or views enjoyed by a substantial number of residences. Policy SH-3: All shoreline policies, regulations, and development shall recognize and protect private rights consistent with the public interest and, to the extent feasible, shall be designed and constructed to protect the rights and privacy of adjacent property owners. Shoreline uses and activities should be discouraged if they would cause significant noise or odor or unsafe conditions that would impede the achievement of shoreline use preferences on the site or on adjacent or abutting sites. CONSERVATION POLICIES Objective SH-D: The resources and amenities of all shorelines and the ecological processes and functions they provide, such as wetlands, upland and aquatic vegetation, fish and wildlife species and habitats, as well as, scenic vistas and aesthetics should be protected and preserved for use and enjoyment by present and future generations. Natural shorelines are dynamic with SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 87 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN interdependent geologic and biological relationships. Alteration of this dynamic system has substantial adverse impacts on geologic and hydraulic mechanisms important to the function of the water body and can disrupt elements of the food chain. Policy SH-4: When necessary, Shoreline modifications should emulate and allow natural shoreline functions to the extent feasible and where needed utilize bioengineering or other methods with the least impact on ecological functions. Policy SH-5: Native shoreline vegetation should be conserved to maintain shoreline ecological functions and mitigate the direct, indirect, and/or cumulative impacts of shoreline development, wherever feasible. Important functions of shoreline vegetation include, but are not limited to:  Providing shade necessary to maintain water temperatures required by salmonids, forage fish, and other aquatic biota.  Regulating microclimate in riparian and nearshore areas.  Providing organic inputs necessary for aquatic life, including providing food in the form of various insects and other benthic macro invertebrates.  Stabilizing banks, minimizing erosion and sedimentation, and reducing the occurrence/severity of landslides.  Reducing fine sediment input into the aquatic environment by minimizing erosion, aiding infiltration, and retaining runoff.  Improving water quality through filtration and vegetative uptake of nutrients and pollutants.  Providing a source of large woody debris to moderate flows, create hydraulic roughness, form pools, and increase aquatic diversity for salmonids and other species.  Providing habitat for wildlife, including connectivity for travel and migration corridors. Policy SH-6: Existing natural resources should be conserved through regulatory and non-regulatory means that may include regulation of development within the shoreline jurisdiction, ecologically sound design, and restoration programs, including: 1) Water quality and water flow should be maintained at a level to permit recreational use, to provide a suitable habitat for desirable forms of aquatic life, and to satisfy other required human needs. 2) Aquatic habitats and spawning grounds should be protected, improved and, when feasible, increased to the fullest extent possible to ensure the likelihood of salmon recovery for listed salmon stocks and to increase the populations of non-listed salmon stocks. 3) Wildlife habitats should be protected, improved and, if feasible, increased. 4) Unique natural areas should be designated and maintained as open space for passive forms of recreation and provide opportunities for education and interpretation. Access and use should be restricted, if necessary, for the conservation of these areas. Policy SH-7: Existing and future activities on all Shorelines of the State regulated by the City of Renton should be designed to ensure no net loss of ecological functions. Policy SH-8: The City of Renton should work with other responsible government agencies to assure that surface water management in all drainage basins is considered an integral part of shoreline planning. 1) Soil erosion and sedimentation that adversely affect any shoreline within the City of Renton should be prevented or controlled. 2) The contamination of existing water courses should be prevented or controlled. Policy SH-9: Shoreline stabilization should be developed in a coordinated manner among affected property owners and public agencies for a whole drift sector (net shore-drift cell) or reach where feasible, particularly those that cross jurisdictional boundaries, to address ecological and geo-hydraulic processes, sediment conveyance and beach management issues. Where erosion threatens SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 88 existing development, a comprehensive program for shoreline management should be established. Policy SH-10: Shoreline areas having historical, cultural, educational, or scientific value should be identified and protected. 1) Public and private cooperation should be encouraged in site identification, preservation, and protection. 2) Suspected or newly discovered sites should be kept free from intrusions for a reasonable time until their value is determined. Policy SH-11: Critical areas in the shoreline should be managed to achieve the planning objectives of the protection of existing ecological functions and ecosystem-wide processes and restoration of degraded ecological functions and ecosystem-wide processes. The regulatory provisions for critical areas should protect existing ecological functions and ecosystem-wide processes. In protecting and restoring critical areas within the shoreline, the City should integrate the full spectrum of planning and regulatory measures, including the Comprehensive Plan, interlocal watershed plans, local development regulations, as well as, state, tribal, and federal programs. Policy SH-12: The City shall implement the Restoration Plan provided as an adjunct to The Shoreline Master Program in coordination with other watershed management agencies and groups, and shall manage public lands and may acquire key properties and provide for off-site mitigation on City or other public or private sites. Policy SH-13: Preservation of natural shoreline areas can best be ensured through public or non- profit ownership and management. Therefore, where private development is proposed in areas so designated, the City should require dedication as necessary. Policy SH-14: Shoreline use and development should be carried out in a manner that prevents or mitigates adverse impacts so that the resulting ecological condition does not become worse than the current condition. This means ensuring no net loss of ecological functions and processes in all development and use. Permitted uses should be designed and conducted to minimize, in so far as practical, any resultant damage to the ecology and environment (RCW 90.58.020). Shoreline ecological functions that should be protected include, but are not limited to, fish and wildlife habitat, food chain support, and water temperature maintenance. Shoreline processes that shall be protected include, but are not limited to: water flow; littoral drift; erosion and accretion; infiltration; ground water recharge and discharge; sediment delivery, transport, and storage; large woody debris recruitment; organic matter input; nutrient and pathogen removal; and stream channel formation/maintenance. Naturalized Shoreline, Credit: Parametrix ECONOMIC POLICIES Objective SH-E: Existing economic uses and activities on the shorelines should be recognized and economic uses or activities that are water- oriented should be encouraged and supported. Policy SH-15: Shoreline uses should be integrated with the land use vision of the Comprehensive Plan. Harbor areas in Renton do not have reasonable commercial accessibility and necessary support facilities such as transportation and utilities to warrant reservation for commercial ports and related uses, but may support other water- dependent uses such as a marina or passenger ferry service. Water-oriented uses should be encouraged in multiple use development to provide SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 89 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN opportunities for substantial numbers of people to enjoy the shorelines. Multiple uses should prove a significant public benefit with respect to the Shoreline Management Act's objectives, such as providing ecological restoration and/or public access to and along the water's edge. Policy SH-16: Future economic uses and activities should utilize the shoreline to achieve the use and other goals of the Act and The Shoreline Master Program, including: 1) Economic uses and activities should locate the water-oriented portion of their development along the shoreline. 2) New over-water structures should be limited to water-dependent use and the length, width, and height of over-water structures should be limited to the smallest reasonable dimensions. 3) Shoreline developments should be designed to maintain or enhance aesthetic values and scenic views. Policy SH-17: Shoreline facilities for the moorage and servicing of boats and other vessels may be allowed in appropriate locations within residential, commercial, and other areas, provided they are located and designed to result in no net loss of ecological functions. 1) Shared moorage is encouraged over individual single family docks. 2) Commercial docks and marinas should meet all health standards. Marinas and other economic activities should be required to contain and clean up spills or discharges of pollutants associated with boating activities. 3) Shoreline facilities for the moorage and servicing of boats and other vessels should be developed in size and location when it would not impair unique or fragile areas, or impact federal or state-listed species. Policy SH-18: All economic activities on the shoreline shall provide for no net loss of ecological functions during construction and operation. Policy SH-19: Festivals and temporary uses providing public benefits such as recreation or public access, and which are compatible with ecological functions, including water quality, water flow, habitat, or unique and fragile areas, may be permitted with appropriate review and conditions. PUBLIC ACCESS POLICIES Objective SH-F: Increase public accessibility to shorelines and preserve and improve the natural amenities. Policy SH-20: Public access should be provided consistent with the existing character of the shoreline and consideration of opportunities and constraints for physical and visual access, as well as, consideration of ecological functions, as provided in Policy SH-31 Table of Public Access Objectives by Reach, and in conjunction with the following policies. Policy SH-21: Public access to and along the water's edge should be available throughout publicly owned shoreline areas although direct physical access to the water’s edge may be restricted to protect shoreline ecological values. Public access shall be provided over all public aquatic lands leased for private activity, consistent with compatibility with water-dependent uses. Policy SH-22: Public access from public streets shall be made available over public property and may be acquired by easement or other means over intervening private property. Policy SH-23: Future multi-family, planned unit developments, subdivisions, commercial, and industrial developments that provide physical and visual public/community access along the water's edge should be guided by the policy provided in Policy SH-31 Table of Public Access Objectives by Reach. Policy SH-24: Public access to and along the water's edge should be located, designed, and maintained in a manner that protects the natural environment and shoreline ecological functions and is consistent with public safety, as well as, compatible with water-dependent uses. Preservation or improvement of the natural processes shall be a basic consideration in the design of shoreline areas SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 90 to which public access is provided, including trail systems. Policy SH-25: When making extensive modifications or extensions to existing commercial, industrial, multi-family, planned unit developments, subdivisions, and public facilities, public/community access to and along the water's edge should be provided if physically feasible. Policy SH-26: Both passive and active public areas should be designed and provided. Policy SH-27: In order to encourage public use of the shoreline corridor, public parking should be provided at frequent locations on public lands and rights of way and may be required on private development. Policy SH-28: In planning for public access, emphasis should be placed on foot and bicycle paths consistent with the Renton Bicycle and Trails Master Plan, rather than roads, except in areas where public boat launching would be desirable. Policy SH-29: Physical or visual access to shorelines should be required as a condition of approval for open space tax designations pursuant to RCW 84.34. Policy SH-30: Development and management of public access should recognize the need to address adverse impacts to adjacent private shoreline properties and should recognize and be consistent with legal property rights of the owner. Just compensation shall be provided to property owners for land acquired for public use. Private access to the publicly owned shoreline corridor shall be provided to owners of property contiguous to said corridor in common with the public. RECREATION POLICIES Objective SH-G: Water-oriented recreational activities available to the public should be encouraged to the extent that the use facilitates the public’s ability to reach, touch, and enjoy the water's edge, to travel on the waters of the state, and to view the water and the shoreline. Policy SH-31: Table of Public Access Objectives by Reach is included in the Comprehensive Plan technical appendix. It outlines the policy objectives for maintaining and improving public access within the shoreline. Application of public access objectives should be considered along with other objectives of the Shoreline Management Act, such as ecological restoration and priority uses. Policy SH-32: Water-oriented recreational activities should be encouraged. 1) Accessibility to the water's edge should be improved in existing parks and new development, substantial alteration of existing non-single family development, and intensification of existing uses where consistent with maintaining ecological functions. 2) A balanced choice of public recreational opportunities should be provided on Lake Washington as a Shoreline of Statewide Significance that recognizes and protects the interest of all people of the state, as well as, Renton residents. Recreation use includes enjoyment and use of the water for boating and other activities. Shoreline park and recreation areas should be increased in size and number and managed for multiple uses including, shoreline recreation, preservation, and enhancement of ecological functions. 3) Areas for specialized recreation should be developed at locations where physical and ecological conditions are appropriate. 4) Both passive and active recreational areas should be provided. Policy SH-33: Recreational boating and fishing should be supported, maintained, and increased. Policy SH-34: Public agencies, non-profit groups, and private parties should use cooperative and innovative techniques to increase and diversify recreational opportunities including incorporation in development, as well as, public purchase of shoreland. Public agencies should establish the intent to acquire lands by incorporation of such policies in their plans and declaring public intent. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT PAGE 91 CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Policy SH-35: Public land, including City parks and public aquatic lands, should be managed to provide a balance of public recreation, public access to the water, as well as, protection and enhancement of ecological functions. Policy SH-36: Subject to policies providing for no net loss of ecological functions as well as local, state, and federal regulations, the water's depth may be changed to foster recreational aspects. Policy SH-37: Provision of recreation facilities and use shall be consistent with growth projections and level-of-service standards established by the comprehensive plan. CIRCULATION POLICIES Objective SH-H: Minimize the impacts of motor vehicular traffic and encourage non-motorized traffic within the shorelines as part of achieving no net loss. Policy SH-38: Roadways within shorelines should be scenic boulevards, where possible, to enhance the scenic views of the shoreline and provide opportunities for public visual access to the shoreline. Existing arterials on the shoreline should incorporate substantial plantings of street trees or other landscaping and emphasize enjoyment of the shoreline. Policy SH-39: Viewpoints, parking, trails, and similar improvements should be considered for transportation system projects in shoreline areas. Bridge abutments should incorporate stairs or trails to reach streams where appropriate. Policy SH-40: Public transportation should be encouraged to facilitate access to shoreline recreation areas. Policy SH-41: Pedestrian and bicycle pathways, including provisions for maintenance, operation, and security, should be developed. 1) Access points to and along the shoreline should be linked by pedestrian and bicycle pathways. 2) Separate pedestrian and bicycle pathways should be included in new or expanded bridges or scenic boulevards within the shorelines. 3) Separate pedestrian and bicycle pathways should be included in publicly financed transportation systems or rights of way, consistent with public interest and safety. 4) Public access provided in private development should be linked to public pathways. 5) Public access and non-motorized access to shorelines should be considered when rights of way are being vacated or abandoned. Policy SH-42: Rail lines within the shoreline should provide opportunities for public access and circulation: 1) The rail line along the east shore of Lake Washington should be reserved for use as a public trail if rail use ceases. If rail use continues, joint trail and rail use should be explored. 2) Rail lines adjacent to the Green River should provide means for public access across the rail lines to access shorelines and public trails where this can be accomplished safely through bridges or undercrossings. Policy SH-43: Trails should be developed to enhance public enjoyment of and access to the shoreline: 1) Trails within the shoreline should be developed as an element of non-motorized circulation, the City’s Parks, Recreation and Natural Areas Plan, Trails and Bicycle Master Plan, and the Shoreline Public Access program. Trails provide the potential for low impact public physical and visual access to the shoreline. 2) Trails should be developed as an element of a system that links together shoreline public access into an interconnected network including active and passive parks, schools, public and private open space, native vegetation easements with public access, utility rights of way, waterways, and other opportunities. 3) Public access to and along the water's edge should be linked with upland community facilities and the comprehensive trail system that provides non-motorized access throughout the City. SHORELINE MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE 92 4) A system of trails on separate rights of way and public streets should be designed and implemented to provide linkages along shorelines including the Lake Washington Loop, the Cedar River, the Black River, Springbrook Creek, and the Green River. Policy SH-44: Road standards should meet roadway function and emergency access standards and provide for multiple modes, while reducing impervious surfaces, where feasible, and managing surface water runoff to achieve appropriate water quality. Policy SH-45: Commercial boating operations, other than marinas, should be encouraged as they relate to water-dependent uses and should be limited to commercial and industrial areas. SHORELINE HISTORICAL / CULTURAL / SCIENTIFIC / EDUCATION RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES POLICIES Objective SH-I: Provide for protection and restoration of buildings, sites, and areas having archaeological, historical, cultural, scientific, or educational value. Policy SH-46: Sites with archaeological, historical, cultural, and scientific, or educational value should be identified and protected or conserved in collaboration with appropriate tribal, state, federal, and local governments, as well as, private parties. Policy SH-47: Such features may be integrated with other shoreline uses if appropriate to the character of the resource. Policy SH-48: Include programs and interpretive areas in recreational facilities in or near identified shoreline areas with historical, cultural, educational, and scientific value. SHORELINE RESTORATION AND ENHANCEMENT POLICIES Objective SH-J: Provide for the timely restoration enhancement of shorelines with impaired ecological functions. Such restoration should occur through a combination of public and private programs and actions. This Master Program includes a restoration element that identifies restoration opportunities and facilitates appropriate publicly and privately initiated restoration projects. The goal of this effort is to improve shoreline ecological functions. Policy SH-49: A cooperative restoration program among local, state, and federal public agencies; tribes; non-profit organizations; and landowners should be developed to address shorelines with impaired ecological functions. Policy SH-50: The restoration plan incorporated by reference into The Shoreline Master Program is based on: 1) Identification of degraded areas, areas of impaired ecological functions, and sites with potential for ecological restoration. 2) Establishment of overall goals and priorities for restoration of degraded areas and impaired ecological functions. 3) Identification of existing and ongoing projects and programs that are being implemented, or are reasonably assured of being implemented, which are designed to contribute to local restoration goals. 4) Identification of additional projects and programs needed to achieve restoration goals. 5) Identification of prospective funding sources for those projects and programs. 6) Identification of timelines and benchmarks for implementing restoration projects and programs. 7) Development of strategies to ensure that restoration projects and programs will be implemented according to plans, periodically reviewed for effectiveness, and adjusted to meet overall restoration goals. DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE  Table of Public Access Objectives by Reach (Appendix B)  Renton Shoreline Master Program GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE i GLOSSARY Accessory housing: Dwellings constructed within an existing single family home, usually for use as a rental unit. Accessory unit: A dwelling physically separated from the primary dwelling unit, which includes kitchen, sleeping, and bathroom facilities. Also known as a "mother-in-law apartment." Activity node: An area of clustered higher density land uses. Adaptive use: The utilization of an older building that is no longer suited for its original purpose, but may be modified and used for a different purpose such as housing. A common example is the conversion of older public school buildings to rental or condominium apartments. Affordable housing: Housing that meets the needs of a household earning at or below eighty percent (80%) of county median income (adjusted for household size), for which the household pays no more than thirty percent (30%) of its gross income toward housing costs, including utilities. Aquifer: Groundwater-bearing geologic formation or formations that contain enough saturated permeable material to yield significant quantities of water to wells. Aquifer Protection Area (APA): Zone of capture and recharge area for a well or well field owned or operated by the City of Renton. Aquifer protection zones: Zones of an APA designated to provide graduated levels of aquifer protection. Each APA may be subdivided by the City into two aquifer protection zones. a. Zone 1: The land area situated between a well or well field owned by the City of Renton and the 365-day groundwater travel time contour. b. Zone 2: The land area situated between the 365-day groundwater travel time contour and the boundary of the zone of potential capture for a well or well field owned or operated by the City of Renton. Arterial, minor: Right-of-way that serves as a distributor of traffic from a principal arterial to lower classified streets, directly to secondary traffic generators such as community shopping areas and high schools, and serves trips between neighborhoods within a community. Minor streets are more intensive than collectors, but less intensive than principal arterials. Arterial, principal: Right-of-way that connects regional arterials to major activity areas and directly to traffic destinations. Principal arterials are the most intensive arterial classification, serve major traffic generators such as the Urban Center, major shopping and commercial districts, and move traffic from community to community. Basin (Surface Water Utility): An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Basin (Water Utility): An area defined by the natural features of the landscape such that any flow of water in said area will flow toward one low point. Best Management Practices (Surface Water Utility): Conservation practices or systems of practices and management measures that: a. Control soil loss and reduce water quality degradation caused by nutrients, animal waste, toxins, and sediment; b. Minimize adverse impacts to surface water and groundwater flow, circulation patterns, and to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of wetlands; and GLOSSARY PAGE ii CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN c. Include allowing proper use and storage of fertilizers/pesticides. Bicycle facility: An improvement designed to facilitate accessibility by bicycle, including bicycle trails, bicycle lanes, storage facilities, etc. Boulevards: Typically a broad thoroughfare that is often separated by a landscaped median or center divider that has potential to function as linear open space. Boulevard designation would imply a higher priority for landscape, sidewalk, or trail improvements. Buildable Lands Analysis (BLA): An assessment required by Washington state law that requires six counties to determine the amount of land suitable for urban development and its capacity for growth, based upon a five- year measurement of actual development activity. King County (and five others) must report the results of the buildable lands analysis to the state every five years. Capacity: The space to accommodate population growth or increases in employment or residential uses as determined by the methodology used in the Buildable Lands Analysis. Capacity problem (Wastewater Utility): When flow rates exceed what the facility is designed to convey. Capital facilities: Infrastructure, structures, improvements, pieces of equipment or other major assets, and land that serve public purposes and provide services. Cell (Cellular Telephone Service): The geographic cellular telephone coverage area, approximately 2 to 10 miles in radius, served by low-powered transmitters. Cell site (Cellular Telephone Service): A communications site that includes the cellular transmitting and receiving antennas, cellular base station radios, and interconnecting equipment. This equipment is necessary to route cellular telephone system through the mobile telephone switching office and connect to the conventional wire-line telephone network. Cell splitting (Cellular Telephone Service): The process of dividing a larger cell into several smaller units, to provide additional channels within the same cell. Chemicals (Surface Water Utility): All "Regulated Substances" as defined by the City of Renton in the Aquifer Protection Ordinance (APO). Circuit: A set of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow. Also known as a "line." Cluster development: A development design technique that concentrates buildings in specific areas on a site to allow the remaining land to be used for recreation, common open space, and preservation of environmentally critical areas. Collocation: The result of placing public facilities at or near the same location to provide increased public access. One example is the collocation of a public school with a community center. Commercial use: A business or employment activity or other enterprise that is carried out for profit on a property by the owner, lessee, or licensee. Community: A subarea of the City consisting of residential institutional and commercial land uses and sharing a common identity (e.g., the Highlands in Renton). Community separator: See “Urban Separator” Commute trip: A trip made from an employee's residence to a worksite for a regularly scheduled work day. GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE iii Commute Trip Reduction (CTR): A Washington state law requiring counties with a population greater than 150,000 to implement a plan to reduce single occupant commute trips and number of commute trip vehicle miles traveled per employee by employees of major public and private sector employers. The plan is developed in cooperation with local transit agencies, regional transportation planning organizations, major employers, and the owners of and employers at major worksites. Concurrency: A Growth Management Act requirement that transportation facilities and other infrastructure, such as water and sewer, needed to maintain adopted Level of Service (LOS) standards, are available within six years of development at the time of occupancy or within a specified time period. Conductor: A wire or cable intended to carry electric power, supported by poles, towers or other structures. Countywide Planning Policies (CPPs): A series of policies that address growth management issues in King County. The CPPs provide a countywide vision and serve as a framework for each jurisdiction to develop its own comprehensive plan, which must be consistent with the overall vision for the future of King County. Critical areas: Wetlands, aquifer recharge areas, fish and wildlife habitat, frequently flooded, and geologically hazardous areas regulated by the City of Renton’s Critical Areas Ordinance. Demand (Water Utility): The quantity of water obtained from the water supply source over a period of time to meet the needs of domestic, commercial, industrial and public use, and also firefighting water, system losses, and miscellaneous other water uses. Demands are normally discussed in terms of flow rate, such as million gallons per day (mgd) or gallons per minute (gpm). The flow rates can be described in terms of a volume of water delivered during a certain time period. Flow rates pertinent to the analysis and design of water systems are: a. Average Daily Demand (ADD). The total amount of water delivered to the system in a year divided by the number of days in the year. This is further divided into average residential (ADDR), commercial (ADDC), industrial (ADDI), and unaccounted for (ADDN) demands. b. Maximum Month Demand. The total amount of water delivered to the system during the month of maximum water use. c. Peak Hour Demand. The amount of water delivered to the system in the hour of maximum use usually occurring during the maximum day. Density: The number of dwelling units per acre. See “net density.” Density bonus: Incentive provided to a developer of housing, in exchange for meeting a specified condition or conditions such as quality of design or provision of a certain type of housing unit or other use. Detention/retention facilities: Facilities designed either to hold runoff for a short period of time and then release it to the point of discharge at a controlled rate or to hold water for a considerable length of time and then consume it by evaporation, plants or infiltration into the ground. Development standards: Restrictions, requirements and provisions for land development imposed by ordinance. In Renton, development standards are included in the Renton Municipal Code Title IV, “Development Regulations.” Duplex: A residential building located on a single lot that contains two attached dwelling units under one roof. Also known as a “flat.” Dwelling unit: One or more rooms located within a structure, designed as and arranged for living accommodations, and occupied or intended to be occupied by not more than one family and permitted roomers GLOSSARY PAGE iv CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN and boarders, independent from any other family. The existence of a food preparation area and sanitation facilities within the room or rooms shall be evidence of the existence of a dwelling unit. Dormitories, institutional housing, and other group quarters are not counted as dwelling units. Employment Center: An area of the City where various industries provide higher than average concentrations of employment. Equalizing storage (Water Utility): The act of balancing the difference between the capacity of the sources of supply and the maximum demand rate (generally considered the highest use hour of the hottest day of the year). In water systems that service a large number of residences, the demand for water varies hourly and supply facilities are sized to meet the average rate of the maximum day demand. The maximum hour demand rate is typically about twice the average maximum day rate. If equalizing storage is not available to provide water during peak hours, the supply facilities and major pipelines would have to be sized for the maximum hour demands. However, during non-peak hours, much of the supply capacity would not be used. Instead, equalizing storage facilities are used to make up the difference between maximum hour and maximum day demand. The stored water is released when demand exceeds the supply, and replenished when the supply exceeds demand. Equalizing storage facilities enable supply facilities and pipelines to be smaller and, therefore, lower costs for supply and pipeline facilities are obtained. Feeder system (Cable Television Service): The line that carries the signal from a trunk line amplifier to the subscriber's service drop. Fiber optic cable: A multi-layered cable composed of fine strands of glass fibers capable of transmitting large quantities of coded data by means of modulated light rather than electronic signals. It is preferred as a medium for television signals as it can carry more signals with less dissipation. Fireflow: The rate of flow of water required during firefighting. Fire storage: Reservoir capacity required to meet fire flows. Force main: A sanitary sewer main that utilizes artificial means (pressure) to transport waste. A force main usually moves sewage from a lower elevation to or across a higher elevation. A lift station typically pumps sewage from one basin through a force main to another basin. Functional plans: City departments prepare planning documents that establish long-range goals and objectives to guide their operations and capital development requests. These plans, referred to as functional plans, typically represent the ideal goals for the department in providing urban services and facilities. Gate station (Natural Gas Service): The point at which gas from Northwest Pipeline enters the Puget Sound Energy system, where odorant is added for safety, pressure is reduced between 200 to 300 psi, and the gas is metered. Gateway: A point of entry that identifies a transition between different land uses, landscapes and jurisdictional boundaries and enhances a feeling of anticipation and arrival for the approaching traveler. Geologically hazardous: Areas that may be prone to one or more of the following conditions: erosion, flooding, landslides, coal mine hazards, or seismic activity. Gravity sewer: A sanitary sewer main installed with the intention of utilizing gravity or "downhill flow" to move the waste. The maximum capacity for a gravity sewer is the volume of flow that can be carried in a sewer at a depth to diameter ratio of 0.70. GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE v Greenbelt: An area intended for open space, recreation, very low-density residential uses, agriculture, geographic relief between land uses, or other low-intensity uses. Growth Management Act (GMA) of 1990: A law passed by the Washington State Legislature in 1990 (RCW 36.70A), and amended periodically thereafter, that mandates comprehensive planning in designated counties and cities. Hazardous waste: Any wastes included in the State of Washington, Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, Chapter 173-303 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Headend (Cable Television Service): The electronic equipment that amplifies and processes television signals from all sources. After being assigned a channel, the signals leave via the trunk system. Heavy industrial: A type of land use including manufacturing processes using raw materials, extractive land uses, and any industrial uses that typically are incompatible with adjacent uses due to noise, odor, toxic chemicals, or other activities which could pose a hazard to public health and safety. High-occupancy vehicle (HOV): Generally, a vehicle carrying two or more people. Housing unit: Any dwelling unit, housekeeping unit, guest room, dormitory, or single-occupancy unit. Impact fees: Fees imposed on developers to pay for the community's costs of providing services to a new development. Such charges are an extension of efforts to make new development pay for their impact on the community. Impact fees may also involve some effort to predict the total cost of the community for servicing the new development and relate it to the revenues that will be produced by the development once it is completed. Impervious surface: A hard surface area that either prevents or retards the entry of water into the soil mantle under natural conditions prior to development, and/or a hard surface that causes water to run off the surface in greater quantities or at an increased rate of flow from the flow present under natural conditions prior to development. Common examples include, but are not limited to, roof tops, walkways, patios, decks, driveways, parking lots or storage areas, concrete or asphalt paving, gravel roads, packed or oiled earthen materials, macadam, or other surfaces that similarly impede the natural infiltration of storm water. Industrial: A type of land use characterized by production, manufacturing, distribution or fabrication activities. Infill development: Development consisting of either construction on one or more lots in an area that is mostly developed, or new construction between two existing structures. Infill housing: Construction of new dwelling units on vacant or underutilized parcels in built-up areas. Because utilities, transit, and other infrastructure are already in place, the costs and impacts of new units are generally lower than for development on raw land. Infiltration (Wastewater Utility): The entrance of ground water into the sanitary sewer system through cracks, pores, breaks, and defective joints in the sewer piping network. Inflow: Direct flow of storm water into sanitary sewer systems through hookups from storm water collection facilities and illegal connections. Infrastructure: Facilities and services needed to sustain industry, residential, commercial, and all other land use activities, including water, sewer lines, and other utilities, streets and roads, communications, and public facilities such as fire stations, parks, schools, etc. Institution: A structure (or structures) and related grounds used by organizations providing educational, medical, social, and recreational services to the community such as hospitals, vocational or fine arts schools, GLOSSARY PAGE vi CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN child care centers, whether operated for nonprofit or profit-making purposes; and nonprofit organizations such as colleges and universities, elementary and secondary schools, community centers and clubs, private clubs, religious facilities, museums, and institutes for advanced study. Intensive office: Mid- to high-rise office development including structured parking typically located in areas with regional transportation access. Intermediate pressure (ip) distribution main: Underground lines varying from 1.25 to 6 inches in diameter. Pressure averages 35 psi. Jobs/housing balance: The ratio between jobs and housing within a specified area. The jobs/housing balance can influence housing costs and transportation demand. Land use zoning: Traditionally, a technical or physical approach to the segregation of incompatible land uses, such as residential and industrial use, through systems of land use and development controls. More recently, the techniques have emphasized reinforcing position relationships between compatible land uses such as residential and neighborhood commercial. The contemporary approach also emphasizes the close relationship between transportation and land use to more effectively respond to accessibility, reduction of infrastructure costs, urban design, air, noise, and water pollution, energy conservation, and conservation of resource lands. Landfill: A disposal facility, or part of a facility, where solid waste is permanently placed in or on land and which is not a land spreading disposal facility. Large scale multi-family: A residential building, or group of buildings that contain more than four dwelling units in each building. Level-of-service (LOS): A qualitative rating of how well some unit of transportation supply (e.g., street, intersection, sidewalk, bikeway, transit route, ferry) meets its current or projected demand. Linear parks: Parks that are long and narrow, and follow a natural or man-made corridor such as a road or stream course. Lift station: A sewage pumping facility that consists of a wet well for collecting wastewater, mechanical equipment such as pumps, valves and piping, electrical and control equipment, and a force main. The maximum capacity for a lift station is equal to the peak, wet weather flow that the largest pump within the lift station has been designed to convey. Light industrial: A type of land use including small scale or less intensive production, manufacturing, distribution or fabricating activities. Some office activities and supporting convenience retail activities may also be included. Looping main (Natural Gas Service): A main that connects to a supply line at both ends, thereby providing an alternate route for natural gas to travel to an area needing additional supply. Manufactured housing: A broad term including mobile homes, modular homes, and other "factory built" housing. The main distinction between manufactured homes and site-built homes is that manufactured homes are created in one or more parts away from the site, and then transported to it. “Red Seal” manufactured homes are built to HUD standards, with the chassis included as a permanent part of the home, although the axles must be removed when the home is installed. These homes, however, are built so that they may be placed on a permanent foundation. "Gold Seal" modular homes are constructed in a factory in several pieces that may be smaller or less complete than the pieces of a “Red Seal” manufactured home. Gold Seal homes are built to the specifications of the Uniform Building Code, and are placed on a permanent foundation, similar to a "stick- built" home. Unlike Red Seal homes, the chassis for transportation is not a permanent part of the home. Mobile GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE vii homes, as opposed to manufactured or modular homes, are typically located in established mobile home parks and were built before HUD standards for manufactured housing went into effect June 15, 1976. Master plan: A plan that shows how proposed development will comply with the development standards in the applicable zoning. It also is intended to show compatibility of development within the Master Plan, and compatibility of anticipated uses in areas adjacent to and abutting the Master Plan area. It provides long-term guidance for a smaller area than a Conceptual Plan, but a larger area than a detailed Site Plan. Metro: A countywide agency run by Metropolitan King County that provides regularly scheduled public transit service (both express and local service), park and ride lots, vanpools, ride-sharing, and customized service to meet people with special needs. Metro is also a regional sewage treatment agency charged with the collection, treatment, and disposal of sewage from the City of Renton and much of King County. Minimum density: A development standard that sets the least amount of density permitted in a residential zone and results in a more efficient use of urban land than might otherwise be attained through market forces. Mitigation (Surface Water Utility): Avoiding, minimizing or compensating for adverse wetland impacts. Mitigation, in the following order of preference, is: a. Avoiding the impact altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of an action; b. Minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the action and its implementation, by using appropriate technology, or by taking deliberate steps to avoid or reduce impacts; c. Rectifying the impact by repairing, rehabilitating, or restoring the affected environment; d. Reducing or eliminating the impact over time by preservation and maintenance operations during the life of the action; e. Compensating for the impact by restoring or providing substitute resources or environments; f. Monitoring the impact and the compensation project and taking appropriate corrective measures. Mitigation for individual actions may include a combination of the above measures. Mixed-use: The presence of more than one category of use in a structure or development project, for example, a mixture of residential units and retail or offices in the same building or if in separate buildings, in close proximity to one another. Mode: Types of transportation available for use, such as a bicycle, an automobile, or a bus. Mode-split: The proportion of total persons using a particular mode of travel. In this document, mode-split generally refers to the percentage of people using public transportation as opposed to other motorized modes. Multi-family use: A structure or portion of a structure containing two or more dwelling units. Multi-modal: Referring to accessibility by a variety of travel modes, typically pedestrian, bicycle, transit, and automobile modes, but may also include water and air transport modes. Natural gas: For the most part methane, a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. Neighborhood commercial: Small commercial areas providing limited retail goods and services such as groceries and dry cleaning for nearby customers. Net density: A calculation of the number of housing units that would be allowed on a property after sensitive areas, public streets, and private access easements are subtracted from the gross area (gross acres minus GLOSSARY PAGE viii CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN streets, easements, and sensitive areas multiplied by allowable housing units per acre). This calculation applies to residential uses only. Northwest Pipeline: Interstate pipeline providing gas to Puget Sound Energy. Pressure varies from 600 to 900 psi in two parallel pipes, 26 and 30 inches in diameter. Off-site release rates (Surface Water Utility): As a result of development, the peak release rate of water from the developed property during the design storm. On-street parking: Parking spaces in the rights-of-way. Open space: Any area of land, or water that provides physical or visual relief from the developed environment. Open space may be essentially unimproved and set aside, designated or reserved for public use or enjoyment, or for the private use and enjoyment of adjacent property owners. Open space may also consist of undeveloped or developed areas including urban plazas, parks, pedestrian corridors, landscaping, pastures, woodlands, greenbelts, wetlands, and other natural areas or street rights-of-way which provide visual relief within developed areas. The term does not include driveway, parking lots, or other surfaces designed for vehicular travel. Outfall: The point, location, or structure where wastewater or drainage discharges from a sewer, drain, or other conduit. P-1 Channel: An existing channel in the lower Green River Valley that transports the surface water flows of Springbrook Creek to the Black River Pump Station. Peak flow (wastewater utility): The maximum amount of sewage, either actual or estimated, that must be transported through the system in a given time (usually in gallons per minute). Peak flow is usually measured or calculated during the wettest time of the year when rain and high ground water add inflow and infiltration to the normal flow of the system at the time of day when domestic use is the greatest. Peak hour: One-hour interval within the peak period when travel demand is usually highest (e.g., 7:30-8:30 a.m. and 4:30-5:30 p.m.). Pedestrian-orientated: A type of development where the location and access to buildings, types of uses permitted on the street level, and design of building facades are based on the needs of people on foot. Pedestrian facility: An improvement designed to facilitate accessibility by foot or wheelchair, including sidewalks, curb ramps, crosswalks, overpasses and undercrossings, etc. Pipeline: Buried pipe systems (including all pipe, pipe joints, fittings, valves, manholes, sumps, and appurtenances that are in contact with the substance being transported) utilized for the conveyance of regulated substances. Pipelines include, but are not limited to, sanitary sewers, side sewers, leachate pipelines, and product pipelines, such as petroleum. Planning Area: A geographic area defined on a map in a comprehensive plan that is a logical area for expansion of the system. Conversion of a planning area to a utility service area requires King County approval of an amendment to a comprehensive plan. Platting: Essentially a map of a piece of land that shows the location, boundaries, area, and other details of existing and proposed lots, streets, utilities, public areas, and all other necessary data to demonstrate compliance with subdivision regulations; state statutes provide for the recording of plats, and the selling of lots or parcels of land by referring to the recorded plat. GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE ix Potential Annexation Area (PAA): The area within the Urban Growth Area that is not already incorporated as a city and is designated for future annexation by specific cities. Pre-development levels (Surface Water Utility): The rate of flow under a design storm occurrence that would occur in absence of a development. Pressure zone (Water Utility): A water system subsection operating from one source at a common hydraulic elevation. Protected APA designated Zone 2: If the aquifer supplying water to a well, well field, or spring is naturally protected by overlying geologic strata, the City of Renton may choose not to subdivide an APA into two zones. In such a case, the entire APA will be designated as Zone 2. Public facilities: Streets, roads, highways, sidewalks, street and road lighting systems, traffic signals, domestic water systems, storm and sanitary sewer systems, park and recreational facilities, schools and public buildings. Public Works: The City of Renton's Planning/Building/Public Works Department. Recyclables (Solid Waste Utility): Newspaper, uncoated mixed paper, aluminum, glass and metal, food and beverage containers, Polyethylene terepthalate (PET #1) plastic bottles, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE #2) plastic bottles, and such other materials that the City and contractor determine to be recyclable. Residential use: Any land use that provides for living space. Examples include artist studio/dwelling, boarding house, caretaker’s quarters, single family, multi-family, special residence, floating homes, and mobile home parks. Rezoning: An amendment approved by the governing body, to the Official Zoning Map and/or text of development standards to effect a change in the nature, density, or intensity of uses allowed in a zoning district and/or on a designated lot or land area. Rezoning can take two forms: 1) a Comprehensive Plan Amendment (revision or modification of the text and/or map), or 2) a change of the zoning district applied to a particular lot or lots, without a change in the Comprehensive Plan land use designation. Right(s)-of-way: A public or private area that allows for the passage of people or goods. Right-of-way includes passageways such as freeways, streets, bike paths, alleys, and walkways. A public right-of-way is a right-of-way that is dedicated or deeded to the public for public use and under the control of a public agency. Runoff: That portion of precipitation that flows over land surface and enters a natural drainage system or constructed storm sewer system during and immediate following a storm. Rural area: A sparsely developed area located outside of the Urban Growth Area, where the land is undeveloped or primarily used for agricultural, forestry, resource extraction, very low-density residential uses, or open space purposes. Sanitary sewer: A piping system that carries liquid and waterborne wastes from residences, commercial buildings, industrial plants, and institutions, together with minor quantities of ground, storm, and surface waters that are not admitted intentionally. SEPA: See State Environmental Policy Act. Service area: A geographic area within which service to customers is available as specifically defined on a map in a utilities service plan and approved by King County. GLOSSARY PAGE x CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Service drop (Cable Television Service): Smaller diameter cable that runs from a feeder line to the subscriber's television. Side sewer: In plumbing, the extension from the building drain to the public sewer or other place of disposal. Also called house connection or side sewer (private). A side sewer stub is that portion of the side sewer between the collector sewer and the individual property line. Single-occupant vehicle (SOV): A vehicle carrying only one person. Solid waste: A general term for discarded materials destined for disposal, but not discharged to a sewer or to the atmosphere. Special benefit districts: Subareas of a community designated by city ordinance to assess payments for construction or installation of public facilities which primarily benefit the property owners within the district. Special needs housing: This category refers to housing that is provided for low income or indigent persons and, where applicable, their dependents who, by virtue of disability or other personal factors, face serious impediments to independent living and who require special assistance and services in order to sustain appropriate housing on a permanent, long-term or transitional basis. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA): The state law passed in 1971 requiring state and local agencies to consider environmental impacts in the decision-making process. Storm sewer or storm drain: A sewer that carries storm water and surface water, street wash, and other wash waters, or drainage, but excludes domestic wastewater and industrial wastes. Storm water: Water originating from precipitation, surface runoff, shallow ground water, or other drainage that does not include domestic wastewater or industrial wastes. Strip commercial: An area occupied by businesses along an arterial street, located in one-story structures or platted lots and/or small shopping centers arranged in a line and set back from the street to allow front of store parking lots with individual driveway entrances and individual parking. Structured parking: Vehicle parking within a building having one or more stories. Surface parking: Open lots or grounds with at-grade vehicle parking facilities. Townhouse: A form of ground-related housing where individual dwelling units are attached along at least one common wall to at least one other dwelling unit. Each dwelling unit occupies space from the ground to the roof. Transfer of development rights (TDRs): A program in which the unused portion of a "sending" property's zoned capacity – one of the separable rights of property – is sold to the developer of a "receiving" site, who is allowed to add the capacity to the zoned limit of that site. Transfer station: Permanent, fixed, supplemental collection and transportation facility, used by persons and route collection vehicles to deposit collected solid waste from off-site into a larger transfer vehicle for transport to a solid waste handling facility. Transfer stations may also include recycling facilities and compaction/baling systems. Transit: Public transportation by public bus, light rail, heavy rail, and commuter rail transport, but not ferries or vanpools. Transportation Demand Management (TDM): A system for reducing traffic congestion and provide multi-modal transportation opportunities, which is implemented in Washington State through the Commute Trip Reduction law. See Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) definition. GLOSSARY CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xi Transportation Improvement Program (TIP): A plan, adopted by a jurisdiction, that details the priority for improvements to the transportation system related infrastructure and the means and methods of financing those improvements. Transportation Systems Management (TSM): Accommodating transportation demand by using the existing supply more efficiently and by emphasizing lower cost improvements that can be implemented quickly. For example, converting a general purpose traffic lane into a transit-way might increase the person-carrying capacity of a highway more easily and quickly than widening the highway for additional traffic lanes. Trunk system (Cable Television Service): The cables that carry signals from the headend to the feeder lines. Since the signal loses strength as it travels down the cable, a series or cascade of amplifiers, located at intervals along its length, boost signal strength. Undeveloped rights-of-way: Any undeveloped portion of a strip of land legally established for the use of pedestrians, vehicles, or utilities. Upzoning: Changing the Official Zoning Map and/or text of development standards in a way that allows less restrictive uses (e.g., from residential to commercial) or allowing higher densities for a given area of land. Urban Center: Defined by the Countywide Planning Policies, recognized by the Puget Sound Regional Council, and so designated by City Council Resolution, the Urban Center is an area of Renton with existing and/or future high employment concentration, residential use at high density, and accessibility. These areas promote non- SOV mobility, reduce sprawl, and maximize benefits of existing public investment. Urban growth area: Area designated by the City and endorsed by the County for development over the next twenty years as required by the Growth Management Act. Urban growth patterns should not occur outside these areas. Urban separator: Corridors of natural areas or very low density rural development between higher density urban areas. Examples include lands useful for open space, wildlife habitat, recreation trails and connection of critical areas, agricultural uses, or lands which have a rural character. Also known as a “Community Separator.” Utilities: All lines and facilities related to the provision, distribution, collection, transmission, or disposal of water, storm and sanitary sewage, oil, gas, power, information, telecommunication and telephone cable, and includes facilities for the generation of electricity. Vision 2020: Puget Sound Regional Council's 1990 adopted regional comprehensive vision that describes linking high-density residential and employment centers throughout the region by high capacity transit and promoting a multi-modal transportation system. Wastewater: The spent or used water of a community or industry that contains dissolved and suspended contaminants that cannot be discharged directly to a lake, stream, or river. Wetlands: Areas characterized by the presence of surface or groundwater at a frequency or duration to support vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. For the purposes of inventory, incentives, and non- regulatory programs, those lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For the purposes of regulation, wetlands are defined by the Federal Manual for the Regulation and Delineation of Jurisdictional Wetlands pursuant to this Chapter, Section 4-32-3.C. Wetlands created or restored as part of a mitigation project are regulated wetlands. Wetlands intentionally created for purposes other than wetland mitigation, including but not limited to, stormwater management, wastewater treatment or landscape amenities, drainage ditches are not considered regulated wetlands. GLOSSARY PAGE xii CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Wildlife habitat: An area characterized by wildlife that forage, nest, spawn, or migrate through, in search of food and shelter. Yard waste (Solid Waste Utility): Debris from leaves, grass, and clippings of woody as well as fleshy plants. Materials larger than two inches (2") in diameter and four feet (4') in length shall not be considered yard waste. APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xiii APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS Project ID Project Location (Limits) Description Community Planning Area MULTIMODAL ROADWAY IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS 1 Lake Washington Blvd/NE 44th St (May Creek Bridge to NE 48th St) Widen arterial including upgraded pedestrian and bicycle facilities and new traffic signal. Kennydale 2 NE 31st St (May Creek) Bridge Replacement Replace the existing substandard bridge based on low sufficiency rating. Kennydale 3 Lake Washington Blvd (Park Ave N to Coulon Park Entrance) Widen existing roadway to provide additional left turn lanes. City Center 4 Park Ave N Extension (Logan Ave N to north of Logan Ave N) Extend Park Ave N through construction of a new 4/5 lane roadway with pedestrian and bicycle facilities. City Center 5 Houser Way N (from N 8th St to Lk Washington Blvd) Convert Houser Way N to two-way operation including pedestrian and bicycle facilities. City Center 6 Rainier Ave Phase 4 (S 3rd St (SR 900) to NW 3rd Pl) Reconstruct arterial including pedestrian improvements and traffic signal upgrades. City Center 7 Rainier Ave Phase 5 (NW 3rd Pl to North City Limits) Convert existing arterial to 3 to 4 lanes with pedestrian and bicycle facilities. City Center 8 Bronson Way (S 2nd St to Park Ave N) Rehabilitate or replace existing bridge. City Center 9 Main Ave S/Bronson Way S Circulation (S 3rd St to Mill Ave S/ Bronson Way S) Construct new northbound lane on Main Ave S and Bronson Way S and intersection modifications. City Center 10 City Center One-way Street System Conversion Convert existing one-way streets per City Center Community Plan. City Center 11 City Center Circulation and Multimodal Enhancement Projects Implement arterial and local roadway improvements identified in the City Center Community Plan. City Center 12 Logan Ave Phase 2 (N 6th St to Park Ave N) Widen arterial to include additional northbound lane, sidewalks, multi-use trail, and traffic signal modifications. City Center 13 Grady Way (Main Ave to Rainier Ave) Reconfigure existing travel lanes to improve traffic operations and transit reliability. City Center 14 S 7th St (Rainier Ave S to Talbot Rd S) Widen existing arterial and install traffic signal and additional lanes at intersection of S 7th St/Shattuck Ave. City Center 15 Sunset Blvd NE (SR 900) (I-405 to NE Park Dr; Monroe Ave NE to East City Limits) Modify arterial to improve traffic operations including channelization, access management, pedestrian/bicycle facilities and traffic signal modifications. Highlands - East Plateau 16 Sunset Area Community Road Improvements 16a Sunset Blvd (NE Park Dr to Monroe Ave NE) Reconstruct arterial with pedestrian and bicycle facilities and transit facilities to latest principal arterial standards. Highlands APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS PAGE xiv CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Project ID Project Location (Limits) Description Community Planning Area 16a Sunset Blvd (NE Park Dr to Monroe Ave NE) Reconstruct arterial with pedestrian and bicycle facilities and transit facilities to latest principal arterial standards. Highlands 16b Sunset Ln/NE 10th St (Sunset Boulevard to Glennwood Ave) Reconstruct Sunset Ln to a 2-lane roadway and extend NE 10th St (Harrington Ave NE to Glenwood Ave NE). Highlands 16c Sunset Area Green Connections Construct multimodal improvements identified in the Sunset Area Community Planned Action Study. Highlands 16d NE 12th St/Edmonds Ave Modify intersection channelization. Highlands 16e NE 12th St/Harrington Ave Modify intersection channelization. Highlands 17 NE 10th St (Union Ave NE to Duvall Ave NE) Develop streets to Residential Access standards with one lane in each direction. Highlands 18 NE 8th St (Union Ave NE to Duvall Ave NE) Develop streets to Residential Access standards with one lane in each direction. Highlands 19 NE 3rd St/NE 4th St Corridor (Sunset Blvd to East City Limits) Modify intersection channelization and traffic signals and upgrade pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Highlands - East Plateau 20 NE 6th St (Duvall Ave NE to 156th Ave SE) Develop streets to Residential Access standards with one lane in each direction. East Plateau 21 Duvall Ave NE (NE 4th St to Sunset Blvd) Widen existing 4-lane arterial to provide center two-way left turn lane north of NE 7th St, as needed. East Plateau 22 NE 2nd St (Duvall Ave NE to 156th Ave SE) Develop streets to Residential Access standards with one lane in each direction. East Plateau 23 156th Ave SE (NE 4th St to SE 143rd St) Construct two-way left-turn lane and non-motorized facilities, as needed. Install signal at 156th Ave SE/ NE 142nd St. East Plateau 24 Maple Valley Hwy (SR 169) Interim (SE 5th St to East City Limits) Construct intersection and operational improvements. Also see WSDOT SR 169 project. Cedar River 25 Grady Way (Rainier Ave to West City Limits) Construct additional turn lanes at Grady Way intersections with Lind Ave and with Oakesdale Ave. Valley 26 Lind Ave SW (SW 16th St to SW 43rd St) Widen arterial to provide a center two-way left turn lane and upgrade sidewalks, as needed. Modify traffic signals. Valley 27 SW 43rd St/Carr Rd (Lind Ave to Talbot Rd S) Widen SW 43rd St and East Valley Hwy to add travel lanes approaching their intersection. Also see SR 167/SW 43rd St interchange project. Valley - Talbot 28 SW 43rd St/Carr Rd/SE 176th St/SE Petrovitsky Rd (Oakesdale Ave to 134th Ave SE) Implement adaptive signal control system (ASCS) along corridor and construct westbound right-turn lane from Carr Rd to Benson Dr SE. Valley - Talbot - Benson 29 Talbot Rd (SW 43rd St to South City Limits) Widen existing 2-lane roadway to provide a center two-way left turn lane, where needed, and bike lanes. Talbot 30 Carr Rd/Petrovitsky Rd (Talbot Rd S to Benson Dr S) Implement projects along this arterial corridor to improve traffic operations and enhance non-motorized facilities. Talbot APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xv Project ID Project Location (Limits) Description Community Planning Area 31 Puget Dr SE (Jones Pl SE to Edmonds Ave SE) Widen existing 2-lane roadway to provide center two-way turn lane, as needed. Benson 32 Benson Rd (S 26th St to S 31st St) Widen existing 2-lane roadway to 3-4 lanes, as needed. Benson 33 Benson Hill Community Plan Improvements Implement various pedestrian and bicycle enhancements as identified in the Benson Hill Community Plan. Benson 34 116th Ave SE/Edmonds Ave SE (Puget Dr SE to S 192nd St) Widen arterial to provide a center two-way left turn lane and upgrade sidewalks, as needed. Modify traffic signals. Benson 35 Petrovitsky Rd (Benson Dr S to 134th Ave SE) Implement projects along this arterial corridor to improve traffic operations and enhance non-motorized facilities. Benson 36 Monster Rd (Monster Rd SW/Oakesdale Ave SW to MLK Way/Sunset Blvd) Widen to 4/5 lane arterial with pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Realign intersection of Beacon Coal Mine Rd. Joint project with King County. West Hill NON-MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS Lake Washington Loop Trail Construct a shared use regional trail from the Cedar River Trail and extending to the north City limits along Airport Way and Rainier Ave N. City Center Lake to Sound Trail The Lake-to-Sound (L2S) Trail is a joint partnership between the cities of Renton, SeaTac, Tukwila, Burien, and Des Moines, in coordination with King County. City Center - Valley Walkway/Bicycle/Trails Program Construct sidewalks, bicycle facilities, and multi-use trails per Comprehensive Walkway Study and Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan. Citywide Other Annual Walkway and Barrier- free Transition Plan Program Construct missing sidewalks, walkways, and other pedestrian facilities based on various studies. Also includes removal of barriers to pedestrian travel. Citywide PRESERVATION, SAFETY, ITS, AND TRANSPORTATION DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Preservation Programs Annual City programs including Street Overlay, Arterial Rehabilitation, Sidewalk Rehab and Replacement, and Bridge Inspection and Repair. Citywide Safety Programs Annual City programs including Roadway Safety and Guardrails, Intersection Safety and Mobility, and Traffic Safety. Citywide Traffic Signal Operations and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Provides for improvements to the operational efficiency of the transportation retiming and modifying traffic signals, coordinating traffic signals, and implementation of various ITS improvements including adaptive signal control systems (ASCS). Citywide Arterial Circulation and Project Development Programs Provide for the short and long-range planning and traffic analyses to evaluate transportation improvements projects. Include other support activities such as funding and public involvement. Citywide APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS PAGE xvi CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN Project ID Project Location (Limits) Description Community Planning Area OTHER AGENCY IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS SERVING RENTON WSDOT I-405 Widening and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes (I-5 to Bellevue) Add lanes to I-405 and convert existing HOV Lane to HOT lane. Modify Interchanges in Renton per I-405 Master Plan. I-405/SR 167 Interchange Direct HOV/HOT Connector Project Construct new HOV/HOT direct access ramps between SR 167 and I-405. SR 167 SW 43rd Street to I-405 Construct one or two additional northbound lanes. SR 167/SW 43rd St Interchange Work with WSDOT to modify and increase capacity of SR 167/SW 43rd Street interchange including widening SW 43rd St/Carr Rd and interchange overcrossing. Maple Valley Hwy (SR 169) Long-range (I-405 to City Limits) Work with WSDOT to widen existing 4-lane state highway to provide an additional lane in each direction per WSDOT Route Development Plan. Sound Transit I-405 Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Implement BRT along I-405 corridor in conjunction with WSDOT widening of I-405 to add HOV/HOT lanes. I-405 NE 8th St Transit/High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Interchange Construct a direct access HOV interchange in north Renton. Project tied to WSDOT I-405 widening project. N 8th St Parking Garage Construct a park-and-ride with up to 700 parking stalls for transit riders. King County/Metro Cedar River to Sammamish Trail (Cedar River Trail in Renton to East Lake Sammamish Trail in Issaquah) Acquisition, design, and construction of paved off-road multi-purpose facility linking the Cedar River Trail with East Lake Sammamish Trail. Lake to Sound Trail - Various Segments Acquisition, design, and construction of paved regional trail. Soos Creek Trail to Lake Youngs Trail (Soos Creek Trail at 116th St to 116th St/148th Ave SE) Design and construct on-road and off-road connector trail between Soos Creek and Lake Youngs Trails via SE 216th St 140th / 132nd Ave SE (From SE Petrovitsky Rd to SE 240th St) Provide continuity in the north/south corridor by capacity, operational, and safety improvements. Will add additional lanes in the south portion of the corridor. Kennydale P&R 400 new stalls. Rainier Ave ITS (Seattle City Limits to Renton City Limits) Provide ITS improvements which could include signal synchronization, vehicle detection, cameras, and TSP. Renton Ave ITS (from Rainier Ave S to Rainier Ave N) Provide ITS improvements which could include signal synchronization, vehicle detection, cameras, and TSP. APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xvii Project ID Project Location (Limits) Description Community Planning Area 87th Ave S and S 124th St Realign Intersection 68th Ave S (Martin Luther King Jr Way to Renton City Limits) Construct walls for widening arterial. Also see City of Renton project 36. Kent SE 192nd St Roadway Extension (84th Ave/ E Valley Hwy to 108th Ave SE) Create new roadway connection with 4-5 lanes and bike lanes Newcastle 112th Pl SE (SE 86th Pl to 114th Ave SE) and 114th Ave SE (112th Pl SE to SE 88th St) Construct sidewalks Replace Coal Creek Prkwy Bridge (South of Coal Creek Pkwy/ SE May Valley Rd) Replace bridge 144th Pl SE road extension to May Valley Rd Construct new street with curb, gutters, and drainage Tukwila SW 27th St/Strander Blvd (West Valley Hwy (SR-181) to Naches Ave SW) Design and construct arterial improvements for a new roadway extending Strander Blvd/SW 27th St from West Valley Highway to Naches Ave SW Strander/W Valley Hwy Extension Modifications Modify future roadway and intersection, as needed. Baker Boulevard (from Andover Park W to W Valley Hwy) Modify roadway and construct pedestrian/bicycle bridge over the Green River to the Interurban Trail and connections to the Tukwila commuter rail/Amtrak Station. Tukwila Station Access with 156th St to 16th Ave S Link (156th St to 16th Ave S) Construct new roadway with pedestrian facilities to pass under the BNSF and UP railroad tracks; connecting S 156th St in Tukwila to 16th Ave S in Renton. Tukwila Urban Center Transit Center (Strander Blvd to Tukwila Pkwy) Construct Transit Center in the Central Business District APPENDIX A: TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS AND PROGRAMS PAGE xviii CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xix APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH The following table outlines the policy objectives for maintaining and improving public access within the shoreline. Application of public access objectives should be considered along with other objectives of the Shoreline Management Act, such as ecological restoration and priority uses. SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES LAKE WASHINGTON Lake Washington Reach A From Bellevue city limits to Renton city limits This developed primarily single-family area currently provides no public access. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from public trail development along the railroad right of way inland of the residential lots; however, views may be limited by topography and vegetation. Access to the water should be pursued at an existing undeveloped railroad right of way, including parcels used for utilities and potential acquisition of parcels, with emphasis on parcels that are not currently developed because they do not currently have roadway access. Lake Washington Reach B From the city limits to the Seahawks training facility This is primarily a single-family area with one multi-family development immediately south of the Seahawks Training Center. There is currently no public access. There is a public trail along I-405, but it does not have views of the water. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely, but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from trail development along the railroad right of way inland of the residential lots (however, views may be limited by topography and vegetation) and potential acquisition of opportunities for public access to the water. Lake Washington Reach C From the Seattle Seahawks headquarters and training facility through the former Barbee Mill site. This reach includes the recently constructed Seattle Seahawks headquarters and training facility to the north and the Barbee Mill site to the south. The Quendall Terminals parcel between the Seahawks and Barbee Mill sites is a Superfund site contaminated with coal tar and creosote. There is public access along a portion of the shoreline at the Seahawks site and adjacent to May Creek at the Barbee Mill site. Public harbor lands are along about a third of the subdivision water frontage. The potential for provision of public access from new development will occur after cleanup of the Superfund site with multi-use development that should offer shoreline access across the entire property, consistent with vegetation conservation. Provision of public access from future redevelopment of the Seahawks and Barbee Mill site is possible under the existing zoning, which allows higher intensity use and provides an opportunity for continuous public access parallel to the shoreline. Public access should be provided to shared or commercial docks. Public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from a future trail along the railroad (views may be limited to the APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH PAGE xx CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES northerly and southerly portion of the reach because of distance to the water and potential blockage by intervening buildings); enhancement of the May Creek trail to public streets; access on public aquatic lands; and potential acquisition of public access to the water. Lake Washington Reach D From May Creek to Mountain View Avenue This reach is a single-family area with no public access except Kennydale Beach Park. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from public trail development along the railroad right of way; pedestrian and bicycle access on Lake Washington Boulevard; public viewing areas and possible public acquisition of access to the water including an existing undeveloped railroad right of way adjacent to the water; and potential public right of way and potential public acquisition of selected parcels, including undeveloped parcels with development constraints. Lake Washington Reach E From Mountain View Avenue to Gene Coulon Park This reach is a single-family area with no existing public access. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from public trail development along the railroad right of way; pedestrian and bicycle access on Lake Washington Boulevard; public viewing areas and possible public acquisition of access to the water including an existing undeveloped railroad right of way adjacent to the water; possible public street ends; and potential public acquisition of selected parcels. Lake Washington Reach F The less developed northerly portion of Gene Coulon Park Public access is currently provided by a trail system through the park and a variety of primarily passive recreational facilities, a fishing pier, and a moorage dock. Public access is one element of park functions that should be continued and incorporated in future plans and balanced with goals for providing recreation and improving ecologic functions. Other public agency actions to improve public access should include visual access from public trail development along the railroad right of way, and pedestrian and bicycle access on Lake Washington Boulevard including addition of public viewing areas. Lake Washington Reach G The more developed southerly portion of Gene Coulon Park Public access is currently provided by a trail system through the park together with a variety of passive and active recreational facilities, a boat launch, over-water facilities, and concession facilities. Public access is one element of park functions that should be continued and incorporated in future plans, as well as balanced with goals for providing recreation and improving ecologic functions. Lake Washington Reach H Southport multiple use development Public access is currently provided along the waterfront and should continue in the future as part of multi- use development of the remainder of the property. The design should include supporting water-oriented uses and amenities such as seating and landscaping. Lake Washington Reach I Boeing Plant and to the Cedar River This reach is about one-third state-owned aquatic lands designated as Harbor Area and managed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (DNR) and two-thirds is the Boeing Company’s site. Landward of the inner harbor line, ownership is entirely the Renton Boeing Plant. Public access in this area APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xxi SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES includes the Cedar River Boathouse located on pilings in Lake Washington and accessed from the west from the Cedar River Trail. The boathouse includes a public fishing area and provides canoe and kayak rentals, classes, and guided trips. Public access is currently not feasible on the three acres of state owned aquatic lands managed by DNR. In the future, if the Boeing site is redeveloped public access should be provided, balanced with goals for ecological restoration. Public agency actions to improve public access should include a waterfront trail, which would connect the public access at the Southport development to the Cedar River Trail. This action should be implemented when environmental and security issues can be resolved, as well as public access to public lands, balanced with the goals of preserving ecological functions. Lake Washington Reach J Renton Municipal Airport Public access to the Lake Waterfront is provided from the lawn area of the Will Rogers, Wiley Post Memorial Sea Plane Base and should be maintained if the goal of public access is not in conflict with the aeronautical use of the property. Public agency actions to improve public access should include enhancing opportunities for the public to approach the water’s edge from the existing lawn area. Public access may necessarily be limited by safety and security limitation inherent in the primary use of the property for aeronautical purposes. Lake Washington Reach K From the Renton Municipal Airport to the Seattle city limits This reach is predominantly single-family area with no existing public access. Public visual access is provided from Rainier Avenue. The potential for provision of public access from new development is likely limited to future redevelopment of a small mobile home park in the easterly portion of this reach and from redevelopment of existing multi-family uses. Public agency actions to improve public access should include enhanced public views from Rainier Avenue as well as enhanced pedestrian facilities or view points. This effort may include acquisition of several undeveloped parcels to provide access to the water’s edge, consistent with goals for preservation and enhancement of ecological functions. MAY CREEK May Creek A From the mouth of the creek to Lake Washington Boulevard This reach is bounded by open space dedicated as part of a subdivision and includes public access provided by a trail along the creek. Public agency actions to improve public access should include enhanced public views from Lake Washington Boulevard including enhanced pedestrian facilities or view points, improved connections of the May Creek trail to public streets, and to the potential trail to the east across or under the railroad right of way and Lake Washington Boulevard. May Creek B From Lake Washington Boulevard to I-405 There is currently no public access in this reach. At the time of re-development, public access should be provided from a trail parallel to the water along the entire property with controlled public access to the water, balanced with goals of preservation and enhancement of ecological functions. Public agency actions to improve public access should include provisions to cross I-405 to connect with trail systems to the east. May Creek C From I-405 to NE 36th Street This reach includes discontinuous public ownership with some private ownership. At the time of development of private lands, public access should be provided from a trail parallel to the water together APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH PAGE xxii CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES with public agency actions to develop a trail on public land. All trail development should be set back from the water’s edge with controlled public access to the water, balanced with goals of preservation and enhancement of ecological functions. May Creek D From NE 36th Street to the city limits This reach is largely King County May Creek Park. Public access is informal and discontinuous. There are some private holdings along the creek. At the time of development of private lands, public access should be provided from a trail parallel to the water coordinated with public agency actions to develop a trail on public land. All trail development should be set back from the water’s edge with controlled public access to the water, balanced with goals of preservation and enhancement of ecological functions. CEDAR RIVER Cedar River A Mouth to Logan Avenue A public trail is provided on the east side of the river in the Cedar River Park. No public access is provided on the west side of the river adjacent to the municipal airport. Public physical access from a trail parallel to the water should be provided if the Renton Municipal Airport redevelops in the future, balanced with goals of ecological restoration. Cedar River B Logan Avenue to I-405 bridges A public trail is provided on the north side of the river and a variety of public access is provided on the south side, including small city parks. Public access should generally be provided within the corridor of public lands adjacent to the river; however, adjacent private parcels not separated by public streets should provide active open space and other facilities to provide gathering places to enjoy the shoreline environment, together with water-oriented uses. Revisions to the existing trail to relocate further from the water’s edge to allow revegetation should be considered in the future as part of public park and river maintenance plans. Cedar River C I-405 to the SR 169 A public trail is provided on the former Milwaukee railroad. Public access is provided at a public park on the north side immediately east of I-405. Public and/or community access along the waterfront should be provided as private lands on the north side of the river redevelop, considered along with the goal of restoration of ecological functions. The single-family residential area on the north side of the river provides no public access. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include additional interpretive trails and trail linkages through public lands on the south side of the river, if consistent with ecological functions and public acquisition of access to the water in existing single-family areas, where appropriate. Cedar River D SR 169 to UGA boundary A public trail is provided on the former Milwaukee railroad. It is generally at a distance from the water’s edge. Most of this reach is under public ownership or dedicated open space. The primary goal for management of this reach should be ecological enhancement. Additional public access to the water’s edge may be provided if consistent with ecological functions. The small residential area at the east end of the UGA provides no public access. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xxiii SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include improved visual access from the existing trail and possible public acquisition of access to the water. GREEN RIVER Green River Reach A The Green/Black River below the pump station The area west of Monster Road provides no public access. Public physical access from a trail parallel to the water should be provided as private lands redevelop. Public agency actions to improve public access should include acquisition of trail rights to connect the Lake to Sound trail system to the Green River Trail and Fort Dent Park. The area west of Monster Road is part of the publicly owned Black River Forest where interpretive trails exist. Expansion of public access should occur only if consistent with ecological functions. BLACK RIVER / SPRINGBROOK CREEK Black/Springbrook A From the City Limits to Grady Way The area west of Monster Road provides no public access. Public physical access from a trail parallel to the water should be provided as private lands redevelop. Public agency actions to improve public access should include acquisition of trail rights to connect the trail system to the Green River Trail and Fort Dent Park. The area west of Monster Road is part of the publicly owned Black River Forest where interpretive trails exist. Expansion of public access should occur only if consistent with ecological functions. Interpretive trails are present in the Black River Forest. Expansion of public access should occur only if consistent with ecological functions. A trail system is present on the west side of the stream adjacent to the sewage treatment plant and should be retained and possibly enhanced. Springbrook B From Grady Way to SW 16th Street A trail system is present on WSDOT right of way and crosses under I-405. Enhancement should be implemented as part of future highway improvements or other public agency actions. Springbrook C From SW 16th Street to the City Limits A public trail parallel to the stream was developed as part of the Boeing Longacres Office Park and extends from SW 16th Street under Oaksdale. Avenue and terminates at the alignment of 19th Street at the parking lot of a pre-existing industrial building. If future development occurs in this area, a continuous trail system connecting to the continuous system to the south should be planned, consistent with protection of ecological values of wetlands and streamside vegetation. There is no trail system along the stream from SW 19th Street to the approximate alignment of SE 23rd Street. A continuous trail system is provided from 23rd Street to the city limits including portions through the Springbrook Wetland Mitigation Bank. If future development occurs in the area of the missing trail link, a trail system connecting to the continuous system to the south should be planned, consistent with protection of ecological values of wetlands and streamside vegetation buffers. Public actions should include interim linkages of the existing trail systems, which may include interim trails or routing on public streets and sidewalks. In the future, if vegetation buffers are developed within the stream corridor and APPENDIX B: PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES BY REACH PAGE xxiv CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SHORELINE REACH LOCATION PUBLIC ACCESS OBJECTIVES adjacent lands, relocation of the trail farther from the stream should be considered with controlled access to the water’s edge. LAKE DESIRE: A trail system is present in public open space in parks around the lake but there is no trail system adjacent to the lake. Lake Desire Entire Lake Public access is provided by a WDFW boat launch. There is currently no formal public access to the water at the natural area at the south end of the lake, nor the County-designated natural area at the north end of the lake. Interpretive access should be implemented in a manner consistent with ecological values. Existing single-family residential development provides no public access. The potential for provision of public access from new development is low because further subdivision and non-single family use is not likely but should be pursued if such development occurs. Public agency actions to improve public access should include public acquisition of access to the water where appropriate. Access for interpretive purposes may be an element of public acquisition of wetlands. TECHNICAL APPENDIX C: LAND USE ASSUMPTIONS AND UTILITY PLANS CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xxv TECHNICAL APPENDIX C: LAND USE ASSUMPTIONS AND UTILITY PLANS INTRODUCTION The Growth Management Act (GMA) requires that cities and counties develop land use plans that accommodate 20 years of growth. The land use pattern and growth is to be supported by utilities and capital facilities. The purpose of this technical appendix is to establish and compare the growth assumptions in the City’s Comprehensive Plan and Countywide Planning Policies with the assumptions in the City’s “Water System Plan Update: A Comprehensive Water System Plan, 2012” and the “Long- Range Wastewater Management Plan, A Comprehensive Sewer System Plan, Final 2010.” Results show the system plans can support the land use plan and growth assumptions for the horizon year of 2031 matching the growth allocations in the Countywide Planning Policies. GROWTH TARGETS AND CAPACITY The City of Renton and its Potential Annexation Area have been allocated housing and employment growth targets in the King County Countywide Planning Policies. The City’s Comprehensive Plan needs to reflect the growth targets and provide land use capacity sufficient to meet the targets for lands in the city limits; King County must do likewise for the Potential Annexation Area. Currently, the growth targets extend to the year 2031.1 At the time of the 2007 Buildable Lands Report, the City had sufficient capacity to meet its growth targets. See Table 1. Table 1. Growth Targets 2006-2013 and Buildable Land Capacity 2007 Source: King County Buildable Lands Report 2007, Pers Com, Felt, June 27, 2013, “Buildable Lands: instructions for measuring updated capacity.” BERK 2013 Based on the 2007 Buildable Lands results the City has sufficient capacity for planned growth under both housing and employment. After the publication of the 2007 Buildable Lands Report, the City has studied future growth capacity in the Sunset Area Planned Action, and found additional capacity was likely, up to 850 more housing units than the prior assumed growth under the Comprehensive Plan and up to 2,278 more jobs than the prior assumed growth under the Comprehensive Plan (Preferred Alternative assumptions; Final EIS, April 2011). This would further bolster the City’s land capacity. 1 While the growth targets extend to the year 2031, the new 20-year planning horizon for local governments with a Comprehensive Plan Update deadline of June 30, 2015, such as Renton, is actually 2035. However, King County has no plans to formally update growth targets to the year 2035. Given the GMA requirement to plan for 20 years (RCW 36.70A.115), King County and an inter-jurisdictional team of planning directors recommends that local governments start with the 2031 growth target and use either a straight-line projection or otherwise “bend the trend” towards Vision 2040 in order to derive a 20 year growth number. The City is considering the extension of the growth target to the year 2035, but has not yet made a determination of the numbers. Location Net New Units Net New Jobs City Growth Target 2006-2031 14,835 29,000 City Capacity 2007 (inc Benson Hill)16,250 29,550 Excess Capacity - City 2007 1,415 550 PAA Target 3,895 470 TECHNICAL APPENDIX C: LAND USE ASSUMPTIONS AND UTILITY PLANS PAGE xxvi CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN The City’s Transportation Model growth assumptions represent the allocation of growth to sub geographies across the City (transportation analysis zones across the city limits). The City’s traffic model shows the City’s anticipated growth of 15,787 housing units and 31,440 jobs between 2006 and 2030; both estimates are greater than the assigned growth targets. For the purposes of this analysis, the traffic model analysis zone growth estimates are compared to the water service area and sewer service area (city limits portion). WATER SYSTEM PLAN Household growth is projected in the Renton Water System Plan for the years 2010 to 2071 for the water system service area which is smaller than the city limits. The plan considered growth based on Puget Sound Regional Council growth projections (similar to those in the Countywide Planning Policies and the City traffic model) and a “growth cap” that considered infill capacity plus redevelopment in the Renton Urban Center and Renton Sunset Area Planned Action Area. Based on the analysis the net growth from 2010-2031 is less than City growth targets, but the growth from 2010-2071 is consistent with those targets. The analysis shows the Water System Plan can accommodate the growth targets, but the growth cap approach allows the City to see what the improvements would be if growth occurred in a more phased manner. See Table 2. Table 2. Water System Growth Projections Compared to Targets City of Renton, 2012; BERK, 2013 WASTEWATER SYSTEM PLAN Population and job growth is projected in the Renton Wastewater System Plan for the years 2001 and 2030. The wastewater service area extends further east than the city limits but not fully to the southeast, where other districts are the service providers. Nevertheless, comparisons of growth assumptions show more than sufficient planned growth in the Wastewater System Plan beyond the city’s growth targets. See Table 3. Table 3: Wastewater System Growth Projections Compared to Targets a. Sewer System Assumptions b. Comparison to Growth Targets Source: City of Renton, 2010; BERK, 2013 Countywide Planning Policies Total Net Total Net Net Year Households Households Year Households Households Households 2010 23,704 2006 23,544 2031 30,770 7,066 2030 38,346 14,802 14,835 2071 38,587 14,883 Traffic Model - Water Service AreaWater System Plan Total Net Total Net Total Net Year Population Population Households Households Jobs Jobs 2000 44,504 19,479 49,128 2030 + 25%102,901 58,397 45,186 25,707 103,357 54,229 Sewer System Plan Total Net Total Net Net Net Year Households Households Jobs Jobs Households Jobs 2006 24,203 56,918 2030 39,990 15,787 88,358 31,440 14,835 29,000 Traffic Model - Sewer Service Area (within city limits)Countywide Planning Policies APPENDIX D: INCORPORATED DOCUMENTS CITY OF RENTON – COMPREHENSIVE PLAN PAGE xxvii APPENDIX D: INCORPORATED DOCUMENTS Functional plans, continually updated reports, programs, and other documents are major components of this Comprehensive Plan. The following documents, and any amendments made hereafter, are incorporated by reference and may be consulted for more detailed information:  Airport Compatible Land Use Program  Airport Layout Plan Update  Arts and Culture Master Plan  Auto Mall Improvement Plan  City of Renton Adopted Budget  City of Renton Capital Investment Program  City of Renton’s Wellhead Protection Plan and Aquifer Protection Program  Clean Economy Strategy  Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan  Hazard Mitigation Plan  Parks, Recreation, and Natural Areas Plan  Renton Community Needs Assessment for Human Services and Housing  Renton Long-Range Wastewater Management Plan  Renton Regional Fire Authority Capital Facilities Plan  Renton Stormwater Management Program  Renton Trails and Bicycle Master Plan  Renton Transportation Improvement Program  Renton Water System Plan Update  Renton’s Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) Ordinance and CTR Plan  Sunset Area Community Planned Action Study  The Benson Hill Community Plan  The City Center Community Plan  Urban and Community Forestry Development Plan  Shoreline Master Program